МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ ДО ПРАКТИЧНИХ ЗАНЯТЬ З ДИСЦИПЛІНИ
OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN
МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ ДО ПРАКТИЧНИХ ЗАНЯТЬ З ДИСЦИПЛІНИ
«Контрастивна стилістика англійської та української мов»
для студентів 4-го курсу відділення прикладної лінгвістики
на засідання кафедри
Протокол № 8 від 22 лютого 2010 р.
Львів - 2010
CONTRASTIVE STYLISTICS OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN. МЕТОДИЧНІ ВКАЗІВКИ ДО ПРАКТИЧНИХ ЗАНЯТЬ З ДИСЦИПЛІНИ «Контрастивна стилістика англійської та української мов»для студентів 4-го курсу відділення прикладної лінгвістики.
Укл. Н.І. Романишин – Львів: Видавництво Національного університету «Львівська політехніка», 2010. – 50 с.
Укладач: Романишин Н.І., канд. філол. наук,
доцент каф. прикладної лінгвістики
Відповідальний за випуск:Карамишева І.Д.канд. філол. наук,
Рецензенти :Федорчук М.М., канд. філол. наук,
доцент кафедри англійської філології
Львівського національного університету
імені Івана Франка
Бордюк Л.В., канд. філол. наук,
доцент кафедри прикладної лінгвістики
Національного університету «Львівська політехніка»
2. COURSE OBJECTIVES…………………………………..4
6. COURSE DESCRIPTION………………………………….6
8. PROGRESS TEST ………………………………………..37
9. MODULE TEST (SAMPLE)………………………………40
10. EXAMINATION QUESTIONS…………………………..43
Appendix 1. Glossary …………………………………………..44
Appendix 2.Теми рефератівз курсу ………………………….49
Контрастивної стилістики української
та англійської мов для студентів 4-го курсу
Stylistics is one of the rapidly developing branches of Applied Linguistics. It is a linguistic science that investigates the principles of choice and usage of all language units in different communicative situations and effect produced by this choice.Stylistics concentrates on the aesthetic function of language, on the inventory of special language media which secure a desirable effect of the utterance, synonymous way of expressing one and the same idea, the individual manner of an author in making use of language and on a number of other issues.
Stylistics is a complex linguistic science that incorporates different trends and theories. It investigates the stylistic system of the language. It aims to answer the question how language is used and how it functions in different spheres of human creative activity. It exposes the power of language to embody logical, emotional, expressive, imaginary information in various types of oral and written discourses.
Contrastive stylisticsis the type of stylistic analysis that studies and compares the stylistic systems of two or more languages. Its primary tasks are 1) to describe stylistically marked language units of all language levels in different languages; 2) to study stylistic resources of different languages; 3) to compare functional styles and genres of the languages under consideration; 4) to investigate the ways of expressing various stylistic concepts (e.g. humour or satire) or stylistic functions each compared language has in its disposal; 5) to compare individual styles of different authors who created their works in different languages and in different epochs.
Proceeding from the above statement the course in stylistics develops the skills of thoughtful reading, nurtures a refined aesthetic taste, cultivates he profound language knowledge about different technique of expression, increases the ability to write clearly, correctly and in a manner calculated to interest the reader both in English and in Ukrainian.
The primary goal of this discipline is
· to make the students converse with the theory of stylistics as a general system of principles and devices to be used by the students independently while interpreting and translating texts that belong to different styles and genres;
· to provide the students with the knowledge about the stylistic systems of English and Ukrainian;
· to familiarize the students with common and nationally specific stylistic processes and tendencies in the development of the languages under consideration;
· to develop the technique of stylistic analysis;
· to improve the ability of content analysis through the examination of the character of all language means interrelations within the formal and semantic structure of a certain text.
The course is concerned with both theory and practice. It is also aimed
· at nurturing the general knowledge about the ways and procedures of faithful interpreting the concept of a literary work and author’s basic ideas
· and developing students’ skills of analytical reading which presupposes the ability to reflect closely on the attitude of the text creator towards the represented reality, disclose the existing implications, comprehend the aesthetic and emotional information inherent in the text.
For the successful course completion
The successful completion of the coursepresupposes:
· the attainments of the technique of stylistic analysis, as well as the principles of the formal and semantic organization of a text;
· the ability to identify main expressive means and stylistic devices of English and Ukrainian;
· the ability to define those language elements that perform a certain stylistic function within the text, to differentiate their type and value in the context, to state the nature of their relation to the other text elements and the whole literary work.
