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THE SUBJECT OF STYLISTICS AND ITS LACE IN THE SYST OF RELATED DISCIPLINES

THE SUBJECT OF STYLISTICS AND ITS LACE IN THE SYST OF RELATED DISCIPLINES

Stylistlcs is a branch of linguistics which investigates the entire system of expressive resources available in a particular language.

The subject of stylistics can be outlined as the study of the nature, functions and structure of stylistic devices, on the one hand, and, on the other, the study of each style of language (a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication:official; scientific; publicist; colloquial; literary), i.e, its aim, its structure, its characteristic features and the effect it produces, as well as its interrelation with other styles of language.

 

Language is a hierarchy of levels. Each level is studied correspondingly by phonetics, morphology, lexicology, syntax and text linguistics. Each of these disciplines investigates language from a particular aspect. Phonetics deals with speech sounds and intonation; lexicology treats separate words with their meanings and the structure of vocabulary as a whole; grammar analyses forms of words (morphology) and forms of their combinations (syntax) in a word, these are level-oriented areas of linguistic study, which deal with sets of language units and relations between them.

 

Stylistics also interacts with such theoret. discipline as semasiology. This is a branch of linguistics whose area of study is a most complicated and enormous sphere that of meaning. Practically all stylistic effects are based on the interplay between different kinds of meaning on different levels.

Onomasiology is the theory of naming dealing with the choice of words when naming or assessing some object or phenomenon. In stylistic analysis we often have to do with a transfer of nominal meaning in a text (antonomasia, metaphor, metonymy, etc.)

BRANCHES OF STYLISTICS

Stylistlcs is a branch of linguistics which investigates the entire system of expressive resources available in a particular language.

Stylistics is subdivided into separate, quite independent branches, each treating one level, and having its own subject of investigation. Hence we have stylistic phonetics, stylistic morphology, stylistic lexicology and stylistic syntax, which are mainly interested in the expressive potential of language units of a corresponding level.

Stylistic phonetics studies the style-forming phonetic features of sounds, peculiarities of their organization in speech. It also investigates variants of pronunciation occurring in different types of speech, prosodic features of prose and poetry.

Stylistic morphology is interested in stylistic potential of grammatical forms and grammatical meanings peculiar to particular types of speech.

Stylistic lexicology considers stylistic functions of lexicon, expressive, evaluative and emotive potential of words belonging to different layers of vocabulary.

Stylistic syntax investigates the style-forming potential of particular syntactic constructions and peculiarities of their usage in different types of speech.

Thus stylistics deals with all expressive possibilities and expressive means of a language, their stylistic meanings arid colourings (the so-called connotations). It also considers regularities of language units functioning in different communicative spheres.

 

4. TYPES OF STYLISTICS. LINGUISTIC & LITERARY STYLISTICS.

 

Stylistlcs is a branch of linguistics which investigates the entire system of expressive resources available in a particular language.

The structure of S. is conditioned by its subject matter, main tasks, aspects and methods of research. In the course of time several types of stylistics came into existence. Each type deals with a specific study of language units and their functioning in speech:

General (theoretical) S. studies universal stylistic language means which exist in any language as well as regularities of language functioning irrespective of the content, aim, situation and sphere of communication.

Stylistics of a national language deals with the expressive resources of a definite national language.

Also there exist:

1) Accord to the principle of language activities manifestation:

Stylistics of language deals with permanent stylistic properties of language means while stylistics of speech analyses acquired stylistic properties, i. e. which appear only in the context.

2) The principle of language description:

Linguistic stylistics studies the language units from the point of view of their effectiveness in definite types of speech. It investigates not only stylistic inventory of a national language, but also the means of its organization in different types of speech. It examines the correlation between a speech situation and linguistic means used by speakers and hence - different functional styles of speech and language.

Literary stylistics deals with artistic expressiveness characteristic of a literary work, literary trend or epoch, and factors which influence it:

* author's stylistics - is interested in individual styles of writers focusing on their biography, beliefs, interests and other factors which could influence their literary creative work: * decoding(readers) stylistics - focuses on the reader's perception of a literary text, his reaction to it. *immanent stylistics - literary text is studied as some immanent fact, without taking into account the author's intentions or how this text is interpreted by the reader

So, linguostylistics investigates expressive means of a language and literary stylistics studies the ways these expressive means are employed by a definite author, literary trend or genre.

