Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit which can be singled out in a word. There are root and affixational morphemes.


One of the effective ways of foregrounding morphemes is extension of their traditional distribution which leads to appearance of new words. These words are created only for special purposes and practically are never used out of the texts they appear in. Such words are called occasional words.

e.g. cummings: perhapless, manunkind


They may appear by means of:

- SUFFIXATION: put-outer ( )

- PREFIXATION: countercurse (-)

- CONTRACTION: rambroll ()

- COMPOUNDING: kwikspell ()


30. STYLISTIC FUNCTIONS OF CONVERSATIONAL WORDS To conv. words we refer colloquial words, general slang words special slang words (social and professional jargons), vulgarisms and dialectal words.According to their usage colloquial words may be divided into three big groups: 1) literary colloquial (used in fiction) start-go on, bite-meal; 2) familiar colloquial (mainly used by young and semi-educated people. doc-doctor, ta-ta - bye); 3) low colloquial (used in illiterate popular speech) Apart from general colloquial words used by all speakers of the language in their everyday comm-n, such special subgroups may be mentioned: slang, jargomsms, vulgarisms, dialectal words. Slang words and phrases are, as a rule, emotionally colored, often figurative units (to take stock in - to be interested in, bread-basket - a stomach, rot - nonsense). We can distinguish between two varieties of slang: general slang (interjargon) and special slangs (social as well as professional jargons). Jargonisms - words from specialized vocabularies created by society subgroups. Jargonisms should not be confused with the so-called professionalisms. These are words connected with productive activities of people. Only the members of a certain professional group understand professionalisms. Vulgarisms are the words which are not generally used in public, express ideas considered unmentionable in civilized society. e. g. damn, a phony slob etc. Dialectal words ('ud - would, im - him, 'aseen - have seen) are used to intensify the emotive and expressive colouring of speech which is determined by the peculiarities of social or geogr environment. Dialectal words are deprived of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them; carry a strong flavour of the region where they belong to. Thus conv. words of all kinds are widely used for stylistic purposes. There are four speech spheres in which they are mostly used: everyday speech, newspaper language, poetry, and fiction. 31. FIGURS OF QUANTITY: HYPERBOLE, MEIOSIS, LITOTES F. of quantity are based on the comparison of two different objects which possess a common feature expressed with a certain degree of intensity. Hyperbole is a purposeful overstatement or exaggeration of the truth to achieve intensity, or for dramatic or comic effect. An overstatement may be considered hyperbole only when the exaggeration is deliberate and both the speaker and the listener are aware of it. E.g. a hundred million welcomes Hyperbole is mainly used to intensify physical qualities oi objects or people: size, colour, quantity, age etc. Hyperbole may also create a humorous effect as in the following example. Hyperbole may become trite through frequent repetition. Meiosis is a deliberate underestimation for emphasis. The features stressed are usually size, volume, distance, time etc. Meiosis is mainly used in oral speech where it usually emphasizes the insignificance of an object, as in: She wore a pink hat, the size of a button.A typical meiosis is, for example, the expression It will cost you a pretty penny, which in reality implies not a penny, but quite a big sum of money. Litotes is a specific form of meiosis, not an independent trope. It presents a statement in the form of negation. It has a specific semantic and syntactic structure: the usage of not before a word with a negative prefix, e.g.: not uncommon. Litotes is a peculiar stylistic feature of Old English poetry and of the Icelandic sagas. It is extensively employed in oral speech to weaken positive characteristics of a thing or person; to convey the speaker's doubts e.g.: She liked money as well as most women, and accepted it with no little satisfaction. In scientific prose litotes underlines carefulness of judgment or stresses the writer's uncertainty. 