According to the curriculum the duration of the course is one semester. The course consists of:
· 7 lectures or 28 academic hours (conducted in the form of colloquium, aimed at acquisition, discussion and mastering the bulk of necessary information);
· 7 seminars or 14 academic hours (practical classes aimed at continuous judging the quality of students work and performance);
· students’ individual task (a kind of creative search aimed at the developing of the technique of stylistic analysis).
Students’ work assessment during the semester totals 100 points. The general system of assessment involves the current estimate of student’s course work that includes:
a) student’s in-class performance assessment (5 points which is an average of all marks obtained during practical classes );
b) students’ individual work assessment (10 points);
c) marks for a written home assignments ( 15 which is an average of all marks for home assignments);
d) 2 module tests marks that total 70 points ( 30 and 40 points respectively) or final examination test.
The current estimate of students’ class workis a continuous assessment of student’s answers at practical classes. During seminars the teacher also gives grades for the practical tasks performance which are designed to check and monitor the process of the basic material acquisition. In order to enhance the students grades the teacher may involve them in preparing reports or essays to be defended during lectures and/or seminars. Thus the current estimate is calculated as a simple average of all marks for the practical classes. Informal assessment also takes place during the course as the performance of students is monitored.
Students’ Individual Task in Contrastive Stylistics of English and Ukrainian is a kind of creative search aimed at
· the developing of the technique of stylistic analysis;
· the ability to identify main expressive means and stylistic devices of English and Ukrainian;
· the ability to define those language elements that perform a certain stylistic function within the text, to differentiate their type and value in the context.
The task consists in compiling a comprehensive list of stylistic devises of English and Ukrainian. The extracts for analysis
· should be taken preferably from ONE LITERARY source (i.e. a story, novel or collection of poems that belong to one author).
· and should embrace the maximum of the variegated stylistic phenomena (phonetic, morphological, lexico-semantic and syntactic) both English and Ukrainian.
The students are not restricted in their freedom of choice of the literary work or the writer, but remember that the contemporary literature is not characterized by the extensive use of “classical” stylistic devices. However, it employs the great number of other stylistic resources of the language such as slang, grammatical transposition, polysemy, graphical imagery, etc.
The optimal number of items included in the list is 15 for English and as many for Ukrainian though the maximum number is not limited.
Each item with the correct definition of the stylistic device is given 2 points.
The task will be awarded 10 extra pointsin case the list includes authentic literary translation of the cited extracts.
Note that the informal assessment of the task performance is also possible.
Л. Костенко. Поезії
16. Півні кричать у мегафони мальв –
Аж деренчить полив’яний світанок. Метафора: Півні кричать у мегафони мальв; мегафони мальв; деренчить полив’яний світанок. Епітет:полив’яний світанок.
Module and final examination tests(see sample tests )are designed to check the learning outcomes and consist of approximately 7-9 tasks based on the in-class, supplement practical and theoretical material. In some cases (when the teacher considers it is necessary) an oral component (speaking or interview) may be included into the structure of final examination test.
Lecture No 1
1. Define the type of the context in the following examples. How does it influence the underlined lexical units? Describe the effect produced:
a) Once upon a time ago , about last Friday, Winnie the Pooh lived in a forest all by himself under the name of Sanders. What does “under the name mean?” asked Christopher Robin. “It means he has the name over the door in gold letters and lived under it”.(A Miln)
b) Не розклад – а одні вікна…
c) Страх, як гарно; Подумаєш!; Дивись мені! To take offence; to have a good time;
d) Люди тут бормочуть, язиком дивним до нас сокочуть, і ми їх мови не втнемо(І. Котляревський)
2. Identify the lexical units (words or/and phrases ) that perform a definite stylistic function in the following texts. Define this stylistic function and speak of any semantic changes these lexical units undergo:
a) If you want to be a great man and leave two thousand pounds a year and a nice clean wife… and a kid with real eyes that open and close, you’ll have to work in your dinner time…
Get some cash in the bank and then you can go in for art and be as bad as you like you’ll still be happy… and you’ll be able to afford a nice little wife and nice little babies and nice little parties, and you get into some nice little society and get a whole lot of nice little compliments from all the other people (J. Cary).
b) ‘”Sir Jasper Ffinch-Ffarowmere, Bart.’, he read.
The name was strange to him. ‘Sir Jasper Finch-Ffarowmere?’, said Wilfrid.
‘Ffinch-Ffarowmere’, corrected the visitor, his sensitive ear detecting the capital letters” (P.G.Wodehouse).
c) The car went out of the square, along through the side street, out under the trees and down the hill and away from Pampona (E. Hemingway); They took me down behind the line of officers below the road toward a group of people in a field by the river bank (E. Hemingway).
