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Appendix 1. Glossary ..44

Appendix 2. .49








Stylistics is one of the rapidly developing branches of Applied Linguistics. It is a linguistic science that investigates the principles of choice and usage of all language units in different communicative situations and effect produced by this choice.Stylistics concentrates on the aesthetic function of language, on the inventory of special language media which secure a desirable effect of the utterance, synonymous way of expressing one and the same idea, the individual manner of an author in making use of language and on a number of other issues.

Stylistics is a complex linguistic science that incorporates different trends and theories. It investigates the stylistic system of the language. It aims to answer the question how language is used and how it functions in different spheres of human creative activity. It exposes the power of language to embody logical, emotional, expressive, imaginary information in various types of oral and written discourses.

Contrastive stylisticsis the type of stylistic analysis that studies and compares the stylistic systems of two or more languages. Its primary tasks are 1) to describe stylistically marked language units of all language levels in different languages; 2) to study stylistic resources of different languages; 3) to compare functional styles and genres of the languages under consideration; 4) to investigate the ways of expressing various stylistic concepts (e.g. humour or satire) or stylistic functions each compared language has in its disposal; 5) to compare individual styles of different authors who created their works in different languages and in different epochs.

Proceeding from the above statement the course in stylistics develops the skills of thoughtful reading, nurtures a refined aesthetic taste, cultivates he profound language knowledge about different technique of expression, increases the ability to write clearly, correctly and in a manner calculated to interest the reader both in English and in Ukrainian.



The primary goal of this discipline is

to make the students converse with the theory of stylistics as a general system of principles and devices to be used by the students independently while interpreting and translating texts that belong to different styles and genres;

to provide the students with the knowledge about the stylistic systems of English and Ukrainian;

to familiarize the students with common and nationally specific stylistic processes and tendencies in the development of the languages under consideration;

to develop the technique of stylistic analysis;

to improve the ability of content analysis through the examination of the character of all language means interrelations within the formal and semantic structure of a certain text.


The course is concerned with both theory and practice. It is also aimed

at nurturing the general knowledge about the ways and procedures of faithful interpreting the concept of a literary work and authors basic ideas

and developing students skills of analytical reading which presupposes the ability to reflect closely on the attitude of the text creator towards the represented reality, disclose the existing implications, comprehend the aesthetic and emotional information inherent in the text.




For the successful course completion

The successful completion of the coursepresupposes:

the attainments of the technique of stylistic analysis, as well as the principles of the formal and semantic organization of a text;

the ability to identify main expressive means and stylistic devices of English and Ukrainian;

the ability to define those language elements that perform a certain stylistic function within the text, to differentiate their type and value in the context, to state the nature of their relation to the other text elements and the whole literary work.



According to the curriculum the duration of the course is one semester. The course consists of:

7 lectures or 28 academic hours (conducted in the form of colloquium, aimed at acquisition, discussion and mastering the bulk of necessary information);

7 seminars or 14 academic hours (practical classes aimed at continuous judging the quality of students work and performance);

students individual task (a kind of creative search aimed at the developing of the technique of stylistic analysis).




Students work assessment during the semester totals 100 points. The general system of assessment involves the current estimate of students course work that includes:

a) students in-class performance assessment (5 points which is an average of all marks obtained during practical classes );

b) students individual work assessment (10 points);

c) marks for a written home assignments ( 15 which is an average of all marks for home assignments);

d) 2 module tests marks that total 70 points ( 30 and 40 points respectively) or final examination test.


The current estimate of students class workis a continuous assessment of students answers at practical classes. During seminars the teacher also gives grades for the practical tasks performance which are designed to check and monitor the process of the basic material acquisition. In order to enhance the students grades the teacher may involve them in preparing reports or essays to be defended during lectures and/or seminars. Thus the current estimate is calculated as a simple average of all marks for the practical classes. Informal assessment also takes place during the course as the performance of students is monitored.