Other types: Comparative\ Contrastive\ Historical\ Dialectal\ Statistical\ Practical\ Cognitive\ Feminist\ Discourse\ Corpus\

DECODING STYLISTICS AND ITS FUNDAMENTAL NOTIONS

Stylistlcs is a branch of linguistics which investigates the entire system of expressive resources available in a particular language.

The term decoding stylistics stands for a new trend in stylistics, a theory evolved by Prof I.V. Arnold. Decoding stylistics combines concepts of poetics, literary stylistics, semasiology, theory of communication, text theory, sociolinguistics, pragma- and paralinguistics, aesthetics, etc. It focuses on the reader's perception of a literary text, his reaction to it.

Stylistics of decoding can be presented in the following way: sender -> message -> receiver ////// speaker ->book -> reader.

The process of reading is decoding.

Decod Stylistics tries to regard the esthetic value of a text based on the interaction of specific textual elements, stylistic devices & compositional structure in delivering the authors message. This method does not consider the styl. function of any styl. feature separately but as a part of a whole text. DS helps the reader in understanding of a lit. work by explaining (decoding) the info that may be hidden from immediate view.

The core of reader-oriented decoding stylistics is formed by special types of contextual organization known as FOREGROUNDING (making the utterance more conspicuous, more effective and therefore imparting some additional information.). Foregrounding establishes the hierarchy of meanings and themes in the text, bringing some to the fore and shifting others to the background. The following phenomena may be grouped under the general heading of foregrounding: coupling, convergence, strong position, contrast, irony, intertextual connection, defeated expectancy effect and a few others.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF EMs

EMs are those phonetic, morphological, word-building, lexical, phraseological and syntactical forms which exist in the language-as-a-system for the purpose of logical and/or emotional intensification of the utterance.

Galperin I.R.

1. Phonetic EMs (onomatopoeia, alliteration, rhyme, rhythm).

2. Lexical EMs (metaphor, irony, zeugma, pun, epithets, oxymoron, simile).

3. Syntactical EMs (inversion, parallel constructions, repetition, enumeration,).

Skrebnev's approach

At the same time it differs from both since Skrebnev managed to avoid mechanical superposition of one system onto another and created a new consistent method of the hierarchical arrangement of this material.

Morochovsky A.N.

Thinks that stylistic device occurs at the morphological level or as a result of changes in the syntagmatic sequence of morphemes in the context of the word, or as a result of changes in the syntagmatic sequence of word forms in the context of the sentence.

 

VERSIFICATION: RHYTHM

 

There are certain patterns of sound arrangement. The use of these patterns alongside with other language means may create various stylistic effects and contribute greatly to poetic effect. The patterns of sound arrangement include versification and instrumentation.

VERSIFICATION is the art of writing poetry in keeping with certain rules based on language regularities and poets' experience. The main concepts of versification are rhyme and rhythm.

RHYTHM - the movement or sense of movement communicated by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables and by the duration of the syllables.

Metre - rhythmic pattern of a poetic line.

Foot - group of syllables forming a metrical unit: a unit of rhythm.

Metrical foots:

- trochee (* - );

- iambus ( - *);

- dactyl (* - - );

- anapest ( - * *).

VERSIFICATION: RHYME

 

There are certain patterns of sound arrangement. The use of these patterns alongside with other language means may create various stylistic effects and contribute greatly to poetic effect. The patterns of sound arrangement include versification and instrumentation.

VERSIFICATION is the art of writing poetry in keeping with certain rules based on language regularities and poets' experience. The main concepts of versification are rhyme and rhythm.

RHYME is the correspondence of two or more words with similar-sounding final syllables placed so as to echo one another.:

*exact (sounds following the vowel sound are the same: red and bread); *slant (final consonant sounds are the same but the vowel sounds are different: sun rhyming with bone).

Types:

1) end rhyme the ends of lines are rhymed;

2) internal rhyme used within a line.

TRUE RHYMES:

*masculine 2words end with the same vow-cons combination; *feminine 2 syllables rhyme;

*trysillabic 3 syllables rhyme.

OTHER TYPES:

=eye rhyme (cough-slough);

=pararhyme (grand-grind);

=weakened (bend-frightened).

Rhyme scheme formal arrangement of rhymes. Types:

*COUPLETS (aa); *TRIPLE RHYMES (aaa); *CROSS RHYMES (abab); *FRAMING RHYMES (abba)

 

THE SUBJECT OF STYLISTICS AND ITS LACE IN THE SYST OF RELATED DISCIPLINES

Stylistlcs is a branch of linguistics which investigates the entire system of expressive resources available in a particular language.