3. Define the type of connotative meaning in the following words:
a) house, abode, dome, cot, crib, hutch, hovel, den, hole;
працелюб, трудяга, трудоголік, роботяга, бджілка, віл, кінь;
b) He extricated himself from the bedclothes;
c) «Never mind,» said the stranger, cutting the address very short, «said enough-no more; smart chap that cabman-handled his fives well; but if I’d been your friend in the green jemmy-damn me- punch his head-, Cod I would-pig’s whisper-pieman too,-no gammon.»
«This coherent speech was interrupted by the entrance of the Rochester coachman, to announce that…»(Ch. Dickens).
Lecture No 2
1. Define the type of graphical & phonetic stylistic devices in the following texts. Indicate the cases in which graphical and phonetic properties of the text influence its semantics:
1. On a December evening just three weeks before Christmas, after an uneasily mild day that had died in a darkening flush of violet twilight, Christie Wilcox came down into Cressley to look for his long-lost friend, Tommy Flynn (St. Barstow).
2. “Yes, indeed, he’s such a good watch dog” (A. Christie).
3. What can any woman mean to a Man in comparison with his Mother? Therefore, it was plain that she was next-of-kin, and that all George possessions, including widow’s pension, should come to her only (R. Aldington).
4. His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling, faintly through the universe and faintly falling like the descent of their last end, upon the living and the dead (J.Joyce).
5. I found dimpled spider, fat and white,
On a white heal-all, holding up a moth
Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth –
Assorted characters of death and blight
Mixed ready to begin the morning right,
Like the ingredients of a witches’ broth –
A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth,
And dead wings carried like a paper kite.
What had that flower to do with being white,
The wayside blue and innocent heal-all?
What brought the kindred spider to that height,
Thet steered the white moth thither in the night?
What but design of darkness to appal? –
If a design govern in a thing so small. (R. Frost)
6. We’re foot – slog – slog – slogin’ over Africa –
Foot – foot – foot – foot – slogin’ over Africa.
Boots – boots – boots – boots – movin’up and down again (R. Kipling).
7. …white horses and black horses and broun horses and white and black horses and broun and white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tapety-tap over coble stones
you dear to
what else could a
no but it doesn’t
of course but you don’t seem
to realize I can’t make
it clearer war just isn’t what
we imagine but please for god’s O
what the hell yea it’s true that was
but that me isn’t me
can’t you see now no not
anything but you
dead (A. Cammings)
9. “You promised to tell me your history, you know”, said Alice, “ and why is it you hate………
“Mine is a long and saf tale!” said the mouse, turning to Alice and sighing.
“It’s a long tail certainly”, said Alice looking down with wonder at the mouse’s tail;” but why do you call it sad?” And she kept puzzling about it while the mouse was speaking, so that her idea of the tale was something like this
Fury said to
a mouse, that
have a trial;
death (L. Carrol)
2. Indicate the type of additional information created by graphon in the following sentences:
1. The stuttering film producer S.S. Sisodia was known as: Whiwhisky because I’m papa partial to a titi tipple; mamadam, my caca card (S. Rushdie).
2. My Daddy’s coming tomorrow on a nairplane (J. D. Salinger).
3. Lookat him go. D’javer see him walk home from school? You’re French Canadian, aintcha (J.Kerouac).
4. Usually she became implacable in defense of her beloved fragment of the coast and if the summer weekenders grew brazen, - getoutofitsillyoldmoo, itsthesoddingbeach, - she would turn the garden hose remorselessly upon them (S. Rushdie)
Lecture No 3
1. Comment on the expressiveness of affixation in the following words:
Weakling, piglet, girlie, kitchenette;
Snobbish, dullish, biggish, mannish (about woman), bluish;
Drunkard, scandal-monger, black-marketeer;
раденький, малюсінькій, білісінький;
пляшечка, плящина, пташечка, пташина;
дідище, попелище, істеричка, котяра, злодюга, директриса;
мудрація, брехологія, наморочитися, окрвтконкомствувати,
Манька, Оришка, обіцяйло, витребеньки, побрехеньки.
2. State the function of the following cases of morphemic foregrounding:
1. Most deputies work two to an office in a space of Dickensian grimness.
2. In a sudden burst of slipping, climbing, jingling, clinking and talking they arrived at the convent door (Ch. Dickens).
3. Three million years ago something had passed this way, had left this unknown and perhaps unknowable symbol of its purpose, and had returned to the planets – or to the stars (A. Cronin).