Students Individual Task in Contrastive Stylistics of English and Ukrainian is a kind of creative search aimed at

the developing of the technique of stylistic analysis;

the ability to identify main expressive means and stylistic devices of English and Ukrainian;

the ability to define those language elements that perform a certain stylistic function within the text, to differentiate their type and value in the context.


The task consists in compiling a comprehensive list of stylistic devises of English and Ukrainian. The extracts for analysis

should be taken preferably from ONE LITERARY source (i.e. a story, novel or collection of poems that belong to one author).

and should embrace the maximum of the variegated stylistic phenomena (phonetic, morphological, lexico-semantic and syntactic) both English and Ukrainian.


The students are not restricted in their freedom of choice of the literary work or the writer, but remember that the contemporary literature is not characterized by the extensive use of classical stylistic devices. However, it employs the great number of other stylistic resources of the language such as slang, grammatical transposition, polysemy, graphical imagery, etc.


The optimal number of items included in the list is 15 for English and as many for Ukrainian though the maximum number is not limited.


Each item with the correct definition of the stylistic device is given 2 points.


The task will be awarded 10 extra pointsin case the list includes authentic literary translation of the cited extracts.


Note that the informal assessment of the task performance is also possible.


Task Template

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30. ....................................



Module and final examination tests(see sample tests )are designed to check the learning outcomes and consist of approximately 7-9 tasks based on the in-class, supplement practical and theoretical material. In some cases (when the teacher considers it is necessary) an oral component (speaking or interview) may be included into the structure of final examination test.




Lecture No 1

Practical tasks

1. Define the type of the context in the following examples. How does it influence the underlined lexical units? Describe the effect produced:

a) Once upon a time ago , about last Friday, Winnie the Pooh lived in a forest all by himself under the name of Sanders. What does under the name mean? asked Christopher Robin. It means he has the name over the door in gold letters and lived under it.(A Miln)


c) , ; !; ! To take offence; to have a good time;

d) , , (. )


2. Identify the lexical units (words or/and phrases ) that perform a definite stylistic function in the following texts. Define this stylistic function and speak of any semantic changes these lexical units undergo:

a) If you want to be a great man and leave two thousand pounds a year and a nice clean wife and a kid with real eyes that open and close, youll have to work in your dinner time

Get some cash in the bank and then you can go in for art and be as bad as you like youll still be happy and youll be able to afford a nice little wife and nice little babies and nice little parties, and you get into some nice little society and get a whole lot of nice little compliments from all the other people (J. Cary).

b) Sir Jasper Ffinch-Ffarowmere, Bart., he read.

The name was strange to him. Sir Jasper Finch-Ffarowmere?, said Wilfrid.

Ffinch-Ffarowmere, corrected the visitor, his sensitive ear detecting the capital letters (P.G.Wodehouse).

c) The car went out of the square, along through the side street, out under the trees and down the hill and away from Pampona (E. Hemingway); They took me down behind the line of officers below the road toward a group of people in a field by the river bank (E. Hemingway).

3. Define the type of connotative meaning in the following words:

a) house, abode, dome, cot, crib, hutch, hovel, den, hole;

, , , , , , ;

b) He extricated himself from the bedclothes;

c) Never mind, said the stranger, cutting the address very short, said enough-no more; smart chap that cabman-handled his fives well; but if Id been your friend in the green jemmy-damn me- punch his head-, Cod I would-pigs whisper-pieman too,-no gammon.

This coherent speech was interrupted by the entrance of the Rochester coachman, to announce that(Ch. Dickens).



Lecture No 2

Practical tasks

1. Define the type of graphical & phonetic stylistic devices in the following texts. Indicate the cases in which graphical and phonetic properties of the text influence its semantics:

1. On a December evening just three weeks before Christmas, after an uneasily mild day that had died in a darkening flush of violet twilight, Christie Wilcox came down into Cressley to look for his long-lost friend, Tommy Flynn (St. Barstow).


2. Yes, indeed, hes such a good watch dog (A. Christie).



3. What can any woman mean to a Man in comparison with his Mother? Therefore, it was plain that she was next-of-kin, and that all George possessions, including widows pension, should come to her only (R. Aldington).


4. His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling, faintly through the universe and faintly falling like the descent of their last end, upon the living and the dead (J.Joyce).



5. I found dimpled spider, fat and white,

On a white heal-all, holding up a moth

Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth

Assorted characters of death and blight

Mixed ready to begin the morning right,

Like the ingredients of a witches broth

A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth,

And dead wings carried like a paper kite.


What had that flower to do with being white,

The wayside blue and innocent heal-all?

What brought the kindred spider to that height,

Thet steered the white moth thither in the night?

What but design of darkness to appal?

If a design govern in a thing so small. (R. Frost)


6. Were foot slog slog slogin over Africa

Foot foot foot foot slogin over Africa.

Boots boots boots boots movinup and down again (R. Kipling).


7. white horses and black horses and broun horses and white and black horses and broun and white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tapety-tap over coble stones


8. im


you dear to

what else could a

no but it doesnt

of course but you dont seem

to realize I cant make

it clearer war just isnt what

we imagine but please for gods O

what the hell yea its true that was

but that me isnt me

cant you see now no not

anything but you

must understand

why because

i am

dead (A. Cammings)


9. You promised to tell me your history, you know, said Alice, and why is it you hate

Mine is a long and saf tale! said the mouse, turning to Alice and sighing.

Its a long tail certainly, said Alice looking down with wonder at the mouses tail; but why do you call it sad? And she kept puzzling about it while the mouse was speaking, so that her idea of the tale was something like this


Fury said to

a mouse, that

he met

in the


Let us

both go

to law:

I will



Come, Ill

take no


We must

have a trial;







to do.

Said the

mouse to

the cur,

Such a


dear sir,

With no

jury or


would be


our breath.

Ill be


Ill be




old Fury:

Ill try

the whole






death (L. Carrol)

2. Indicate the type of additional information created by graphon in the following sentences:

1. The stuttering film producer S.S. Sisodia was known as: Whiwhisky because Im papa partial to a titi tipple; mamadam, my caca card (S. Rushdie).


2. My Daddys coming tomorrow on a nairplane (J. D. Salinger).



3. Lookat him go. Djaver see him walk home from school? Youre French Canadian, aintcha (J.Kerouac).


4. Usually she became implacable in defense of her beloved fragment of the coast and if the summer weekenders grew brazen, - getoutofitsillyoldmoo, itsthesoddingbeach, - she would turn the garden hose remorselessly upon them (S. Rushdie)



Lecture No 3

Practical tasks


1. Comment on the expressiveness of affixation in the following words:

Weakling, piglet, girlie, kitchenette;

Snobbish, dullish, biggish, mannish (about woman), bluish;

Dantesque, Shakespearian;

Drunkard, scandal-monger, black-marketeer;

, , ;

, , , ;

, , , , , ;

, , , ,

, ;

, , , , .


2. State the function of the following cases of morphemic foregrounding:

1. Most deputies work two to an office in a space of Dickensian grimness.

2. In a sudden burst of slipping, climbing, jingling, clinking and talking they arrived at the convent door (Ch. Dickens).

3. Three million years ago something had passed this way, had left this unknown and perhaps unknowable symbol of its purpose, and had returned to the planets or to the stars (A. Cronin).

4. Hes no public offender, bless you, no! Hes medalled and ribboned, and stared and crossed, and I dont know what alld, like a born nobleman (Ch. Dickens).

5. He wished she had not looked at him in this new way. For things were changing, something was changing now, this minute, just when he thought they would never change again, just when he found a way to live in that changelessness (R.P. Warren).

6. This is the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps. Its members are called Neurotics.

7. But it is impossible that I should give myself. My being, my meness is unique and indivisible ( Angela Carter).

8. , .

9. -- .

10. , , , , (. ).


