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Inversion is the syntactic phenomenon of intentional changing word-order of the initial sentence model.

Classification. There are two basically different types of inversion: grammatical and stylistic. Grammatical inversionis devoid of stylistic information. It is just a technical means of forming different types of questions. Stylistic inversionis such a change of word-order which gives logical stress or emotional colouring to the language units placed in an unusual syntactic position.

Stylistic inversion is typical of the predicate, predicative and all the secondary parts of the sentence:

In came Jack, (predicate)

Insolent Connor's conduct was. (predicative)

Little chances Benny had. (direct object)

To her family Martha gives all her time, (indirect object).

A horrible death Douglas died, (cognate object)

This is a letter congratulatory, (attribute)

To the disco Hilda went, (adverbial modifier)


 



 



starved heart of that girl? 3. There was no breeze came through the door. 4. And if his feelings about the war got known, he'd be nicely in the soup. Arrested, perhaps - got rid of, somehow. 5. She narrowed her eyes a trifle at me and said I looked exactly like Linda's boy. Around the mouth. 6. David had been nearly killed, ingloriously, in a jeep accident. 7. "Shuttleworth, 1- want to speak to you in - in strictest confidence - to ask your advice. Yet -yet it is upon such a serious matter that I hesitate - fearing...". 8. It was better that he knew nothing. Better for common sense, better for him, better for me. 9. He ran away from the battle. He was an ordinary human being that didn't want to kill or be killed, so he ran away from the battle. 10. Failure meant poverty, poverty meant squalor, squalor led to smells and stagnation. 11. Daniel is an unnatural, ungrateful, unlovable boy. 12. Their anxiety is so keen, their vigilance is so great, their excited joy grows so intense, that how can she resist it! 13. The sky was dark and gloomy, the air damp and raw, the streets wet and sloppy, 14.1 know the world and the world knows me. 15. And they wore their best and more colourful clothes. Red shirts and green shirts and yellow shirts and pink shirts. 16. Through his brain, slowly, sifted the things they had done together. Walking together. Dancing together. Sitting silent together, watching people together. 17. Sit down, you dancing, prancing, shambling, scrambling fool parrot! Sit down! 18. Badgworthy was in seventh heaven. A murder! At Chimneys! Inspector Badgworthy in charge of thecase. Sensational arrest. Promotion for the inspector. 19. He, and the falling light and the dying fire, the time-worn room, the solitude, the wasted life, and gloom, were all in fellowship. 20. People sang. People cried. People fought. People loved. People hated. Others were sad. Others gay. Others with friends. Others lonely. Some died. Some were born. 21. Richard said that he would work his fingers to the bone for Ada, and Ada said that she would work her fingers to the bone for Richard. 22. I wake up and I'm alone, and I walk round the town and I'm alone, and I talk with people and I'm alone and I look at his face when I'm home and I'm dead. 23. "Where mama?" - "She home". 24. And Fleur ~ charming in her jade-green wrapper - tucked a corner of hef lip behind a tooth, and went back to her room. 25. A dark gentleman... A very bad manner. In the last degree constrained, reserved, diffident, troubled. 26. Why do we need refreshment, my friends? Because we are but mortal, because we are but sinful, because we are but of the earth, because we are not of theair? Can we fly, my friends? We can not. 27. How have I implored anu begged that man to inquire into Captain's family connections; how have I urged and entreated him to take some decisive step. 28. She says - you kno#


her way - she says, "You're the chickenest-hearted, feeblest, faintest man I ever see". 29. The one was all the other failed to be. Protective, not demand-in*; dependable, not weak; low-voiced, never strident. 30. Passage after passage did he explore; room after room did he peep into. 31. June stood in front, fending off this idle curiosity - a little bit of a thing, as somebody said, "all hair and spirit". 32. Down dropped the breeze, the sails dropped down. 33. Little by little, bit by bit, and day by day, and year by year the baron got the worst of some disputed question. 34. Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven. 35. There's many a man in this Borough would be glad to have the blood that runs in my veins. 36. You just come home or I'll ... 37. Have I not had to wrestle with my lot? Have I not suffered things to be forgiven? 38. The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. 39.1 am above the rest of mankind, in such a case as that. I can act with philosophy in such a case as that. 40. And so, from hour to hour, we ripe and ripe. And then, from hour to hour, we rot and rot.

Plans of Seminars

Seminar No I Style and stylistics

1.The notion of stylistics as a branch of general linguistics. Types of stylistics and fields of investigation. The connection of stylistics with other branches of linguistics.

2. The main stylistic notions: style, norm, form, text, context, speech, writing, expressive means, stylistic devices, image.

3. Phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic expressive means of language.

4. Phonetic, lexical and syntactic stylistic devices.

5. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - ., 1991. - . 7-26.


 




2. . . . -., 1990. - . 7-24.

3. . ., . . . -., 1960.-. 3-9.

4. Galperin I. R, Stylistics. - Moscow, 1981. -P. 9-35.

5. Maltzev V. A. Essays on English stylistics. - Minsk, 1984. - P. 415.

Seminar No 2 Functional styles of the English language

1.General considerations.

2. The style of official documents.

3. The style of scientific prose.

4. The newspaper style.

5. The publicistic style.

6. The belletristic style.

7. Literary colloquial style and informal colloquial style.

8. Special colloquial English.

9. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - , 1991. - . 235-266.