4. He’s no public offender, bless you, no! He’s medalled and ribboned, and stared and crossed, and I don’t know what all’d, like a born nobleman (Ch. Dickens).
5. He wished she had not looked at him in this new way. For things were changing, something was changing now, this minute, just when he thought they would never change again, just when he found a way to live in that changelessness (R.P. Warren).
6. This is the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps. Its members are called “Neurotics”.
7. But it is impossible that I should give myself. My being, my meness is unique and indivisible ( Angela Carter).
8. І лежить степ агально , як море великий.
9. Село те за гаєм осиково-берестково-дубовим закучерявилося.
10. Заздалегідь, ще вчора їх понапинано, і вони, мов оті пухирі, випинаються серед рябобурхливої юрби (О. Вишня).
3. Reveal the stylistic potential of transposition and distribution of different parts of speech in the following sentences. Indicate any stylistic mistakes that distort the utterance:
1. If you forget to invite somebody’s Aunt Millie, I want to be able to say I had nothing to do with it. There were numerous Aunt Millies because of and in spite of Arthur’s and Edith’s triple cheking of the list (O’Hara).
2. A Forsyte is not an uncommon animal (J. Galsworthy).
3. That wonderful girl! That beauty! That world of wealth and social position she lived in (J. London).
4. Just you go in and win (Waugh).
5. A “drive safe sign”: It’s better to be late, Mr. Motorist, than to be the late, Mr. Motorist.
6. The girl began to intuit what was required of her J. Hawkes).
7. Well, no. And I am sorry about that. I am sorriest about that (J. Steinback)
8. В далекому південному краю живе птаха пелікан (С. Яричевський).
9. Пригадувалася доля каравани, що, томлена спрагою і пражена сонцем, побачить оазу перед собою й, добуваючи останніх сил, біжить туди, щоб переконатися вскора, що це тільки злобна іграшка природи (Б.Лепкий).
10. Де вона тепер – бідолаха (М. Стельмах).
11. Меркурій Юхимович ще щось хотів сказати про царство муз, але в цей час увійшла сторожиха (М. Стельмах).
12. I must say these are fine biscuits! – exclaimed a young husband. How could you say those are fine biscuits?- inquired the young wife’s mother in a private interview. – I didn’t say they were fine, I said I must say so.
13. What would you do if you were in my shoes? – Polish them.
14. Militant feminist grumble that history is exactly what it says – His-story – and not Her-story at all (D. Barthelm).
15. Голові колгоспу негайно направити в міліцію шофера, щоб забрав п’яного молоковоза, який валяється в каптьорці у відділенні міліції.
16. Можу прийняти на квартиру двох заочних жінок.
17. Де ж таки я сяду перед панією? Ми до цього не призвичаєні (М. Кропивницький).
18. Прикріпити постійних учнів до вікон і дверей стежити за їх прибиранням.
19. Майже в одночас вийшло в той день з Асканії двоє (О. Гончар).
20. За вирощування помідорів і інших фруктів бабуся півроку висіла на дошці пошани.
Lecture No 4
1. Word and its meaning from stylistic point of view
2. Stylistic classification of English and Ukrainian vocabulary
3. Special literary vocabulary
1. Define the type of vocabulary in the following sentences:
1. I must decline to pursue this painful discussion. It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings (Ch. Dickens).
2. “He of the iron garment”. Said Daigaty ,entering, “is bounden unto you, McEagh, and this noble lord shall be bounden also (W. Scott).
3. At the noon the hooter and everything died. First the pulley driving the punch and shears and emery wheels stopped its lick and slap. Simultaneously the compressor providing the blast for a dozen smith-fires went dead (S. Chaplin).
4. Жовтень – найдраматичніша пора осені.
Він весь із нерозв’язаних протиріч, із величі й гротеску, з барвистих парадоксів. Місяць жовтень – ця якийсь блискучий, неперевершений афоризм, тільки ж як-бо він майстерно зашифрований! Зашифрований і отими язичницькими павутинками бабиного літа, і закодованими споконвічними перельотами птахів на південь, у теплі краї, і апокаліптичним буйством барв зашифрований, і тривожним безвихідним ревиськом лосів у пущах, і миготливим падінням метеоритів, і нашим стійким, начебто безпричинним смутком … (Є. Гуцало).
5. There wasn’t a man-boy on this ground tonight did not have a shield he cast, riveted or carved himself on his way to his first attack, compounded of rеmote but nonetheless firm and fiery family devotion, flag-blown patriotism and cocksure immortality strengthened by the touchstone of very real gunpowder, ramrod Minnie-ball and flint (R. Bradburry).
