МИКОЛАЇВСЬКИЙ НАЦІОНАЛЬНИЙ УНІВЕРСИТЕТ
ІМЕНІ В.О. СУХОМЛИНСЬКОГО
КАФЕДРА ІНОЗЕМНИХ МОВ
МЕТОДИЧНІ РЕКОМЕНДАЦІЇ З КУРСУ
«ІНОЗЕМНА МОВА (ЗА ПРОФЕСІЙНИМ СПРЯМУВАННЯМ)»
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТІВ СПЕЦІАЛЬНОСТІ «ФІЗИКА»
МИКОЛАЇВ – 2014
Укладач: Айзікова Л.В., викладач кафедри іноземних мов Миколаївського національного університету імені В.О. Сухомлинського
Методичні рекомендації призначені студентам спеціальності “Фізика”, які вивчають іноземну мову (англійську) за професійним спрямуванням протягом І-ІІІ семестрів, та розраховані на 80 годин аудиторної роботи та 70 годин самостійної підготовки.
Методичні рекомендації складаються з чотирьох частин: основного курсу, комплексу вправ для систематизації граматичних навичок, завдань проблемно-пошукового характеру для самостійної роботи та короткого граматичного довідника. Кожний урок основного курсу включає лексичні, граматичні вправи та вправи з розвитку комунікативних умінь. Базові і додаткові тексти уроків дібрані з урахуванням змісту спеціальних дисциплін, які вивчаються студентами протягом першого і другого року навчання.
ФІЗИКА ЯК НАУКА
PHYSICS IN GENERAL
The words below are key physical terms. Translate them into Ukrainian and name their part of speech.
Read the text.
PHYSICS IN GENERAL
Physics (Greek: physics, meaning "nature") is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space-time, as well as all applicable concepts, such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the world and universe behave.
Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics had been considered synonymous with philosophy, chemistry, and certain branches of mathematics and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 16th century, it emerged to become a unique modern science in its own right. However, in some subject areas such as in mathematical physics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics remain difficult to distinguish.
Classical physics includes the traditional branches and topics that were recognized and fairly well developed before the beginning of the 20th century— mechanics, sound, light, heat, electricity and magnetism. Mechanics is concerned with bodies acted on by forces and bodies in motion and may be divided into statistics (study of the forces on a body at rest), kinematics (study of motion without regard to its causes), and dynamics (study of motion and the forces that affect it); mechanics may also be divided into solid mechanics and fluid mechanics. Acoustics, the study of sound, is often considered a branch of mechanics because sound results from the motion of air particles or other medium through which sound waves can travel. Optics, the study of light, is concerned not only with visible light but also with infrared and ultraviolet radiation. Heat is a form of energy, the internal energy contained in the particles of which a substance is composed; thermodynamics deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. Electricity and magnetism have been studied as a single branch of physics since the intimate connection between them was discovered in the early 19th century.
Most of classical physics is concerned with matter and energy on the normal scale of observation; by contrast, much of modern physics deals with the behaviour of matter and energy under extreme conditions or on the very large or very small scale. For example, atomic and nuclear physics studies matter on the smallest scale at which chemical elements can be identified. The physics of elementary particles is concerned with the most basic units of matter; this branch of physics is also known as high-energy physics because of the extremely high energies necessary to produce many types of particles in large particle accelerators. On this scale, ordinary, common sense notions of space, time, matter, and energy are no longer valid. The two chief theories of modern physics present a different picture of the concepts of space, time, and matter from that presented by classical physics. The quantum theory is concerned with the discrete, rather than continuous, nature of many phenomena at the atomic and subatomic level, and with the complementary aspects of particles and waves in the description of such phenomena. The theory of relativity deals with the description of phenomena that take place in motion with respect to an observer; the special theory of relativity is concerned with relative uniform motion in a straight line and the general theory of relativity with accelerated motion and its connection with gravitation.
3. Answer the questions using the text:
1. How can we define physics?
2. What does classical physics deal with?
3. What are some branches of classical physics?
4. How does classical physics differ from modern physics?
5. What do you know about the quantum theory and theory of relativity?
Translate the part of the text dealing with two chief theories of modern physics
5. Give synonyms for the following words:
basic, important, to be concerned with, affect, to give rise to
6. Give the opposite of for the following words:
Modern, dense, incomplete, solid, light, equivalent, rapidly, rest, heat, light, liquid, external, low, tide
Change the underlined word with the one given in brackets.
HEAT TRANSFER CONVECTION
Heat energy can be transferred from one point to another by different methods and at different rates. Heat energy 1 resides (refuses, stays, replies) in kinetic energy of molecules and in the case of fluids, 2 portions (forces, change, parts) of the fluid may move from point to point carrying the fast moving molecules with their energy to points where the energy per molecule is less so that the energy is transferred by the molecules moving to the new point. This is known as convection. It can be 3 readily (slowly, easily, really) shown with water in a glass tube. Some ink added at the top allows (permits, avoids, ensures) us to follow the motion of convection. In order to get circulation we note that the heating produces a density change and 4 hence (even, although, therefore) a pressure gradient and the density gradient cannot be parallel so that acceleration in different directions are different.
8. Complete the following texts with the words in the brackets: