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Match the titles with the correct paragraphs.

...
WAVES AND PARTICLES, UMBRA AND PENUMBRA, LIGHTHOUSE, MOONLIGHT, BIOLUMINESCENCE, YOUR CHANGING SHADOW, LIGHT, TRANSMISSION OF LIGHT, LIGHT SOUSCES, SUNLIGHT, SHADOWS.

Answer the questions on the text.

1. What is light? Try to give a simple and clear definition.

2. How does it travel through space?

3. Does light penetrate all surfaces?

4. What is light, a wave or a particle?

5. What do you know about the speed of light?

6. Do all objects transmit light equally? Are there any which dont transmit it at all?

7. How do we call objects that emit light?

8. Are there any objects that dont emit light but are still bright to our eyes?

9. Does the Sun produce energy? How?

10. Is the Moon a luminous source?

11. What is lunar eclipse?

12. What is bioluminescence? What does it serve for?

13. Do you know any bioluminescent creatures?

14. How is shadow produced from the point of view of a physicist?

15. Is the shade equally dark? Are there any lighter regions?

16. What is umbra/penumbra?

Find the highlighted words from the text that will match the definitions.

1. a dark image or shape cast on a surface by the interception of light rays by an opaque body

2. possession of the qualities required to do something; necessary skill, competence, or power

3. permitting the uninterrupted passage of light; clear

4. the exterior face of an object or one such face

5. to turn or cause to turn from a particular direction

6. to happen; take place; come about

7. not transmitting light; not transparent or translucent, not reflecting light; lacking lustre or shine; dull

8. any of various invertebrates, esp the annelids having a slender elongated body

9. to emit or reflect or cause to emit or reflect light suddenly or intermittently (flash) the central, innermost, or most essential part of something

10. a ray or column of light, as from a beacon

11. to seem or look

12. a small piece; fragment

6. Discuss the question:

You are in a cabin and it is pitch black. You have one match with you. Which do you light first, the newspaper, the lamp, the candle or the fire?

Read the riddle and try to find out the answer asking general (yes/no) questions.

There was an old man who lived by himself. He felt tired so he went into the bathroom, went to the toilet and then turned the light off before going to bed. The next morning there was a news flash on the radio that a boat crashed. The man opened the window and jumped out. Why?

 

8. Tell you groupmates what you think.

The sun, the moon and the stars would have disappeared long ago... had they happened to be within the reach of predatory human hands.

Henry Havelock Ellis (British psychologist)

o What does the author mean?

o Do you agree with him? Why (not)?

o Do you think human influence on nature is positive or negative? Why?

 


LESSON FOUR

TECHNOLOGY

The words below are all connected to inventions/technology. Translate them into Ukrainian and name their part of speech.

Microscope, battery-operated, engine, inventor, technician, discover, remote-controlled, communications satellite, gadget, invent, technical, scientific, machine, speedometer, scientist, researcher, appliance, experiment, research, robot.

 

Match the following words and word expressions with their definitions.

1. frequency   A) a special network, one that has one closed loop giving a return path for the current
2. amplitude B) a metal that has been drawn into a very long, thin thread or rod
3. liquid transmitter C) the height of the wave
4. current D) a water microphone or water transmitter based on Ohms law
5. circuit E) number of cycles per a unit of time
6. wire F) a flow of electric charge

Read the text

INVENTING A TELEPHONE

Mr. Watson, come here, I want you. With these words, spoken by inventor Alexander Graham Bell into his experimental telephone on March 10, 1876, an industry was born. For down the hall, Bells assistant, Thomas Watson, distinctly heard Bellutter the first spoken sentence ever transmitted via electricity. That achievement was the culmination of an invention process Bell had begun at least four years earlier.

In the 1870s, electricity was the cutting-edge technology. Like todays Internet, it attracted bright, young people, such as Bell and Watson, who were only 29 and 22 in 1876. The field of electricity offered them the opportunity to create inventions that could lead to fame and fortune.