6. Гостей у Івана повна хата, газди і газдині. Іван спродав усе, що мав, бо сини з жінкою навжилися до Канади, а старий мусив укінці податися.Спросив Іван ціле село.
Стояв перед гостями, тримав порцію горівки у правій руці, видко, каменів, бо слова не годен був заговорити (В. Стефаник).
7. “Here we are now”, she cried, returning with the tray. “And don’t look so miz” (J.B. Priestley).
8. “How long did they cook you?” Dongeris stopped short and looked at him. “How long did they cook you?”
“Since eight this morning. Over twelve hours”
“You didn’t unbutton then? After twelve hours of it?”
“Me? They got a lot of dancing to do before they’ll get anything out of me” (T. Howard).
9. “Also it will cost him a hundred bucks as a retainer.”
“Huh?” Suspicious again. Stick to basic English.
“Hundred dollars,” I said. “Iron men. Fish. Bucks to the number of one hundred. Me no money, me no come. Savvy? I began to count hundred with both hands (R. Chandler).
10. “Юрфак, - зізналася вона нарешті. – Я приїхала вступати на юрфак.
Уперше в житті він пошкодував, що не є дільничним міліціонером.
- А чому туди? – пошкодував він про театрального інститута… Ви не повірите, але поет уперше пошкодував, що він не мент (Б. Жолдак).
2. Find the appropriate colloquial and/or literary equivalents to the following neutral words. Make up sentences to exemplify their stylistic difference:
Love, to love_______________________________________
Finish, to finish_______________________________________
Start, to start____________________________
3. Translate the following sentences and paraphrase the special vocabulary into neutral:
1. I will lift up my eyes unto the hills from whence commeth my help.
2. This is a classic Burgundy, vintage 1989, with lots of finish.
3. He’s won the lottery and got loads of dosh.
4. The tea-leaves scarpered with all the moolah.
5. She’s got big blue eyes and a nice pair of pins.
6. Overtime emoluments are not available for employees who are not resident.
7. He had a buddy from Brooklyn. Sort of a brainy guy who, however was just crazy about shooting madman stuff. Yeah, a show-offy-looking fella.
8. I have our brochure here setting out our services. Were you thinking of interment or incineration of the deceased?
9. He made out as if he didn’t even hear they gonna give him the axe at the institute.
10. Tell me, thou star? Whose wings of light speed thee in thy fiery flight…
Lecture No 5
1. Define the type of syntactic stylistic device in the following sentences:
1. "If I stand on the bridge and look downstream, I get dizzy; but if I look downstream, I feel as though I am looking up the business end of an avalanche." Annie Dillard
2. "A man desires the satisfaction of his desires; a woman desires the condition of desiring."Pam Houston
3. To err is human, to forgive divine." Alexander Pope
4. "We must remember that the peoples do not belong to the governments, but that the governments belong to the peoples." Bernard Barusch (Speech to the United Nations of controlling atomic energy, june 14, 1946)
5. "Wealth and poverty, guilt and grief, orange and apple, God and Satan; let us settle ourselves and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and the slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance. . . ." Henry David Thoreau
6. "However our eyes may be dazzled with show, or our ears dazzled with sound; however prejudice may warp our wills, or interest darken our understanding, the simple voice of nature and of reason will say it is right." Thomas Paine
7. "They were stiff in their pain; their muscles ached, their bones ached, their very hearts ached; and because of this came the sharpness of speech." Jack London
8. "Together we saw life in all its different aspects and were often in the society of the great, the gifted, the influential, among whom were women beautiful in mind and body." Helen Keller
9. "I hope we may not be too overwhelmed one day by peoples too proud or too lazy or too soft to bend to the earth and pick up the things we eat." John Steinbeck Travels with Charly
10. ". . . in order that they might live, (That is, to keep comfortably warm) and die in New England at last" Henry David Thoreau
11. "His grandfather went out to work a few mornings a week (he was a janitor for the high school) and his uncle Fritz slept in a kind of perpetual sleep in the back room." Joyce Carol Oates
12. "Twice has she condescended to give me her opinion (unasked too) on the subject!" Jane Austen
13. "Men have become the tools of their tools." Henry David Thoreau
14. After buying a hot-buttered yam from a vendor, the narrator replied, "I yam what I yam." Ralph Ellison The Invisible Man
15. "A soul washed and saved is a soul doubly in danger, for everything in the world conspires against such a soul." John Steinbeck
16. "How impious is the title of scared majesty applied to a worm, who in the midst of his splendor is crumbling into dust." Thomas Paine
17. "Like Dave, he asked nothing. gave nothing, expected nothing. . . ." Jack London
18. "Give up money, give up fame, give up science, give up the earth itself and all it contains rather than do an immoral act." Thomas Jefferson
Analyse the structure and form of the following stylistic devices (antithesis, anadiplosis, asyndeton, parallelism, polysendeton, climax, aposiopesis, rhetorical question). Dwell on their content and effect produced.