3. Reveal the stylistic potential of transposition and distribution of different parts of speech in the following sentences. Indicate any stylistic mistakes that distort the utterance:

1. If you forget to invite somebodys Aunt Millie, I want to be able to say I had nothing to do with it. There were numerous Aunt Millies because of and in spite of Arthurs and Ediths triple cheking of the list (OHara).

2. A Forsyte is not an uncommon animal (J. Galsworthy).

3. That wonderful girl! That beauty! That world of wealth and social position she lived in (J. London).

4. Just you go in and win (Waugh).

5. A drive safe sign: Its better to be late, Mr. Motorist, than to be the late, Mr. Motorist.

6. The girl began to intuit what was required of her J. Hawkes).

7. Well, no. And I am sorry about that. I am sorriest about that (J. Steinback)

8. (. ).

9. , , , , , , , (.).

10. (. ).

11. , (. ).

12. I must say these are fine biscuits! exclaimed a young husband. How could you say those are fine biscuits?- inquired the young wifes mother in a private interview. I didnt say they were fine, I said I must say so.

13. What would you do if you were in my shoes? Polish them.

14. Militant feminist grumble that history is exactly what it says His-story and not Her-story at all (D. Barthelm).

15. , , .

16. .

17. ? (. ).

18. .

19. (. ).

20. .



Lecture No 4

Lexical Stylistics

1. Word and its meaning from stylistic point of view


2. Stylistic classification of English and Ukrainian vocabulary


3. Special literary vocabulary


3.1. Terms

Poetic words

Practical tasks

1. Define the type of vocabulary in the following sentences:

1. I must decline to pursue this painful discussion. It is not pleasant to my feelings; it is repugnant to my feelings (Ch. Dickens).


2. He of the iron garment. Said Daigaty ,entering, is bounden unto you, McEagh, and this noble lord shall be bounden also (W. Scott).



3. At the noon the hooter and everything died. First the pulley driving the punch and shears and emery wheels stopped its lick and slap. Simultaneously the compressor providing the blast for a dozen smith-fires went dead (S. Chaplin).


4. .

³ , , . ̳ , , - ! , , , , , , , (. ).


5. There wasnt a man-boy on this ground tonight did not have a shield he cast, riveted or carved himself on his way to his first attack, compounded of rmote but nonetheless firm and fiery family devotion, flag-blown patriotism and cocksure immortality strengthened by the touchstone of very real gunpowder, ramrod Minnie-ball and flint (R. Bradburry).


6. , . , , , . .

, , , , (. ).


7. Here we are now, she cried, returning with the tray. And dont look so miz (J.B. Priestley).


8. How long did they cook you? Dongeris stopped short and looked at him. How long did they cook you?

Since eight this morning. Over twelve hours

You didnt unbutton then? After twelve hours of it?

Me? They got a lot of dancing to do before theyll get anything out of me (T. Howard).


9. Also it will cost him a hundred bucks as a retainer.

Huh? Suspicious again. Stick to basic English.

Hundred dollars, I said. Iron men. Fish. Bucks to the number of one hundred. Me no money, me no come. Savvy? I began to count hundred with both hands (R. Chandler).


10. , - . .

, .

- ? , , (. ).



2. Find the appropriate colloquial and/or literary equivalents to the following neutral words. Make up sentences to exemplify their stylistic difference:












Child_________________________________________________ Food_________________________________________________










Love, to love_______________________________________

Finish, to finish_______________________________________

Start, to start____________________________

3. Translate the following sentences and paraphrase the special vocabulary into neutral:

1. I will lift up my eyes unto the hills from whence commeth my help.

2. This is a classic Burgundy, vintage 1989, with lots of finish.

3. Hes won the lottery and got loads of dosh.

4. The tea-leaves scarpered with all the moolah.

5. Shes got big blue eyes and a nice pair of pins.

6. Overtime emoluments are not available for employees who are not resident.

7. He had a buddy from Brooklyn. Sort of a brainy guy who, however was just crazy about shooting madman stuff. Yeah, a show-offy-looking fella.

8. I have our brochure here setting out our services. Were you thinking of interment or incineration of the deceased?

9. He made out as if he didnt even hear they gonna give him the axe at the institute.

10. Tell me, thou star? Whose wings of light speed thee in thy fiery flight


Lecture No 5

Stylistic Semasiology.

Practical tasks


1. Define the type of syntactic stylistic device in the following sentences:

1. "If I stand on the bridge and look downstream, I get dizzy; but if I look downstream, I feel as though I am looking up the business end of an avalanche." Annie Dillard

2. "A man desires the satisfaction of his desires; a woman desires the condition of desiring."Pam Houston

3. To err is human, to forgive divine." Alexander Pope

4. "We must remember that the peoples do not belong to the governments, but that the governments belong to the peoples." Bernard Barusch (Speech to the United Nations of controlling atomic energy, june 14, 1946)

5. "Wealth and poverty, guilt and grief, orange and apple, God and Satan; let us settle ourselves and work and wedge our feet downward through the mud and the slush of opinion, and prejudice, and tradition, and delusion, and appearance. . . ." Henry David Thoreau

6. "However our eyes may be dazzled with show, or our ears dazzled with sound; however prejudice may warp our wills, or interest darken our understanding, the simple voice of nature and of reason will say it is right." Thomas Paine

7. "They were stiff in their pain; their muscles ached, their bones ached, their very hearts ached; and because of this came the sharpness of speech." Jack London

8. "Together we saw life in all its different aspects and were often in the society of the great, the gifted, the influential, among whom were women beautiful in mind and body." Helen Keller

9. "I hope we may not be too overwhelmed one day by peoples too proud or too lazy or too soft to bend to the earth and pick up the things we eat." John Steinbeck Travels with Charly

10. ". . . in order that they might live, (That is, to keep comfortably warm) and die in New England at last" Henry David Thoreau

11. "His grandfather went out to work a few mornings a week (he was a janitor for the high school) and his uncle Fritz slept in a kind of perpetual sleep in the back room." Joyce Carol Oates

12. "Twice has she condescended to give me her opinion (unasked too) on the subject!" Jane Austen

13. "Men have become the tools of their tools." Henry David Thoreau

14. After buying a hot-buttered yam from a vendor, the narrator replied, "I yam what I yam." Ralph Ellison The Invisible Man

15. "A soul washed and saved is a soul doubly in danger, for everything in the world conspires against such a soul." John Steinbeck

16. "How impious is the title of scared majesty applied to a worm, who in the midst of his splendor is crumbling into dust." Thomas Paine

17. "Like Dave, he asked nothing. gave nothing, expected nothing. . . ." Jack London

18. "Give up money, give up fame, give up science, give up the earth itself and all it contains rather than do an immoral act." Thomas Jefferson

Analyse the structure and form of the following stylistic devices (antithesis, anadiplosis, asyndeton, parallelism, polysendeton, climax, aposiopesis, rhetorical question). Dwell on their content and effect produced.

1. That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. --Neil Armstrong

2. Success makes men proud; failure makes them wise.

3. In order that all men may be taught to speak truth, it is necessary that all likewise should learn to hear it. --Samuel Johnson

4. The scribes and Pharisees sit on Moses' seat; so practice and observe whatever they tell you, but not what they do; for they preach, but do not practice. --Matt. 23:2-3 (RSV)

5. Every man who proposes to grow eminent by learning should carry in his mind, at once, the difficulty of excellence and the force of industry; and remember that fame is not conferred but as the recompense of labor, and that labor, vigorously continued, has not often failed of its reward. --Samuel Johnson

6. Pleasure might cause her read, reading might make her know,/ Knowledge might pity win, and pity grace obtain . . . . --Philip Sidney

7. They have forsaken me, the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns, broken cisterns that can hold no water. --Jer. 2:13