32. FIGURES OF QUALITY: METONYMYCAL GROUP Metonymical group includes metonymy, synecdoche, periphrasis, euphemism. Metonymy is a stylistic figure which reveals a quite unexpected substitution of one word for another the pen is mightier than the sword (meaning written words are more powerful than military force. The basis of these associations can be 1) some features of a person; 2) an article of clothing; 3) an instrument and the action it performs; 4) the two objects whose functions coincide. Synecdoche is a variety of metonymy in which the part stands for the whole, or the genus - the species, and vice versa. A typical example of traditional synecdoche is the use of the word "hands" instead of the word "workers" or "sailors" Periphrasis is a roundabout way of speaking or writing; root of evil = money. P. is widely used in fiction where it indicates a feature which the speaker or writer wants to stress and often conveys an individual perception of the object or phenomenon. E.g A young blood from Cambridge Euphemism is a variety of periphrasis which is used to replace an unpleasant word or expression by a conventionally more acceptable one. E. may be divided into groups accord to the spheres of usage: 1) religious euphemisms: God may be replaced by Goodness. 2) E. connected with death: he's gone, he's lefi us. 3) political E: undernourishment = starvation. 4) E. connected with gender spokesman = spokesperson, serviceman = soldier, sailor, poetess = poet, etc. 5) E. connected with professions: secretary = team assistant, cleaning lady = interior care provider. 6) E. connected with bodily functions, sex and body parts: in America the toilet is referred to as the 'restroom. 7) E. connected with things and events which are unpleasant: to hit the bottle - to drink heavily.In colloquial speech euphemisms are typical of more cultured and educated people. 33. FIGURES OF QUALITY: METAPHORICAL GROUP Metaphorical group includes metaphor, antonomasia personification, allegory, allusion. Metaphor denotes expressive renaming based on likeness, similarity or affinity (real or imaginary) of some features of two different objects. It aims at individualization and characterization of the object. According to its structure, metaphor may be: a) simple or elementary, which is based on the actualization of one or several features common for two objects; b) prolonged or sustained, which is extended over several lines in a passage or throughout an entire passage. According to the peculiarities of its semantics, metaphor may be trite (traditional, language) and genuine (speech). The main function of metaphor is aesthetic. Antonomasia is a peculiar variety of metaphor. There are two types of antonomasia: 1) the use of a proper name for a common noun (Othello, Romeo) 2)the use of common nouns or their parts as proper names (Mr. Snake, Mr. Backbite, Miss Careless etc.) The main stylistic function of antonomasia is to characterize a person simultaneously with naming him/her. Personification is also a variety of metaphor. It is based on ascribing some features and characteristics of a person to lifeless objects e.g.: Autumn comes Personification has certain formal signals of presentation: 1) the use of the pronouns he and she. herself etc with reference to lifeless things: 2) the use of direct address: 3)capitalization of the word. Allegory is a variety of metaphor and means expressing abstract ideas through concrete pictures. Allegory is mainly used in fiction and appears only in a text, no matter how short it may be (e.g. proverbs, fables or fairy tales).    
Allusion is an implied or indirect reference to a person, event, or thing or to a part of another text (the so-called allusive quotations). The main sources of allusions and quotations in the English language are: - History of literature; -Music; - Folklore; World literature; Shakespeares works; - Ancient literature etc. Allusions can be classified into the following groups: 1) obvious,popular allusions - when the author uses well-known quotations or refers to works of famous writers: 2) non-obvious,more difficult for understanding allusions - when the author quotes the woks of not so writers or when the references are so implicit that it hinders their understanding: Allusions may be found in literary, publicistic, scientific texts etc., where they may create different stylistic effects. Cases of allusion may add to solemn, elevated and high-flown tonality of a text., but at the same time they may show ironic or humorous attitude of the author to the events or people depicted.   