1. That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. --Neil Armstrong
2. Success makes men proud; failure makes them wise.
3. In order that all men may be taught to speak truth, it is necessary that all likewise should learn to hear it. --Samuel Johnson
4. The scribes and Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; so practice and observe whatever they tell you, but not what they do; for they preach, but do not practice. --Matt. 23:2-3 (RSV)
5. Every man who proposes to grow eminent by learning should carry in his mind, at once, the difficulty of excellence and the force of industry; and remember that fame is not conferred but as the recompense of labor, and that labor, vigorously continued, has not often failed of its reward. --Samuel Johnson
6. Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know,/ Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain . . . . --Philip Sidney
7. They have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns that can hold no water. --Jer. 2:13
8. The question next arises, How much confidence can we put in the people, when the people have elected Joe Doax?
9. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. --John 1:1
10. On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.
11. She likes pickles, olives, raisins, dates, pretzels.
12. They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding.
13. They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, and understanding.
14. If, as is the case, we feel responsibility, are ashamed, are frightened, at transgressing the voice of conscience, this implies that there is One to whom we are responsible, before whom we are ashamed, whose claims upon us we fear. --John Henry Newman
15. In books I find the dead as if they were alive; in books I foresee things to come; in books warlike affairs are set forth; from books come forth the laws of peace. --Richard de Bury
16. We certainly have within us the image of some person, to whom our love and veneration look, in whose smile we find our happiness, for whom we yearn, towards whom we direct our pleadings, in whose anger we are troubled and waste away. --John Henry Newman
17. They read and studied and wrote and drilled. I laughed and played and talked and flunked.
18. The water, like a witch's oils, / Burnt green, and blue, and white. --S. T. Coleridge
19. [He] pursues his way, / And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies. --John Milton
20. And to set forth the right standard, and to train according to it, and to help forward all students towards it according to their various capacities, this I conceive to be the business of a University. --John Henry Newman
21. Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him. --Isaiah 24:1-2 (KJV)
22. The concerto was applauded at the house of Baron von Schnooty, it was praised highly at court, it was voted best concerto of the year by the Academy, it was considered by Mozart the highlight of his career, and it has become known today as the best concerto in the world.
23. At 6:20 a.m. the ground began to heave. Windows rattled; then they broke. Objects started falling from shelves. Water heaters fell from their pedestals, tearing out plumbing. Outside, the road began to break up. Water mains and gas lines were wrenched apart, causing flooding and the danger of explosion. Office buildings began cracking; soon twenty, thirty, forty stories of concrete were diving at the helpless pedestrians panicking below.
24. To have faults is not good, but faults are human. Worse is to have them and not see them. Yet beyond that is to have faults, to see them, and to do nothing about them. But even that seems mild compared to him who knows his faults, and who parades them about and encourages them as though they were virtues.
25. If they use that section of the desert for bombing practice, the rock hunters will--.
26. I've got to make the team or I'll--.
27. But how can we expect to enjoy the scenery when the scenery consists entirely of garish billboards?
28. For if we lose the ability to perceive our faults, what is the good of living on? --Marcus Aurelius
29. Is justice then to be considered merely a word? Or is it whatever results from the bartering between attorneys?
30. Is this the end to which we are reduced? Is the disaster film the highest form of art we can expect from our era? Perhaps we should examine the alternatives presented by independent film maker Joe Blow .
Lecture No 7
Overall stylistic analysis.
Exploring the use of style in literature helps students understand how language conveys mood, images, and meaning. In this activity, students first find examples of specific stylistic devices in sample literary passages. They then search for additional examples and in a whole-group discussion, explore the reasons for the stylistic choices that the author has made. The examples for this lesson include prose abstracts from any literary work.
Review the literary elements in lyric poems. Compare different types of lyric poems and appreciate them from different perspectives. Dwell on the problem how the stylistic techniques used in the poems help illustrate the theme.
o What's the title of the poem? Who is the poet?
o What is described in the poem?
o Who is the speaker (may not be the poet)? What's the tone?
o Give two examples of stylistic devices used in the poem.
o The best line(s)-the most beautiful, or impressive or vivid, etc.
o Give one example of the unusual choice of words. Explain why.
o What emotions are evoked? Use one word to describe the feeling.