The subject of stylistics can be outlined as the study of the nature, functions and structure of stylistic devices, on the one hand, and, on the other, the study of each style of language (a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication:official; scientific; publicist; colloquial; literary), i.e, its aim, its structure, its characteristic features and the effect it produces, as well as its interrelation with other styles of language.

 

Language is a hierarchy of levels. Each level is studied correspondingly by phonetics, morphology, lexicology, syntax and text linguistics. Each of these disciplines investigates language from a particular aspect. Phonetics deals with speech sounds and intonation; lexicology treats separate words with their meanings and the structure of vocabulary as a whole; grammar analyses forms of words (morphology) and forms of their combinations (syntax) in a word, these are level-oriented areas of linguistic study, which deal with sets of language units and relations between them.

 

Stylistics also interacts with such theoret. discipline as semasiology. This is a branch of linguistics whose area of study is a most complicated and enormous sphere that of meaning. Practically all stylistic effects are based on the interplay between different kinds of meaning on different levels.

Onomasiology is the theory of naming dealing with the choice of words when naming or assessing some object or phenomenon. In stylistic analysis we often have to do with a transfer of nominal meaning in a text (antonomasia, metaphor, metonymy, etc.)

BRANCHES OF STYLISTICS

Stylistlcs is a branch of linguistics which investigates the entire system of expressive resources available in a particular language.

Stylistics is subdivided into separate, quite independent branches, each treating one level, and having its own subject of investigation. Hence we have stylistic phonetics, stylistic morphology, stylistic lexicology and stylistic syntax, which are mainly interested in the expressive potential of language units of a corresponding level.

Stylistic phonetics studies the style-forming phonetic features of sounds, peculiarities of their organization in speech. It also investigates variants of pronunciation occurring in different types of speech, prosodic features of prose and poetry.

Stylistic morphology is interested in stylistic potential of grammatical forms and grammatical meanings peculiar to particular types of speech.

Stylistic lexicology considers stylistic functions of lexicon, expressive, evaluative and emotive potential of words belonging to different layers of vocabulary.

Stylistic syntax investigates the style-forming potential of particular syntactic constructions and peculiarities of their usage in different types of speech.

Thus stylistics deals with all expressive possibilities and expressive means of a language, their stylistic meanings arid colourings (the so-called connotations). It also considers regularities of language units functioning in different communicative spheres.

 

4. TYPES OF STYLISTICS. LINGUISTIC & LITERARY STYLISTICS.

 

Stylistlcs is a branch of linguistics which investigates the entire system of expressive resources available in a particular language.

The structure of S. is conditioned by its subject matter, main tasks, aspects and methods of research. In the course of time several types of stylistics came into existence. Each type deals with a specific study of language units and their functioning in speech:

General (theoretical) S. studies universal stylistic language means which exist in any language as well as regularities of language functioning irrespective of the content, aim, situation and sphere of communication.

Stylistics of a national language deals with the expressive resources of a definite national language.

Also there exist:

1) Accord to the principle of language activities manifestation:

Stylistics of language deals with permanent stylistic properties of language means while stylistics of speech analyses acquired stylistic properties, i. e. which appear only in the context.

2) The principle of language description:

Linguistic stylistics studies the language units from the point of view of their effectiveness in definite types of speech. It investigates not only stylistic inventory of a national language, but also the means of its organization in different types of speech. It examines the correlation between a speech situation and linguistic means used by speakers and hence - different functional styles of speech and language.

Literary stylistics deals with artistic expressiveness characteristic of a literary work, literary trend or epoch, and factors which influence it:

* author's stylistics - is interested in individual styles of writers focusing on their biography, beliefs, interests and other factors which could influence their literary creative work: * decoding(readers) stylistics - focuses on the reader's perception of a literary text, his reaction to it. *immanent stylistics - literary text is studied as some immanent fact, without taking into account the author's intentions or how this text is interpreted by the reader

So, linguostylistics investigates expressive means of a language and literary stylistics studies the ways these expressive means are employed by a definite author, literary trend or genre.

Other types: Comparative\ Contrastive\ Historical\ Dialectal\ Statistical\ Practical\ Cognitive\ Feminist\ Discourse\ Corpus\

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