Decide if these statements about context are true or false.

A dictionary gives the real meaning of a word.

Language does not exist except in a social context.

The road sign 'NO ENTRY' is striking because of its red background.

Placing events outside their normal context can produce humorous effects.

Context can only refer to time or place.

Contextualising can help to clarify an item of communication.


Practical Assignments for Seminars

Seminar No 1 Style and Stylistics

> Style

Identify the style of each of the following statements. Choose two or more adjectives which describe the style.

> Form

Identify the form of each of the following texts.







Mrand Mrs John Smith invite you to attend the wedding of their daughter Isobel to Bertrand Williams.

I am in love with my boss and I'm afraid I'm going to lose my job because it's obvious to all my colleagues that we are having an affair. at my wits end and have no one to turn to. Please help.

Did our fathers and our fathers' fathers struggle and slave for this? Is this all we have to show for our life-long devotion to duty at the risk of life and limb? I leave you with a final plea to show your protest by putting your mark on the ballot paper where it belongs.

British Taxicom - good morning - my name's Shelley -how can I help you?

A bright start to the day today in most parts of the country. I'll start with the South East of the country where squally showers have already made driving hazardous and these conditions seem set to continue throughout the day.

> Stylistic analysis

Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

Stylistic analysis of literary and non-literary texts has an identical outcome.

Stylistic features are elements of the text which we admire.

Analysing fiction spoils the reader's pleasure.

Non-literary texts are easier to analyse than literary texts.

Stylistic analysis is a procedure by which we prove a hypothesis.

In stylistic analysis of non-literary texts, we look at phonology, graphology, vocabulary, grammar, and semantics.

> Standard English

Decide if these statements about Standard English are true or false.

Standard English is an accent spoken by the upper classes.

Standard English was once a dialect.

For a language to be standardised, it must have a written form.

Standard English is so called because it is fixed and unchanging.

The term Standard English applies only to writing.

Standard English is the best form of the language, and we should all aspire to use it.

> Varieties

In which sub-variety of spoken or written English do these belong?

Dear Mum, Hope you're OK.

0 I swear by Almighty God to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth.

"Ahoy there!"

It is with extreme regret that I have to inform you of my resignation from the Party.

To be, or not to be; that is the question.

Mom had gotten us each a cookie from the store that morning.

Assignment 1. Match the following notions with their features: /) style, 2) norm, 3) context, 4) expressive means, 5) stylistic devices, 6) image:

a) phonetic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic units and forms which are used in speech to intensify the meaning of the utterance, to make it emphatic;

b)a set of certain rules which in a certain epoch and in a certain society is considered to be most correct and standard for a definite functional style;

c) a subsystem of the principles, extralinguistic circumstances, and the effect of the usage of phonetic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic language means of expressing human thoughts and emotions;

d)reflection of reality in linguistic and extralinguistic contexts from the speaker's/ writer's point of view;

e) phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic figures of speech formed on the basis of language units and forms;

f) linguistic or situational encirclement of a language unit in which it finds itself in speech.

Assignment 2. Attribute properly the object of studying to the following types of stylistics: 1) linguistic, 2) communicative, 3) coding, 4) decoding, 5) literary, 6) contrastive:

a) studies the individual style of the author;

b) deals with the stylistic expressive means of a certain literary work or author, or literary trend;

c) investigates the peculiarities of functional styles and expressive means of language;


d) deals with text interpretation which is based upon certain objective language codes;

e) studies real texts and their communicative potential;

f) investigates stylistic potentialities of two or more languages in comparison.

Assignment 3. Point out subtypes for the following types ofcontext:

a) linguistic, b) stylistic, c) situational.

Assignment 4. Match the types of linguistic context with their characteristics:1) microcontext, 2) macrocontext, 3) megacontext, d) stylistic context:

a) a context which contains unpredictable, untypical of a certain style language unit(s);

b) a context of a chapter, a story, or the whole book;

c) a context of a single utterance;

d) a context of a paragraph in a text.

Assignment 5. Decide what branch of linguistics stylistics is connected with [ 1) phonetics, 2) lexicology, 3) grammar] when it studies:

a) vocabulary, its development in language, expressiveness of semantic structure of words, semantic relations between words;

b) stylistically coloured words, word combinations, sentences and texts;

c) emotional expressiveness of sound repetition, stresses, articulation, intonation, rhyme, speech rhythm.

Assignment 6. Explain how semantics of the compounds depend on their phonetics (pronunciation):

1) overwork ('extra work', 'hard work inquiring one's health');

2) bookcase ('a paper cover for books', 'a piece of furniture with shelves for books');

3) mankind ('the human race', 'men' [contrasted with women]).