I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" by William Wordsworth
I WANDERED lonely as a cloud
Continuous as the stars that shine
The waves beside them danced; but they
For oft, when on my couch I lie
(a)Discuss the following themes: memory, nature (b) identify and analyze the use of personification in the poem
(b)Answer the following questions:
o Describe the scene the speaker suddenly comes upon in his wandering.
o Find two similes in which the comparison is indicated by the word "as". In each simile, what is compared to what? What is suggested by each simile?
o What effect does the scene have on the speakers while he is present? What "wealth" is he later aware of?
o According to the speaker, in what activity do the flowers take part?
o What was the speaker's mood before he saw the daffodils? How do you know?
o Find three examples of personification in the poem. What human characteristics are given to nonhuman things?
o What is the speakers" inward eyes"? Why is it the "bliss of solitude"?
o Of what value to humans are natural scenes as the one presented in the poem?
o Wordsworth once described poetry as "powerful feelings recollected in tranquillity". Explain how this famous phrase relates to "I Wonder Lonely in the Clouds".
"I Hear an Army" by James Joyce
I hear an army charging upon the land,
They cry unto the night their battle-name:
They come shaking in triumph their long, green hair"
(a)Discuss the theme: nightmares
(b)Identify the use of onomatopoeia (imitation of sounds)
(c)Discuss the following questions:
1. How do your moods influence your dreams?
2. Describe the army that the poet hears.
3. What has the speaker's love done to him?
4. Is the army the poet describing real? Explain your answer.
5. How do words like "plunging". "fluttering", "whirling", and "clanging" contributes to the mood of the poem?
6. A famous poet once said that it is easier to write about heartbreak than about happiness in love. Comment on this remark.
" The Sky is Low" by Emily Dickinson
The Sky is low-the Clouds are mean
A Narrow Wind complains all Day
(a)Discuss the theme: nature and human nature
(b)Identify the use of personification in the poem.
(c)Discuss and answer the following questions:
1. Why do you think people so often interpret natural phenomenon terms of human nature?
2. Describe the scene in the poem.
3. What does " mean" suggest about nature?
4. What does "debates" suggest about the movement of the snowflake?
5. What impression of the wind do you get from lines 5-6?
6. Restate in your own words the meaning of lines 7-8.
7. How would you reply to someone who said that this poem is merely a weather report in rhyme?
8. Point out two examples of personification in the poem.
"Women" by Alice Walker
They were women then
(a)Discuss the following themes:
o relations between generations
o social change
(b)Identify and analyze the use of imagery and parallelism in a poem
(c)Discuss and answer the following questions:
1. From what generation do the woman of the poem come?
2. What physical characteristics are given the woman in the first 6 lines?
3. Find three activities of these women. What three things did they discover?
4. What words and images in the poem shoe the strength of the women?
5. Explain the last 5 line of the poem. Why do you think the poet italicized the word "must"?
6. What improvements does the poem imply have taken place from one generation to the next? What has been lost?
7. Explain how sacrifice and hardship can be positive experience.
"maggie and milly and molly and may" by E.E. Cumming
maggie and milly and molly and may
and maggie discovered a shell that sang
milly befriend a stranded star
and molly was chased by a horrible thing
may came home with as mooth round stone
for whatever we lose(like a you or me)
(a)Discuss the following themes:
o the effect of nature
(b)Analyze the total effect of the poem, including the use of alliteration, assonance, and figurative language.
(c)Discuss and answer the following questions:
1. Where did Maggie, Milly, Molly, and May go? Why?
2. What did Maggie find? What effect did it have on her?
3. Describe the item that Milly "befriended".
4. Give two details to describe the thing that chased Molly.
5. What item did May bring home? Explain the only capital letter in the poem.
6. Why do you think the speaker choose not to name the "horrible thing" that chased Molly?
7. Explain the last two lines of the poem.
8. What can we infer about the personality of each girl from what she found in the sea?
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Бєлєхова Л.І. Словесно-поетичний образ в історико-типологічній перспективі: лінгвокогнітивний аспект. – Херсон, 2002.
Безобразова Л.Л. , Степаненко М.І. Проблеми зіставного лінгвостилістичного аналізу. – Полтава, 2003.
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Виноградов В.В. Проблемы русской стилистики. – М., 1981.
Винокур Г.О.. О языке художественной литературы. – М., 2006.
Винокур Т.Г. Закономерности использования стилистических единиц. – М., 1980.
Гальперин И.Р. Текст как об’ект лингвистического исследования. – М., 1981.
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Єфімов Л.П. Стилістика англійської мови. – Вінниця, 2005.
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Мацько Л.І., Сидоренко О.М., Мацько О.М. Стилістика української мови. – К., 2003.
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PROGRESS TEST (SAMPLE 1)
PROGRESS TEST (SAMPLE 2)
MODULE TEST (SAMPLE)
TOTAL 30 POINTS
1. The problem of context in stylistics. Contextual meaning. Tropes: figures of substitution (metaphor, personification, metonymy, epithet, antonomasia, hyperbole, meiosis, litotes, irony)
2. Meaning from a stylistic point of view. Stylistic devices based on the polysemantic effect.
3. Tropes: figures of combination (simile, oxymoron, antithesis, paradox, climax,zeugma and pun).
4. Syntactic stylistic devices based on the reduction of sentence model (nominative sentences, elliptical sentences, break–in-the-narrative, asyndeton).
5. Syntactic stylistic devices based on the extension of sentence model (repetition, enumeration, polysyndeton). Syntactic stylistic devices based on the change of word order (inversion, detachment).
6. Syntactic stylistic devices: parallelism, chiasmus, parceling, attachment. Rhetoric question.
7. Compositional patterns and rhythmical arrangement of a verse. Graphical and phonetic stylistic devices.
Appendix 1. Glossary
Accented verse– a verse where only a number of stresses is taken into consideration. The number of syllables is not constituent, the lines have neither pattern of metrical feet, nor fixed length. There is no notion of stanza and there is no thyme.
Allegory( circumlocution (іносказання), parable (притча)) is another type of metaphor (see metaphor and personification). Allegory unlike metaphor and personification can be understood only within the whole text, i. e. the domain of allegory is not a sentence but the whole literary text or a logically completed narration in which all described things, characters, events have figurative meaning.
Alliteration is the repetition of similar sounds, in particular, consonant sounds, in close succession, usually at the beginning of successive words; a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance.
Antithesis is a figure of contrast that stands close to oxymoron. The major difference between them is structural: oxymoron is realized through a single word combination or a sentence, while antithesis is a confrontation of at least two separate phrases or sentences semantically opposite.The essence of antithesis lies in the intentional emphasizing of two contradictory but logically and emotionally closely connected notions, phenomena, objects, situations, events, ideas, images.
Antonomasia(or renaming – перейменування) is a lexical stylistic device that lies in the interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word. Antonomasia is a kind of metaphor in which the nominal meaning of a proper noun is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning of a common noun acquires the new nominal component.
Apocoinu construction is the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective of the complex sentence that creates the blend of the main and subordinate clause. As a result of this process the predicative or the object of the first clause is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one.
Aposiopesis is an abrupt break off of the narration caused by the speaker’s unwillingness to proceed or his/her disability to speak because of the emotional rush, hesitation, indecision, etc. Aposiopesis is a common feature of colloquial speech. In literary discourse aposiopesis, like ellipsis and one-member sentences, is mostly to be found in dialogues, direct, indirect or represented speech.
з курсу контрастивної стилістики української та англійської мов для студентів 4-го курсу
1. Композиція поетичного тексту, її типи та принципи побудови
2. Стилістика у її відношенні до агально мовознавчих дисциплін
3. Стилістика сприйняття як стилістика декодування. Про застосування теорії інформації до проблем стилістики
4. Текст як предмет дослідження стилістики. Способи аналізу художнього тексту.
5. Використання комп’ютерів у стилістичних дослідженнях
6. Джерела формування стилістичної системи англійської та української мов
7. Поняття індивідуально-авторського стилю
8. Система українського та англійського віршування
9. Поняття «стиль», його визначення та історія дослідження
10. Сонет, поняття, структура, історія розвитку
11. Методи та прийоми стилістичного аналізу
12. Стилістика як галузь мовознавства, історія її становлення і розвитку
13. Слово та його значення в стилістичному аспекті
14. Сленг як стилістичне та соціокультурне явище
15. Неологізми в сучасній українській та англійській мовах, їх стилістична функція в художньому тексті
16. Стилістичне використання синонімів, антонімів та паронімів в українській та англійській мовах
17. Стилістичне використання багатозначності
18. Стилістичний потенціал фразеологізмів
19. Засоби передачі мовлення персонажа в художньому творі
20. Поняття «функціонального стилю»
21. Образ і образність як стилістична проблема
22. Образне використання графіки у сучасній англійській та українській літературах
OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN
OF ENGLISH AND UKRAINIAN