Match the titles with the correct paragraphs of the text.


Answer the questions given below.

1. What is refraction? Try to define it.

2. What happens if light rays move into a dense material?

3. When does the speed of the light rays grow as they pass through different materials?

4. How does the light behave when it travels through a glass panel at an angle? Describe its movement.

5. What will happen to a straw if you stand it in a glass of water?

6. What causes hazy appearance of objects on a hot day?

7. Have you ever heard of the mirage? What is it?

Mark the statements true or falls.

1. Mirrors used by drivers are concave.

2. Mirrors show a reversed image of whatever is placed behind them.

3. In a concave mirror everything seems bigger than it really is.

4. Reflection is caused by warm and cold air which bends light rays coming from distant objects.

5. Hazy appearance of objects on hot days is caused by warm air rising from the ground that distorts the light rays passing through it.

6. When we look in the mirror the object seems to be in front of it and may look bigger, smaller, or the same size as the thing it is reflecting, depending on the mirrors shape.

7. To reflect means to bend.

8. When light rays move water to air they bend outwards.

9. The advantage of a concave mirror is that less of the object fits into the mirror than in a flat mirror of the same size.

10. The majority of the objects reflect the light that falls on them.


Read the quotations and translate them. Which do you like best of all? Why? Do they have anything in common? If yes, what?

o Most people are mirrors, reflecting the moods and emotions of the times. Some people are windows, bringing light to bear on the dark corners where troubles fester. The whole purpose of education is to turn mirrors into windows. Sydney J. Harris

o A loving person lives in a loving world. A hostile person lives in a hostile world. Everyone you meet is your mirror. Ken Keys

o There are two ways to spread happiness; either be the light who shines it or be the mirror who reflects it. Edith Wharton

o The best mirror is an old friend. Peter Nivio Zarlenga

o If someone shows you their true colors, don't try to repaint them. Taina, NYC Poet