34. FIGURES OF QUALITY. IRONY Figures of quality are based on the following types of transference: a) transference by contiguity-metonymy; b) transference by similarity (metaphor); c) transference by contrast (irony). Irony. The difference between metaphor and metonymy, on the one hand, and irony, on the other, can be defined as follows: in metaphor and metonymy, the transfer is based on affinity of the objects, in irony, it is based on their opposition. Irony refers to a contrast or discrepancy between appearance and reality. In "verbal irony" there is a contrast between what is literally said and what is meant. In "dramatic irony" there is a discrepancy between what a character thinks and what the reader knows to be true. In "situational irony" an event occurs which is opposite of what is expected. In a narrow sense, irony is the use of a word having a positive meaning to express a negative one. In a wider sense, irony is an utterance which formally shows a positive or neutral attitude of the speaker to the object of conversation but in fact expresses a negative evaluation of it. Irony is not restricted to any particular syntactical structure or lexical units. In context, there are usually some formal markers of irony pointing out to the meaning implied. e.g. of ironic simile as clear as mud as fun as cancer 35. TYPES OF EPITHETS Epithet is an attributive word, phrase or even sentence employed to characterise an objectby giving it subjective evaluation. Epithets are predominantly expressed by a) adj and adv: his triumphant look, he looker: triumphantly, b) Participle I and Part : the frightenedmoment c) nouns: a lemonmoon which may be used as exclamatory sent'. E. characterizes the object pointing out some of its peculiar properties or features. It is subjective, emotive and evaluative. There are different semantic classifications of epithets in modern stylistics. E.g., V.A. Kukharenko differentiates between two main semantic groups of epithets: affective (or emotive proper), used to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker; and figurative (or transferred) epithets, formed on metaphors, metonymies and similes expressed by adjectives: the. smiling sun, I.R. Galperin distinguishes associated epithets, employed to point to a feature which is to a certain extent inherent in the concept of the object: dark forest, dreary midnight and unassociated epithets, used to characterize the object by adding a new striking feature: heartburning smile, bootless cries. According to T. Onoprienkos class-n of epithets there are: 1) Occasionally-associated epithets (hybrids); they are the result of intersection of epithet with other tropes. Thus, this group of epithets includes: metaphorical epithets (stark, almost gritty),comparative epithets (ape-like), litotic/hyperbolic epithets (pocket size), metonymic epithets (yelling face), periphrastic epithets (interesting, frail condition), ironic epithets (sweet smile of an alligator). From the point of view of their compositional structure epithets can be: simple (cruel thunder), compound (wonder-happy), phase, sentence, inverted. From the point of view of distribution in the sentence epithets are classified into:singleepithets: accusing finger;string of epithets: grant him bloody, luxurious, false. 36. FIGURES OF OPPOSITION Figures of opposition are characterised by the combination in context of two or more words or word-groups with opposite meanings. Antithesis is the expression of opposing or contrasting ideas laid out in a parallel structure, for example: She had her husband on her hands, a terrible Joy.and a terrifying burden. Antithesis often goes along with other stylistic figures such as anaphoric repetition, parallelism. The notions opposed may be only apparently contrasting, i.e. opposite from the particular view point of the speaker or writer. For example, among different causes which lead to wars Gulliver names "difference in opinions": e.g. Difference in opinions hath cost many millions of lives: for instance, whether fleshbe breador breadbe flesh. Antithesis is widely used in all kinds of speech: fiction, publicistic, scientific and colloquial English. It stresses the contrast and organizes the utterance rhythmically. Due to the last quality antithesis is widely used in poetry in combination with anaphora, epiphora, and alliteration. Oxymoron is also acombination of opposite meanings which exclude each other (deafening silence, wise folly, crowded loneliness, unanswerable reply). As soon as an oxymoron gets into circulation, it loses its stylistic value, becoming trite: awfully nice, awfully glad, terribly sorry, terribly good where the words awfully and terribly have lost their primary meaning and are used as intensifiers. Original oxymorons are created by the authors to mark the utterance emotionally charged, vivid, and fresh, as in: Oh, brawling love! Oh loving hate! Oh heavy lightness! Serious vanity! Feather of lead, bright smoke, cold fire,sick health!(W. Shakespeare). Here is one more example of oxymoron: The touch of his lips was like a pleasing sting.