Assignment 7. Analyse dependence of semantics on the grammatical meaning of plurality in the folowing vocabulary:

still lifes still lives; cloth basket clothes basket; good train goods train; saving bank savings bank.

Assignment 8. Review the two verses and put forvard the arguments which disclose the connection of stylistics with other branches 0f linguistics:

Dream Deferred

What happened to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore -And then ran?

Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over -like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?

(Langston Hughes)

The year

A storm of white petals, Buds throwing open baby fists Into hands of broad flowers.

Red roses running upward, Clambering to the clutches of life Soaked in crimson.

Rabbles of tattered leaves Holding golden flimsy hopes Against the tramplings Into the pits and gullies.

Hoarfrost and silence:

Only the muffling

Of winds dark and lonesome -

Great lullabies to the long sleepers. (Carl Sandburg)

Assignment 9. Define the main stylistic notions(style, norm, form, text, context, speech, writing, expressive means, stylistic devices, image), reviewing the followingpassages:

1) Still ran Dingo - Yellow-Dog Dingo - always hungry, grinning like a
rat-trap, never getting nearer, never getting farther, - ran after Kangaroo.

He had to!

Still ran Kangaroo - Old Man Kangaroo. He ran through the ti-trees: he ran through the mulga; he ran through the long grass; he ran through the short grass; he ran through the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer; he ran till his hind legs ached.

He had to!

Still ran Dingo - Yellow-Dog Dingo - hungrier and hungrier, grinning like a horse-collar, never getting nearer, never getting farther; and they came to the Wollgong River.

Now, there wasn't any bridge, and there wasn't any ferry-boat, and Kangaroo didn't know how to get over; so he stood on his legs and hopped.

He had to!

(From R. Kipling's Just So Stories)

2) Crabbed age and youth cannot live together:
Youth is full of pleasure, age is full of care;

Youth is like summer morn, age like winter weather; Youth like summer brave, age like winter bare. Youth is full of sport, age's breath is short; Youth is nimble, age is lame: Youth is hot and bold, age is weak and cold; Youth is wild, and age is tame. Age, 1 do abhore thee, youth I adore thee; Oh! My Love, my Love is young. (W. Shakespeare)

3) . ,
, , , , '.
, , ;
', ,
, , . '
, , ,
, , '. , , . -

' , , , , , .

(From V. Vynnychenko's Student)

4) 3 ...

, , , , ?!

. , ... , - ...

(Alexander Oles')

5) Governorship of Coventry Island. - H. M. S. Yellowjack, Command
er Jaunders, has brought letters and papers from Coventry Island. H. E. Sir
Thomas Liverseege had fallen a victim to the prevailing fever at Swamp-
town. His loss is deeply felt in the flourishing colony. We hear that the Gover
norship has been offered to Colonel Rawdon Crawley, . ., a distinguished
Waterloo officer. We need not only men of acknowledged bravery, but men
of administrative talents to superintend the affairs of our colonies; and we
have no doubt that the gentleman selected by the Colonial Office to fill the
lamented vacancy which has occurred at Coventry Island is admirably calcu
lated for the post which he is about to occupy.

(From Vanity Fair by W. M. Thackeray)

" .

³ "" . ˳ , . . , , , , . , , , , , 䳿 ."

(Translated by Olga Senyuk)


Assignment 10. Group the following expressive means into five columns according to their type: 1) phonetic, 2) morphological, 3) lexical, 4) syntactic, 5) graphic:

whispering; text segmentation; synonyms; vocabulary of non-neutral functional and etymological layers (poetic, archaic words, vulgarisms, etc.); orthography; pitch; emphatic constructions (with inverted word order, when the rheme of the utterance precedes the theme of it; when the auxiliary verb "do" is used emphatically; emphatic confirmation; a subordinate clause with the emphatic subject "//"); punctuation; demonstrative pronouns used emphatically; homonyms; ellipsis; melody; interjections; pausation; type; transpositions in grammatical categories/forms; singing; expressive affixes; one-member sentence; descriptive attributes; stress.

Assignment 11. Group the following stylistic devices into three columns according to their type: 1) phonetic, 2) lexical (lexico-seman~ tic), 3) syntactic:

repetition; simile; personification; antithesis; polysyndeton; oxymoron; stylistic inversion; metaphor; parallel constructions; periphrasis; rhetorical question; synecdoche; allegory; gradation; onomatopoeia; euphemism; parceling; metonymy; alliteration; hyperbole; enumeration; meiosis; aposiopesis; epithet; detachment; irony; assonance; zeugma; antonomasia; rhyme; litotes; rhythm; pun.

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