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A. (ionised, fixed, maintain, plasma, compressible, flow, force, spread, applied, volume, division, bottom)

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STATES OF MATTER

The three common states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A solid maintains a ________ shape and a fixed size; even if a large force is _____________ to a solid, it does not readily change in shape or ________________.

A liquid does not maintain a fixed shape, it takes on the shape of its container, but like a solid, it is not readily____________, and its volume can be changed significantly only by a very large_________________.

A gas has neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume, it will expand to fill its container. For example, when air is pumped into an automobile tire, the air does not run to the __________ as a liquid would; it ______________ out to fill the whole volume of the tire.

Since liquids and gases do not_____________ a fixed shape, they both have the ability to___________: they are thus often referred to collectively as fluids. The ____________ of matter into three states is not always simple. How, for example, should butter be classified? Furthermore, a fourth state of matter can be distinguished, the____________ state, which occurs only at very high temperatures and consists of______________ atoms. Some scientists believe that the so-called colloids should also be considered a separate state of matter.

B. (ground-breaking, radiation, imaginary, publications, bestseller, govern, unify, determined, gained).

STEPHEN HAWKING

The British theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking (1942), 1_____________ fame in 1988 with the publication of "A Brief History of Time." The book later was made into a movie of the same name. He holds the professorship at Cambridge University once held by Sir Isaac Newton and did 2_____________ research on the theory of black holes.

Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which 3__________ the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to 4____________ General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit 5_______________ and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in 6_____________ time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely 7______________ by the laws of science. His many 8______________ include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G. F. R. Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W. Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W. Israel. Stephen Hawking has two popular books published; his 9______________ A Brief History of Time, and his later book, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays. Most of his work he has done while confined to a wheelchair brought on by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or Lou Gehrigs Disease.

C. (portion, cradle, fear, penetrate, radiant, accessible, constitute)

The world as I see it with the words in the brackets and then translate. The world as I see it "The most beautiful experience we can have is the mysterious. It is the fundamental emotion that stands at the 1_________ of true art and true science. Whoever does not know it and can no longer wonder, no longer marvel, is as good as dead, and his eyes are dimmed. It was the experience of mystery - even if mixed with 2______ - that engendered religion. A knowledge of the existence of something we cannot 3_______________, our perceptions of the profoundest reason and the most 4___________beauty, which only in their most primitive forms are 5___________ to our minds: it is this knowledge and this emotion that 6___________ true religiosity. In this sense, and only this sense, I am a deeply religious man... I am satisfied with the mystery of lifes eternity and with a

knowledge, a sense, of the marvelous structure of existence - as well as the humble attempt to understand even a tiny 7______________of the Reason that manifests itself in nature.

Write a corresponding verb in front of a noun

1. _________________ a problem

2. _________________ an experiment

3. _________________ research

4. _________________ a phenomenon

5. _________________ heat

 

Match the words or expressions to their definitions.

1. dark matter 2. particle collider 3. wavelength 4. weight 5. momentum 6. field of gravitation 7. a trough 8. lens 9. frame of reference 10. wave crest 11. transverse wave o A minimum point in a wave or an alternating signal. o Any system for specifying the precise location of objects in space o Field created by any object with mass, extending outward in all directions, which determines the influence of that object on all others. o Mass times velocity; a quantity that determines the potential force that an object can impart to another object by collision o The highest part of a wave o The force of gravity acting on a body, equal to the mass of the body multiplied by the acceleration of gravity o A wave in which the vibrations of the medium are perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving. o The distance measured from crest to crest of one complete wave or cycle. o An accelerator in which two beams of particles are forced to collide head on o The matter in the universe that is not directly observable as it emits no light o A curved, ground and polished piece of glass or other transparent material used for the refraction of light

LESSON TWO

COLOURS

Match the following colours with their shades. Give examples of things that have this or another color shade.

1. White A) Emerald, olive, pear, shamrock, spring bud.
2. Green B) French rose, fuchsia, cherry blossom, ruby, tea rose.
3. Orange C) Beige, cream, eggshell, pearl, vanilla.
4. Pink D) Lime, mustard, school bus, sunglow, gold.
5. Blue E) Apricot, coral, peach, flame, pumpkin.
6. Yellow F) Sapphire, denim, iceberg, indigo, iris.

Look at the definitions of the following words and try to guess what they mean.

a) Wavelength the distance between one peak of a wave of light, heat, or other energy, and the next corresponding peak.

b) Absorb retain wholly, without reflection or transmission.

c) Observer the one who watches attentively.

d) Particle a very small piece or part.

e) Matter something that has mass and exists as a solid, liquid, or gas

e) Light electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength.

 

3. Read the text:

WHY IS THE OCEAN BLUE?

Why is the ocean blue? There are several theories:

o Blue wavelengths are absorbed the least by the deep ocean water and are scattered and reflected back to the observers eye.

o Particles in the water may help to reflect blue light .

o The ocean reflects the blue sky.

Most of the time the ocean appears to be blue because this is the color our eyes see. But the ocean can be many other colors depending upon particles in the water, the depth of the water, and the amount of skylight.

The colors we see depend upon the reflection of the visible wavelengths of light to our eyes. Wavelengths of light pass through matter differently depending on the materials composition. Blue wavelengths are transmitted to greater depths of the ocean, while red wavelengths are absorbed quickly. Water molecules scatter blue wavelengths by absorbing the light waves, and then rapidly reemitting the light waves in different directions. That is why there are mostly blue wavelengths that are reflected back to our eyes.

Sometimes oceans look green. This may be because there is an abundance of plant life or sediment from rivers that flow into the ocean. The blue light is absorbed more and the yellow pigments from plants mix with the blue light waves to produce the color green.

Sometimes parts of the oceans will look milky brown after a storm passes. This is because winds and currents associated with the storm churn up sand and sediment from the rivers that lead into the oceans.

The ocean may also reflect the blue sky. However this is prominent only at relatively low angles and when the water is smooth.

4. Answer these questions on the text:

1. What color of the ocean is not mentioned in the text?

a) Milky brown

b) Green

c) Purple

2. Some parts of the ocean look milky brown

a) When it snows a lot.

b) After a storm.

c) When the sun shines brightly.

3. The ocean reflects the sun

a) When the water is smooth.

b) When there is no fog.

c) When the sun shines at right angle.

 

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