The simple present tense

1. Read the following in the third person singular

1. They wish to speak to you. (He)

2. Buses pass my house every hour.

3. They help their father. (He)

4. We change planes at Heathrow.

5. You watch too much TV. (He)

6. They worry too much. (He)

7. I cash a cheque every month. (He)

8. I always carry an umbrella. (She)

9. They wash the floor every week. (She)

10. His sons go to the local school.

11. These seats cost £10.

12. Elephants never forget.

13. They usually catch the 8.10 bus.

14. They sometimes miss the bus.

15. I mix the ingredients together.

16. The rivers freeze in winter.

17. They fly from London to Edinburgh.

18. The carpets match the curtains.

19. They realize the danger.

20. I use a computer.

21. They do nothing. They lie in bed all day.

22. The boys hurry home after school.

23. They kiss their mother.

24. They dress well.

25. Your children rely on you.

26. You fry everything.

27. The taxes rise every year.

28. They do exercises every morning.

29. Do you like boiled eggs? (He)

30. What do they do on their days off?

2. Read the following (a) in the negative (b) in the interrogative

1. You know the answer.

2. He has breakfast at 8.00.

3. He loves her.

4. Some schoolgirls wear uniforms.

5. He trusts you.

6. He tries hard.

7. The park closes at dusk.

8. He misses his mother.

9. The children like sweets.

10. He finishes work at 6.00.

11. He lives beside the sea.

12. He bullies his sisters.

13. This stove heats the water.

14. She has a cooked breakfast.

15. She carries a sleeping bag.

16. He usually believes you.

17. She dances in competitions.

18. You remember the address.

19. She plays chess very well.

20. He worries about her.

21. These thieves work at night.

22. He leaves home at 8.00 every day.

23. Ann arranges everything.

24. She agrees with you.

25. Their dogs bark all night.

26. Their neighbours often complain.

27. Tom enjoys driving at night.

28. He engages new staff every spring.

29. Tom looks very well.

30. They sell fresh grape juice here.

31. She cuts her husband's hair.

32. They pick the apples in October.

33. The last train leaves at midnight.

34. He relaxes at weekends.

35. She refuses to discuss it.


The simple past tense

3. Put the verbs in the following sentences into the simple past tense.

1. I go to work by bus.

2. I meet her on Tuesdays.

3. He always wears black.

4. I make cakes every week.

5. She gets up at 6.30.

6. He understands me.

7. He shuts the shop at 6.00.

8. She speaks slowly.

9. He leaves the house at 9.00.

10. I read a chapter every night.

11. You eat too much.

12. I see him every day.

13. He cries when he is hurt.

14. Who knows the answer?

15. I think I know it.

16. He takes the dog out twice a day.

17. We buy them here.

18. I dream every night.

19. He often feels ill.

20. I know what he wants.

21. I usually pay him £5.

22. His dog always bites me.

23. It costs 30p.

24. My back hurts.

25. We drink water.

26. His roses grow well.

27. He rides every day.

28. He often falls off.

29. He puts up his prices every year.

30. He sleeps badly.

4. Put the verbs in the following sentences into (a) the negative (b) the interrogative.

1. She saw your brother.

2. We heard a terrible noise.

3. He slept till 10.00.

4. He looked at the picture.

5. They drank all the wine.

6. They set out early enough.

7. She thought about it.

8. The police caught the thief.

9. He hid the letter.

10. She found her watch.

11. His nose bled.

12. My mother chose this hotel.

13. She lent you enough money.

14. Keiko taught Japanese.

15. Tom hurt his foot.

16. He broke his arm.

17. His wife came at 8.00.

18. He lost his wallet.

19. His son wrote a novel.

20. They flew to New York.

21. Ann drew you a map.

22. Tom laid the table.

23. Mr Pitt fell downstairs.

24. She lost her way.

25. He forbade her to leave.

26. I sent it to the laundry.

27. Jack kept the money.

28. He rode slowly.

29. They spent it all.

30. She sold the car.

31. Jean rang the bell.

32. The sun rose at 6.00.

33. The boys ran home.

34. He shook the bottle.

35. He forgave her.


5. Make the sentences (a) negative and (b) interrogative, using do/does/did.

1. They have eggs for breakfast.

2. He needs a new coat.

3. He used to sell fruit.

4. They have to work hard.

5. She does the housework.

6. He needs more money.

7. He had a row with his boss.

8. She had a heart attack.

9. Her hair needed cutting.

10. He does his homework after supper.

11. She has a singing lesson every week.

12. He does his best.

13. He has to get up at six every day.

14. The children have dinner at school.

15. She dared him to climb it.

16. You did it on purpose.

17. He dares to say that!

18. They had a good time.

19. The drink did him good.

20. My watch needs cleaning.

21. He had an accident.

22. You had your house painted.

23. She used to make her own clothes.

24. You do the exercises.

25. He had difficulty (in) getting a job.


The future simple tense

6. Put the verbs in brackets into the future simple.

1. I (know) the result in a week.

2. You (be) in Rome tonight.

3. You (be) able to drive after another five lessons.

4. Do you think that he (recognize) me?

5. Unless he runs he (not catch) the train.

6. He (lend) it to you if you ask him.

7. I hope I (find) it.

8. He (believe) whatever you tell him.

9. I (remember) this day all my life.

10. Perhaps he (arrive) in time for lunch.

11. If he works well I (pay) him £10.

12. I wonder how many of us still (be) here next year.

13. If you think it over you (see) that I am right.

14. If you learn another language you (get) a better job.

15. I am sure that you (like) our new house.

16. Newspaper announcement: The President (drive) along the High Street in an open carriage.

17. You (need) a visa if you are going to Spain.

18. You (feel) better when you've had a meal.

19. She (have) £1000 a year when she is twenty-one.

20. If you put any more polish on that floor someone (slip) on it.

21. I wonder if he (succeed).

22. I hope he (remember) to buy wine.

23. If you leave your roller skates on the path someone (fall) over them.

24. If they fall over them and hurt themselves they (sue) you.

25. If you want twenty cigarettes you (have) to give me more money.

26. Notice: The management (not be) responsible for articles left on the seats.

27. If I drop this it (explode).

28. You (have) time to help me tomorrow?

29. It (matter) if I don't come home till morning?

30. He (mind) if I bring my dog?


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