There was already one great electrical industry the telegraph, whose wires crossed not only the continent but even the Atlantic Ocean. The need for further innovations, such as a way to send multiple messages over a single telegraph wire, were well known and promised certain rewards. But other ideas, such as a telegraph for the human voice, were far more speculative. By 1872, Bell was working on both voice transmission and a harmonic telegraph that would transmit multiple messages by using musical tones of several frequencies

The telegraph transmitted information by an intermittent current. An electrical signal was either present or absent, forming the once-familiar staccato of Morse code. But Bell knew that sounds like speech were complex, continuous waves, with not only tone but amplitude. In the summer of 1874, while visiting his parents in Brantford, Ontario, Bell hit upon a key intellectual insight: To transmit the voice electrically, one needed what he called an induced undulating current. Or to put it another way, what was required was not an intermittent current, but continuous electrical waves of the same form as sound waves.

On July 1, 1875, Bell succeeded in transmitting speech sounds, but they werent intelligible. He returned to his experiments in Boston. On March 10, he hooked up his latest design, known as the liquid transmitter, into an electrical circuit, and Watson heard Bells voice.

Bell announced his discovery, first in lectures to Boston scientists and then at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition to a panel of notables including Brazilian Emperor Dom Pedro II and eminent British physicist William Thomson. The emperor exclaimed, My God! It talks! Thomson took news of the discovery across the ocean and proclaimed it the greatest by far of all the marvels of the electric telegraph.

Alexander Graham Bell had little interest in being a businessman. In July 1877, he married Mabel Hubbard, and set sail for what proved a long honeymoon in England. He left the growing business to Hubbard and Sanders, and went on to a long productive career as a scientist and inventor.

But from the telephones earliest days, Bell understood his inventions vast potential. He wrote in 1878: I believe in the future wires will unite the head offices of telephone companies in different cities, and a man in one part of the country may communicate by word of mouth with another in a distant place.

 

Complete the sentences with the dates of the events described.

1) The telephone was invented in .

2) Bell was working on both voice transmission and a harmonic telegraph by .

3) He was visiting his parents in .

4) Bell succeeded in transmitting speech sounds on .

5) Bell married Mabel Hubbard in .

5. Find answers to the following questions:

1) What were the first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell into his experimental telephone?

2) What was the cutting-edge technology in 1870s?

3) What is a harmonic telegraph?

4) What did Bell understand while visiting his parents in 1874?

5) How did Bell announce his discovery?

6) Did Bell understand the importance of his discovery?

6. Translate the following words with the help of a dictionary.

Stumble, mold, implication, light bulb, carbon filament.

Read about the three inventions that changed the world

THREE INVENTIONS THAT CHANGED THE WORLD

Throughout history, people have made inventions that changed the world. Some got lucky and stumbled on something, some actually set out to make something, and still others improved upon existing technology to create something revolutionary. Were going to show what we consider the top 3 world changing inventions, from how they were found, to how they ended up being used.

Penicillin

Penicillin was actually discovered a bit by accident. It is credited to scientist Alexander Fleming in 1928. He noticed that certain mold could kill bacteria, which proved that there was an antibacterial agent in the mold.

Fleming did not actually invent penicillin though he merely made popular the knowledge that there was an anti-bacterial agent in the mold Penicillium notatum. It was originally noticed by French medical student Ernest Duchesne in 1896. Fleming, however, saw the potential importance of what he named penicillin. In a 1929 paper, he noted that the results he observed could have medical implications if the anti-bacterial agent could be isolated and produced in quantity.

Electricity

While most people generally attribute Benjamin Franklin as electricity discoverer, it isnt entirely accurate. He did, however, lay the ground work for future scientists to make world changing breakthroughs, so there is some degree of accuracy in calling him the father of electricity.

The list of scientists who did groundbreaking work with electricity reads like a whos who list of famous inventors Thomas Edison, Allessandro Volta (volt), Andre-Marie Ampere (amp), Georg Simon Ohm (ohms), Nikola Tesla, Samuel Morse, and Alexander Graham Bell, among others. Each of them contributed to our modern electrical technology.

Light Bulb

Most people believe that the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison. In fact, it was invented in 1809 by Humphry Davy, an English chemist. Unfortunately, it was not very useful, and wasnt like our modern version of a light bulb.

What Edison did do was invent a carbon filament that burned for up to 40 hours a good bit longer than the one invented a year earlier that burned for around 13.5 (and the one before that was even less!). It is said that Edison tried and failed over 2000 times before finally perfecting the filament.

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