37. FIGURES OF IDENTITY Figures of identityare characterized by the combination in context of close or synonymous units referring to the same object or phenomenon. Simileis an explicit statement of partial identity (likeness, similarity) of two objects belonging to different semantic spheres. It is an explicit comparison (as opposed to the metaphor where the comparison is implicit) recognizable by the use of formal markers: as, as ...as, like, as though, as if, such as, for instance: His lips,also, were like the petals of a red flower. If formal markers are missing but the relations between the two objects are those of similarity and identity, implied simile is observed. In such similes notional words (verbs, nouns etc.) substitute formal markers (resemble, to remind, to seem, to have a look of resemblance etc.). In some respects simile is close to metaphor. Both simileand metaphor are based on comparison. Metaphor is often defined as a compressed simile that differs from proper simile only structurally as it states the comparison directly without using formal markers. Though, the difference between simile and metaphor lies not just in presence or absence of a formed marker. In general, a simile refers to only one characterize that two things have in common, while a metaphor is limited in the number of resemblances it may indicate To use the simile "He eats like a pig" is to compare man to an animal in one respect: eating habits. But to say "He is a pig" is to use a metaphor that might involve comparisons appearance and morality as well Numerous similes through constant use became trite and thus have no stylistic value: as sure as death, as sure as fate. Trite similes are of little importance for stylistic analysis. 38. SYNTACTIC EXPRESSIVE MEANS BASED ON THE REDUNDANCY OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE Repetition is a reiteration of the same word or phrase to lay an emphatic stress on certain parts of the sentence. R. is widely employed in colloquial speech as well as in poetry. R. in oral comm-n is used when the speaker is under the stress of strong emotion,then it shows the exited state of mind of the speaker:Would you please please pleasestop talking?" Types of R: 1) ordinary repetition, i.e. a repetition in close succession, She was happy, happy, happy.The long day ripened and ripened. 2) anaphora: the beginning of two or more successive sentences is repeated (very often it is used in parallel constructions). e.g. Let the rain kiss you. Let the rain beat upon your head with silver liquid drops. 3) epiphora:the end of successive sentences is repeated. The main function of epiphora is to stress the final words of a sentence: The thing was a bit of a fraud; yes, really, he decided, rather a fraud. 4) framing or ring repetition,i.e. a repetition in which the opening word or phrase is repeated at the end of the sentence or a group of sentences. Obviously - this is a streptococcal infection. Obviously. 5) anadiplosisor catch repetition,i.e. device in which the last word or phrase, of one clause, sentence, or line is repeated at the beginning of the next, e.g.: They laughed. They laughedbecause lie could, not find Tommy Flynn. 6) chain repetition,i.e. a combination of catch repetitions. Enumeration is a repetition of homogeneous parts of the sentence, aimed at emphasizing the whole utterance. Repetition also may stress the monotony of action, suggest fatigue, or despair, or hopelessness, or doom. Polysyndetonis opposite to asyndeton and means a repetition of conjunctions in close succession which are used to connect sentences, clauses, or words and make the utterance more rhythmical. In most cases the conjunction and is repeated, as in. Emphatic constructions (with 'do', 'it is smb/smth who/that', 'it is by/with/through/smth that') may intensify any member of a sentence, giving it more prominence, e.g.: It was the horses he loved. Parenthesis is a word, phrase put into a sentence which is grammatically complete without the insertion. The functions of parenthesis are those of exemplification, deliberation, or reference. 39. SYNTACTIC EXPRESSIVE MEANS BASED ON THE VIOLATION OF THE WORD ORDER Inversion is the syntactic reversal of the normal order of the words and phrases in a sentence: the placing of an adjective after the noun it modifies ("the form divine"), a verb before its subject ("came the dawn"), or a noun preceding its preposition. I. is most commonly used in poetry. I.R. Galperin distinguishes between the following patterns of stylistic inversion most frequently used in English prose and poetry: 1) The object is placed at the beginning of the sentence: "Talent Mr. Micawber has. 2) The attribute is placed after the word it modifies: "Once upon a midnight dreary..."(E.A. ). 3) The predicative is placed before the subject: A good generous prayer it was" (M, Twain). 4) The adverbial modifier is placed at the beginning of the sentence: Often they came very close and stared at the men 5) Both modifier and predicate stand before the subject: She braved it for a moment or two with an eye full of love and stubbornness, and murmured a phrase or two vaguely of General Pinkey; but at length down wenther head and out camethe truth and tears (O. Henry). A typical case of stylistic inversion is when the predicate is placed before the subject. For example: In one of these cells wereseveral globes or balls of a most ponderous metal, about the bigness of our heads ... (J. Swift). Separation or syntactical splitis the splitting of a noun phrase by the attribute adjunct which is removed from the word it modifies. Split is used to emphasize the phrase which was separated, e.g.: He had never seen the truth before, about anything(R. Warren). Detachment is a separation of a secondary part of the sentence with the aim of emphasizing it. Mrs. Rymer was a tall woman, big-boned(A. Christie).