2. . . . -., 1990.-. 243-288.

3. . ., . . . -., I960.-. 118-139.

4. Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Moscow, 1981. - P. 249-318.

5. Maltzev V. A. Essays on English stylistics. - Minsk, 1984. - P. 89-109.

Seminar No 3 Stylistic lexicology

1. General considerations.

2. Neutral words and common literary words.

3. Special literary vocabulary: terms, poetic words, archaic words, barbarisms and foreignisms, neologisms.

 


 

4. Common colloquial vocabulary.

5. Special colloquial vocabulary: slang, jargonisms, professionalisms, dialectal words, vulgar words.

6. Set expressions.

7. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - , 1991. - . 93-136.

2. . . . -., 1990.-. 105-130.

3. . ., . . . -., I960. - . 44-64.

4. Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Moscow, 1981. - P. 70-122.

5. Maltzev V. A. Essays on English stylistics. - Minsk, 1984. -P. 60-70.

Seminar No 4^ Morphological stylistics

1. The notion of transposition of parts of speech.

2. Transposition of nouns.

3. Stylistic use of the articles.

4. Transposition of pronouns.

5. Transposition of adjectives.

6. Transposition of verbs.

7. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - ., 1991. - . 70-92.

2. . . . -., 1990.-. 139-159.

3. . . . - ., 1981.- . 128-146.

4. Maltzev V. A. Essays on English stylistics. - Minsk, 1984. - P. 76-79.


AQ

Seminar No 5 Phonetic and graphicexpressive means and stylistic devices

1. General considerations.

2. Instrumentation means: alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, tone.

3. Versification means: rhyme, rhythm.

4. Graphic means: punctuation, orthography, type, text segmentation.

5. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - ., 1991. - . 50-69.

2. . . . -., 1990.-. 208-242.

3. . ., . . . -., 1960.-. 95-117.

4. Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Moscow, 1981. -P. 123-135.

5. Maltzev V. A. Essays on English Stylistics. -Minsk, 1984. - P. 47-49.

Seminars No 6, 7 Lexico-semantic expressive means andstylistic devices: figures of substitution

1. General considerations.

2. Figures of quantity:

 

- hyperbole;

- meiosis (litotes).

3. Figures of quality:

- metonymy (synecdoche, periphrasis, euphemism);

- metaphor (antonomasia, personification, allegory, epithet);

- irony.

4. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - .. 1991. - . 164-186.


 

2. . . . ->. 1990.-. 74-93.

3. . ., . . . -., 1960. -. 13-27, 35-36, 38-41.

4. Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Moscow, 1981. - P. 139-148, 157-162, 169-177,246-248.

5. Kukharenko V. A. Seminars in style. - Moscow, 1991. - P. 24-26.

Seminar No 8

Lexico-semantic expressive means and stylistic devices:

Figures of combination

1. General considerations.

2. Figures of identity:

 

- similie;

- use of synonyms.

3. Figures of contrast:

- oxymoron;

- antithesis.

4. Figures of inequality:

-climax;

- anticlimax;

- zeugma;

- pun.

5. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - ., 1991. - . 186-199.

2. . . . -., 1990.-. 95-96, 130-131.

3. . ., . . . -., I960. - . 11-13,28-29,33-35, 37-38.

4. Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Moscow, 1981. - P. 162-164, 167-169, 219-225,148-153.

5. Kukharenko V. A. Seminars in style. -Moscow, 1991. -P. 85-87,26-27.


 


N8



Seminars No 9,10 Stylistic syntax: syntactic expressive means and stylistic devices

1. General considerations.

2. Syntactic expressive means and stylistic devices of the English language:

 

- based on reduction of the initial sentence model: ellipsis, aposiopesis, nominative sentences, asyndeton;

- based on extension of the initial sentence model: repetition, enumeration, tautology, polysyndeton, "it is (was) he, who...", the emphatic verb "to do", parenthetic sentences;

- based on change of word-order: inversion, detachment;

- based on interaction of syntactic structures in context: parallel constructions;

- based on transposition of meaning and connection of constituent parts: rhetoric questions, parceling.

3. Practical assignment.

Literature recommended

1. . ., . . . . - ., 1991. - . 137-162.

2. . . . -., 1990.-. 160-198.

3. . ., . . . -., 1960.-. 66-94.

4. Galperin I. R. Stylistics. - Moscow, 1981. - P. 191-246.

5. Maltzev V. A. Essays on English Stylistics. - Minsk, 1984. - P. 79-89.

6. Kukharenko V. A. Seminars in style. - Moscow, 1991. - P. 63-66.


ADJECTIVES

 

narrative didactic plain
ritualistic succinct impersonal
religious informal literary
colloquial formal poetic
technical dramatic traditional
STATEMENT    

I'm telling you, you just wouldn't believe the crowds in Tesco this morning!

Dearly beloved, we are gathered here today in the sight of God to join

this couple.

Cook in a hot oven for 20 minutes and serve immediately with rice or pasta.

A poet could not but be gay in such jocund company.

The tropical rainforests provide habitats for numerous species of cold

blooded animals.

James Black stared at his image in the cracked mirror, placed the gun to

his head and fired.

> Context

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