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Now scan the text again to find the answers to these questions.

1. What are the three theories explaining why the ocean seems blue? Which one do you think is true? Why?

2. What do the colors of the ocean we see depend on?

3. How can you explain the fact that sometimes the ocean looks green?

4. Wavelengths of what color are absorbed quickly?

5. Why are blue wavelengths reflected to our eyes?

Read a story about early studies of the nature of colour and say who contributed to the study of colors.

Early studies of the nature of color

In Ancient Greece, Aristotle developed the first known theory of color. He postulated that God sent down color from the heavens as celestial rays. He identified four colors corresponding to the four elements: earth, fire, wind, and water.

Leonardo da Vinci was the first to suggest an alternative hierarchy of color. In his Treatise on Painting, he said that while philosophers viewed white as the "cause, or the receiver" of colors and black as the absence of color, both were essential to the painter, with white representing light, and black, darkness. He listed his six colors in the following order: white, yellow (earth), green (water), blue (air), red (fire), and black.

The detailed understanding of the science of color began in 1666, when Isaac Newton, using two prisms, observed that white light was composed of all the colors of the rainbow, and could be identified and ordered. Newton first used the word "spectrum" for the array of colors produced by a glass prism. He recognized that the colors comprising white light are "refracted" (bent) by different amounts and he also understood that there is no "colored" light, the color being in the eye of the beholder. Instead, there is merely a range of energies - or the proportional frequencies and the inverse wavelengths. Newton assigned seven colors to the spectrum in an analogy to the musical scale.

 

7. Read the text for the second time and answer the following questions:

1. How many colors did Aristotle identify?

2. What elements did he correspond them to?

3. Who was the first to suggest hierarchy of colors?

4. What color did philosophers view as the absence of color according to Leonardo da Vinci?

5. When did the detailed understanding of color begin?

6. Who was the first to use the word spectrum for the array of colors produced by a glass prism?

7. How many colors did Newton assign to the spectrum?

 

Discuss the questions.

1. What is your favorite colour?

2. What colour do you like wearing most of all? Why?

3. Do you agree that black is the queen of all colorus?

 

Study the information and tell what you think

Psychologists say that our personality depends on our eye color. Look at the information psychologists say about people with different eye colors and give your opinion whether you think they are right or wrong.

Brown Eyes: Cares deeply for family, affectionate with a serious nature.

Blue Eyes: Peaceful with low physical endurance.

Hazel Eyes: Easily bored and mentally agile.

Green Eyes: Curious, intelligent, jealous.

Blue/grey Eyes: Humanitarian with an altruistic nature.

Grey Eyes: Analytical, clear thinking, philosophical.

There are a lot of proverbs about color/colors. Read some of them and try to explain the meaning of the one you like most of all.

1. Blind men can judge no colors. (English proverb)

2. A man will show his true colors in adversity. (African Proverb)

3. Even the colors of a chameleon are for survival not beauty. (African Proverb)

4. Milk and honey have different colors, but they share the same house peacefully.

(African Proverb)

5. Birds of a color fly to the same place. (Welsh proverb)

6. Truth has but one color, a lie has many. (Sanskrit proverb)

7. All colors will agree in the dark. (Francis Bacon)

 

 


LESSON THREE

LIGHT

Look at the definitions given below. Match them with the words in the box.

Light, lightning, lights, traffic lights, light-headed, light hearted

a)electromagnetic radiation that is capable of causing a visual sensation and has wavelengths from about 380 to about 780 nanometres

b)one of a set of coloured lights placed at crossroads, junctions, etc., to control the flow of traffic. A red light indicates that traffic must stop and a green light that it may go: usually an amber warning light is added between the red and the green

c)a person's ideas, knowledge, or understanding

d)cheerful or carefree in mood or disposition

e)frivolous in disposition or behavior

f)a flash of light in the sky, occurring during a thunderstorm and caused by a discharge of electricity, either between clouds or between a cloud and the earth

 

Read the text.