40. SYNTACTIC EXPRESSIVE MEANS BASED ON THE REDUCTION OF SENTENCE STRUCTURE Ellipsisis the absence of one or both principal parts (the subject, the predicate) in a syntactical construction. The missing parts might be clearly understood from the context or are implied by the situation. El. sentences are typical of conversational English. El. sentences used in works of fiction may reproduce colloquial speech, impart brevity, quick tempo etc.e.g. "If youth knew, if age could." Ellipsis are common to some special types of texts: in papers or handbooks on technology, encyclopedic dictionaries. But here it does not perform any stylistic function. Nominative sentences are one-member sentences with a noun, a prepositional noun-phrase, or an adverb, which have only one principal part, with or without words modifying it. E.g: Autumn! The use of nominative sentences may increase the dynamism of narration. These sentences are also employed for acquainting the reader with the place or background of action. Incomplete sentences are characterized by absence of auxiliary elements of the sentence (auxiliary verbs, articles, prepositions). All these elements are often dropped in informal oral communication: e.g. The brown dog with a bushy tail. Aposiopesis denotes a speaker's deliberate failure to complete a sentence, which is caused by the consideration of time, inability or unwillingness to finish the utterance,usually indicates speechless rage or exasperationand sometimes implies vague threats as in, uWhy, I'll.. The listener is expected to complete the sentence in his mind. It reflects the emotional state of the speaker: a sentence may be broken because the speaker's emotions prevent him from Finishing it The omission of the conjunctions that ordinarily join coordinate words or clauses is called asyndeton.Asyndetic connection means a deliberate avoidance of conjunctions used to connect sentences, clauses, or words. Asyndeton creates a certain rhythmical arrangement, usually making the narrative measured, energetic, dynamic and tense, as in: That was a longtime ago; she and her brothers and sisters were all grown up; her mother was dead. 41. SYNT. STYLISTIC DEVICES BASED ON FORMAL AND SEMANTIC INTERACTION OF SYNTACT. CONSTR.   42. FACTORS THAT CONDITION THE STYLE DIFFERENTIATION OF A LANGUAGE A functional style of a language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. Any functional style is characterized by a peculiar use of various language means and distinguished by one or some especially prominent features. For example, the usage of special terminology and cliches is a specific feature of the style of official documents. Styles: Most of the style theoreticians do not argue about the number of functional styles being five, but disagree about their nomenclature. One of the widely accepted classifications includes the following functional styles: official style, represented in all kinds of official documents and papers; scientific style, found in articles, brochures, monographs and other scientific and other academic publications; publicist (publicistic) style, covering such -as essay, feature article, public speeches etc.; newspaper style observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers; belles-lettres (literary) style, embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative prose. A functional style is also viewed as the collection of choices made by language users from language inventory, including layout, grammar, vocabulary and phonology. Thus the analysis of linguistic peculiarities of the specified functional styles will include the description of their 1) layout(paragraphing, titling, punctuation, graphic presentation) 2) vocabulary(selection of lexis), 3) grammar(realization of grammatical categories) and 4) sentence structure(sentence length, complexity, communicative types).   43. THE NOTION OF A FUNCTIOAL STYLE A functional style of a language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. Any functional style is characterized by a peculiar use of various language means and distinguished by one or some especially prominent features. For example, the usage of special terminology and cliches is a specific feature of the style of official documents. Styles: Most of the style theoreticians do not argue about the number of functional styles being five, but disagree about their nomenclature. One of the widely accepted classifications includes the following functional styles: official style, represented in all kinds of official documents and papers; scientific style, found in articles, brochures, monographs and other scientific and other academicpublications; publicist (publicistic) style, covering such -as essay, feature article, public speeches etc.; newspaper style observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers; belles-lettres (literary) style, embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative prose. A functional style is also viewed as the collection of choices made by language users from language inventory, including layout, grammar, vocabulary and phonology.


44. THE FUNCTIONAL STYLE OF OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS The style of official documents is divided into four substyles: 1)the language style of business documents, 2) the l. st of legal documents, 3) the l. st. of diplomatic documents, 4) the l. st. of military documents. The aim of official documents is to state rights and obligations of the parties. The language of documents is formal, accurate, concrete,is characterized by absence of emotiveness, encoded character, and peculiar syntactic organization. I) Layout of official documents.1)There are no paragraphs, the whole document is one sentence divided into separate clauses, often marked by commas or semicolons, and not by full stops. 2) Capitalization is highly significant. They can emphasize important words. ) Vocabulary of official documents. 1)The vocabulary is highly bookish. The words are used in their logical dictionary meaning. 2)Pairs of synonyms (an English word and its French counterpart) are common for documents. These words explain each other, thus accuracy of meaning is achieved: able and willing; 3) The use of Latin (pro rata) and French words4) The use of abbreviations, conventional symbols and marks is peculiar to the style, e.g.: C&F (Cost and Fright). III) Grammar of official documents. 1) Noun phrases are extremely long and complex with many modifiers in postposition, it aims at pressing all the details together as one organic whole that is inseparable and should be taken as one unit.2)The most widespread tense forms are Indefinite and Perfect Tenses. 3) Adjectives and intensifiers are rarely used to avoid ambiguity. IV) Syntax of official documents. 1) Sentences are usually very long. 2) Clauses are complex and complicated due to many insertions and interruptions to reflect the compactness of the whole document and every detail of it. 45. THE SCIENTIFIC FUNCTIONAL STYLE The main function of the functional style of science is to convey knowledge, facts, results and data, obtained through experimentation and hypotheses. The distinguishing features of the style are accuracy, objectivity, exact and logical presentation of facts and ideas, the most generalized form of expression. I) Layout of scientific texts. 1) Paragraphs are usually well-organized (introduction, body and conclusion) 2) Titles and subtitles summarize the main point or emphasize central ideas of a paragraph 3) The use of quotations, references. II) Vocabulary of scientific texts.1)includes terminology, special lexis specific to a definite field of science and technology.2) Colloquial vocabulary is not characteristic of the style. III) Grammar of scientific texts. 1) The verbs are predominantly used in three main tense forms: Past Indefinite Present Indefinite Present Perfect 2) Noun phrases in scientific texts are long and compound. IV) Sentence structure of scientific texts. Logical sequence of utterances. Scientific prose is marked by a developed and varied system of connectives. 1)Modal auxiliary verbs: may, might, can, could, would, should. 2)Modal lexical verbs: to seem, to appear, to believe, to assume, to suggest.. 3) Introductory phrases: to our knowledge, it is our view that, we feel that which express the author's personal doubt and direct involvement. 4) "If clauses: if true, if anything. 46. THE NEWSPAPER FUNCTIONAL STYLE The newspaper style is a purposeful and thematic arrangement of language means in order to bring up-to-date, accurate and convincing information on current affairs. 1) Layout of the newspaper texts.Titles and headlines play the most important role in the press, especially on the front and back pages. There are various ways of presenting titles and subtitles using different types, spacing, capitalization etc. 2)Paragraphs in popular newspapers are not well-organized. Such organization of paragraphs aims at emphasizing every piece of information by promoting each sentence to a paragraph status. Paragraphs of quality newspapers are generally well-organized and relatively long. 3) The exploitation of colours, photographs, pictures, diagrams and different typographical devices (such as bold type, capitalization etc.) is a prominent feature of modern popular and quality newspapers. ) Vocabulary of the newspaper texts. The language of newspapers is characterized by the use of words with clear meaning. Compound words, neologisms, loan words are also widely used.The language of newspapers is characterized by the use of different expressive means and stylistic devices. Metaphor, simile, irony, metonymy and personification are the most frequently used. Their use attracts and facilitates the readers' attention and makes the style more appealing and the language less boring. III) Grammar of the newspaper texts. In quality newspapers noun phrases tend to be complex and formal. The most prominent feature of popular newspapers is the absence of auxiliary verbs in the titles and subtitles. The omission of the auxiliaryverb is deliberate for the sake of saving space. 5) The use of Perfect tenses especially Present Perfect is a characteristic feature of quality newspapers which brings up the formality of the style.IV) Syntax of the newspaper texts. 1) Sentences in popular newspapers are mainly simple 2) The predominant communicative type of sentences in popular newspapers is a declarative sentence. Its main function is to deliver and report information, events, news. 47. THE PUBLICIST FUNCTIONAL STYLE The publicistic style is used in public speeches and printed public works which are addressed to a broad audience and devoted to important social or political events, public problems of cultural or moral character. The general aim of the publicist style is to exert influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essay or article not merely by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well. The oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style. Direct contact with the listeners permits a combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. The typical features of this style are: direct address to the audience; sometimes contractions; the use of colloquial words. The essay is rather a series of personal and witty comments than a finished argument or a conclusive examination of the matter. The most characteristic language features of the essay are: brevity of expression; the use of the first person singular; a rather expanded use of connectives; the abundant use of emotive words; the use of similes and sustained metaphors. The language of journalistic articles is defined by the character of newspaper, magazine, as well as subjects chosen. Literary reviews stand closer to essays. FEATURES: - Syntactic repetition may be combined with lexical repetition (periphrasis) - The desire of the speaker to convince and to rouse his audience results in the use of simile and metaphor.  