LIGHT

1_________________________ Light makesthe world seembright and colourful to our eyes. Light is a type of electromagnetic radiation that carriesenergy from a source(something that makes light) at the very high speedof 300,000 kps (186,000 miles per second, or 670 million mph). Light raystravel from their source in straight lines. Although they can pass throughsome objects, they bounce off others or pass around them to make SHADOWS.
When light shines on a soap bubble, some of the rays reflectback from its outer surface. Others travel through the thin soap film and bounce back from its inner surface. The two sorts of reflected rays are slightly out of step because they travel different distances. They interfere with one another and produce colourful swirling patterns on the bubbles surface.

2_________________________

Sometimes light seems to behave as though it carries energy in waves. Other times it seems to carry energy in particlesor packets, called photons, fired off in quick successionfrom the source. Scientists argued for many years over whether light was really a wave or a particle. Now they agree that light can behave as eithera wave ora particle, depending on the situation.

3_________________________

The powerful beamfrom a lighthouse illustrates that light travels in straight lines. Under normal circumstances, light never bendsor goes round corners but travels in a perfectly straight path, making what is known as a light ray. Nothing can travel faster than light. The beam from a lighthouse travels its full length in a tiny fractionof a second.

4_________________________

Some objects transmitlight better than others. Transparentobjects, such as glass, let virtually all light rays pass straight through them. When you look at a glass of orange juice, you can see the juice inside very clearly. You can also see other things through the glass.

Translucent objects, such as plastic, allowonly part of the light through. A plastic bottle lets some light rays pass through it. It is possible to see the orange juice inside the bottle, but you cannot see anything behind the bottle.

Opaqueobjects, such as metal, reflect all the light falling on them and allow none to pass through. When you look at a canof orange juice, all you can see is the can. It is impossible to tell, just from looking, whether or notthe can has any orange juice in it.

5_________________________

Things that give off light are called light sources. When we see something, light rays have travelled from a source of light into our eyes. Some objects appearbright to us because they give off energy as light rays; these objects are said to be luminousor light-emitting. Other objects do not make light themselves, but appear bright because they reflect the light from a light source.

6_________________________

The Sun shines because it produces energy deep in its core. The energy is made when atoms join togetherin nuclear fusionreactions. The Sun fires off the energy into spacein all directionsin the form of electromagnetic radiation. Some of the radiation travels to Earth as the lightand heatwe know as sunlight. The Sun is a luminous light source because it makes energy inside itself.

7_________________________

The Moon shines much less brightly than the Sun. Unlike the Sun, the Moon does not generateits own energy, so it produces no light of its own. We can see the Moon only because its grey-white surface reflects sunlight towardsEarth. If the Earth passesbetween the Sun and the Moon, the Moon seems to disappear from the sky. This is called a lunar eclipse.

8_________________________

Some sea organisms can make their own light. This abilityis called bioluminescence, which means making light biologically. Transparent polychaete wormssuch as this one make yellow light inside their bodies. In their dark seawater habitat they can glowor flashto scareoff predators. Other bioluminescent sea creatures include shrimps, squid, and starfish

9_________________________

Shadows are made by blocking light. Light rays travel from a source in straight lines. If an opaque object gets in the way, it stops some of the light rays travelling through it, and an area of darkness appears behind the object. The dark area is called a shadow.The size and shape of a shadow depend on the position and size of the light source compared tothe object.

10_________________________

When you stand with the Sun behind you, the light rays that hit your body are blocked and createa shadow on the ground in front of you. When the Sun is high in the sky at midday, your shadow is quite short. Later on, when the Sun is lower, your shadow is much longer.

11_________________________

Shadows are not totally black. If you look closely at a shadow, you will see a dark area in the centre and a lighter area around it. The central dark area, called the umbra, occurswhere rays of light from the source are totally blocked. The outer area, called the penumbra, is lighter because some rays do get through.

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