48. THE LITERARY FUNCTIONAL STYLE There are three main literary genres: poetry, narrative fiction and drama. Narrative includes two main types: novels and short stories. ) Layout of literary texts. In the narrative, descriptive paragraphs tend to be organized as comparatively independent units including interdependent ideas. On the other hand, paragraphs disappear in the dialogue. There are no paragraphs, in poetry, where stanzas replace paragraphs in prose.All punctuation marks are used and manipulated well in literary language, whether poetry or prose. ) Grammar of literary texts. The overwhelming tense is Past Indefinite, or the narrative tense, as events take place in the past. Voice is generally unmarked in literary texts. The active voice is more recurrent than the passive. Adjectives are used for description, accuracy of description, exaggeration and aesthetic effect. Usually they have a simple structure (one word). Adverbs of all types are popular in literary language. Modal verbs such as can, could, would, etc. are recurrently used, especially those of probability and ability, but, modal verbs like must, ought to, should, shall (in obligatory sense) are not used here, for literary material is not obligatory or instructional in character by any means. ) Sentence structure of literary texts.Many sentences of literary texts are complex and sometimes too complicated. 49. STYLISTIC PECULIARITIES OF COLLOQUIAL STYLE This is the style of informal, friendly oral communication. The vocabulary of colloquial style is usually lower than that of the formal or neutral styles, it is often emotionally coloured and characterized by connotations (cf. the endearing connotation in the words daddy, kid or the evaluating components in 'trash', etc. in the examples of connotations above).Colloquial speech is characterized by the frequent use of words with a broad meaning: speakers The colloquial type of the language is characterized by the spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation. Sometimes the colloquial type of speech is labelled "the colloquial style" and entered into the classification of functional styles of the language, regardless of the situational and linguistic differences between the literary and colloquial communication, There exists a strong tendency to treat colloquial speech as an individual language system with its independent set of language units and rules of their connection. Colloquial style is divided into upper colloquial, common colloquial and low colloquial. The latter two have their own peculiar features connected with region, gender, age of the speaker. There are phrases and constructions typical of colloquial type: What's up?(= What has happened); so-so (=not especially good); nothing much/nothing to write home about (= nothing of importance).     29. STYLISTIC FUNCTION OF LITERARY WORDS To special literary vocabulary' we refer the following subgroups: terms, poetic diction, archaic words, foreign words, bookish (learned) words. Terms are words and word combinations which are specifically employed by a particular branch of science, technology: paradigm, opposition, variant, norm, are terms of linguistics. Nomenclature words are very close to terms: they refer to a definite branch of human activity, mainly professional, e.g. names of minerals, chemical elements, types of cars etc. Poetic words were widely used in the poetry of the 17th-18" centuries, but such a vocabulary is practically not employed by modern poets.Poetic words include: 1. archaic words (commix - mix, nay no.) 2. archaic forms (vale valley). 3. historical words. 4, poetic words proper (woe sorrow) The main stylistic function of these words is to create an elevated, high-flown tonality. Archaic words are out-dated words which are already partly or fully out of circulation, rejected by the living language. Galperin classifies archaic words into the following groups: 1) Obsolescent words are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use. (pronoun thou and its forms - thee, thy, thine). 2) Obsolete words have completely gone out of use but are still recognized by the readers. 3) Archaic words proper are no longer recognized in modern English. (troth faith) The main spheres of usage of this vocabulary stratum are historical novels (whose authors use these words to create a particular period atmosphere). Foreign words are characterized by occasional usage only, mainly in literal speech. They are for the most part, late borrowings from French - those words which preserved their French pronunciation and spelling. Bookish (learned) words are mostly used in cultivated speech. They are mostly high-flown synonyms of neutral words or popular terms of science. e.g. comprise,, hypothesis, experimental, homogeneous, divergent etc.)
26. STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF ADJ. AND ADVERBS Foregrounding of adjectives may be achieved through intentional violation of rules of formation of the degrees of comparison. E,g, yellowest-brownest Special attention should be paid to expressive synonyms of the English adjective, which are represented by such stylistically marked structures as: A of N blue of eye blue-eyed with blue eyes kind of heart kind-hearted with a kind heart N1 ofN2 He felt lost, alone there in the room with that pale spirit of a woman(J. London).   "of-phrase" (prepositional attribute) A tree of memories, which would live on hundreds of years yet. 27. TYPES OF CONNOTATIONS Semantic structure of words comprises apart from their basic conceptual meaning (denotation), various additional co-meanings (connotation). Denotational meaning informs of the subject of communication; connotation informs about the participants and conditions of communication. Connotational meaning may be of four types. a) emotive meaningrefers to the feelings and emotions of the speaker; b) expressive meaningaims at creating the image of the indicated object;c) c) evaluative meaningstates the attitude of speakers (in terms "approval - disapproval") to the object in question. d) functional stylistic meaningindicates the sphere of usage of a linguistic unit. For example, such words as: maiden, realm are mostly used in poetry; terms and nomenclature words are used in scientific prose style and set phrases and cliches are used in official documents. V.A. Maltzev maintains that all the four types are closely interrelated and it's difficult, if not impossible, to discriminate between these four components of connotation. The emotive units are meant to be expressive as well, and vice versa. The units that connote evaluation are simultaneously emotive and tend to be expressive. The functional-stylistic component not only indicates the functioning of a word in a certain sphere but also connotes solemnity or casualness, familiarity or distance, seriousness or facetiousness or irony 28. STYLISTIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ENGLISH VOCABULARY The word-stock of the English language can be divided into three mam layers: literary (high-flovjn) words which are traditionally linked with poetic, bookish, or written speech: conversational words that are most often used in oral, colloquial speech and neutral words which possess no stylistic colouring and can be employed in all styles of language. Literary words are more stable due to the traditions of the written type of speech. Conversational words are constantly changing. Within a period of time they can become high-flown or neutral. For example, the words bet, mob, trip, fun, chap once were conversational, now they are neutral. The groups of literary and conversational words are further divided into genera] (common), i.e. known to and used by the majority of speakers in formal (literary) or informal (colloquial) communication, and special subgroups.    
25. STYLISTIC POTENTIAL OF ARTICLES Articles may impart stylistic colouring to the noun. There are some ways of achieving stylistic effect through the usage or non-usage of articles: 1) the use of the indefinite article with the nouns denoting unique objects (sun, moon, sky, earth) adds emphasis and vividness to the description: 2) the indefinite article with proper names might acquire evaluative meaning: e.g. an Englandsafe in the air 3) the indefinite article combined with names of persons may denote: a) one representative of a family: Of course a Griersonwould not think seriously of a Northerner, a day labourer."(W. Faulkner); b) a person unknown to the communicants; a certain Mr Hyde c) a temporary feature of character: That day Jane was different. It was a silly Jane 4) the definite article used with proper names indicates a temporary or permanent quality of the person in question: The repeated use of the definite article intensifies the expressive colouring of nouns as in: The waiting - the hope - the disappointment - the fear - the misery - the poverty - the blight of his hopes, and the end to his career - the suicide perhaps, of the shabby, slip-shod drunkard (Ch. Dickens).        


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