8. The question next arises, How much confidence can we put in the people, when the people have elected Joe Doax?

9. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. --John 1:1

10. On his return he received medals, honors, treasures, titles, fame.

11. She likes pickles, olives, raisins, dates, pretzels.

12. They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding.

13. They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, and understanding.

14. If, as is the case, we feel responsibility, are ashamed, are frightened, at transgressing the voice of conscience, this implies that there is One to whom we are responsible, before whom we are ashamed, whose claims upon us we fear. --John Henry Newman

15. In books I find the dead as if they were alive; in books I foresee things to come; in books warlike affairs are set forth; from books come forth the laws of peace. --Richard de Bury

16. We certainly have within us the image of some person, to whom our love and veneration look, in whose smile we find our happiness, for whom we yearn, towards whom we direct our pleadings, in whose anger we are troubled and waste away. --John Henry Newman

17. They read and studied and wrote and drilled. I laughed and played and talked and flunked.

18. The water, like a witch's oils, / Burnt green, and blue, and white. --S. T. Coleridge

19. [He] pursues his way, / And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies. --John Milton

20. And to set forth the right standard, and to train according to it, and to help forward all students towards it according to their various capacities, this I conceive to be the business of a University. --John Henry Newman

21. Behold, the Lord maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof. And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him. --Isaiah 24:1-2 (KJV)

22. The concerto was applauded at the house of Baron von Schnooty, it was praised highly at court, it was voted best concerto of the year by the Academy, it was considered by Mozart the highlight of his career, and it has become known today as the best concerto in the world.

23. At 6:20 a.m. the ground began to heave. Windows rattled; then they broke. Objects started falling from shelves. Water heaters fell from their pedestals, tearing out plumbing. Outside, the road began to break up. Water mains and gas lines were wrenched apart, causing flooding and the danger of explosion. Office buildings began cracking; soon twenty, thirty, forty stories of concrete were diving at the helpless pedestrians panicking below.

24. To have faults is not good, but faults are human. Worse is to have them and not see them. Yet beyond that is to have faults, to see them, and to do nothing about them. But even that seems mild compared to him who knows his faults, and who parades them about and encourages them as though they were virtues.

25. If they use that section of the desert for bombing practice, the rock hunters will--.

26. I've got to make the team or I'll--.

27. But how can we expect to enjoy the scenery when the scenery consists entirely of garish billboards?

28. For if we lose the ability to perceive our faults, what is the good of living on? --Marcus Aurelius

29. Is justice then to be considered merely a word? Or is it whatever results from the bartering between attorneys?

30. Is this the end to which we are reduced? Is the disaster film the highest form of art we can expect from our era? Perhaps we should examine the alternatives presented by independent film maker Joe Blow .


Lecture No 7

Practical tasks

Overall stylistic analysis.

Exploring the use of style in literature helps students understand how language conveys mood, images, and meaning. In this activity, students first find examples of specific stylistic devices in sample literary passages. They then search for additional examples and in a whole-group discussion, explore the reasons for the stylistic choices that the author has made. The examples for this lesson include prose abstracts from any literary work.


Review the literary elements in lyric poems. Compare different types of lyric poems and appreciate them from different perspectives. Dwell on the problem how the stylistic techniques used in the poems help illustrate the theme.

General procedures:

o What's the title of the poem? Who is the poet?

o What is described in the poem?

o Who is the speaker (may not be the poet)? What's the tone?

o Give two examples of stylistic devices used in the poem.

o The best line(s)-the most beautiful, or impressive or vivid, etc.

o Give one example of the unusual choice of words. Explain why.

o What emotions are evoked? Use one word to describe the feeling.

Activity 1.

I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" by William Wordsworth

I WANDERED lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills,
When all at once I saw a crowd,
A host, of golden daffodils;
Beside the lake, beneath the trees,
Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.

Continuous as the stars that shine
And twinkle on the milky way,
They stretched in never-ending line
Along the margin of a bay:
10 Ten thousand saw I at a glance,
Tossing their heads in sprightly dance.

The waves beside them danced; but they
Out-did the sparkling waves in glee:
A poet could not but be gay,
In such a jocund company:
I gazed--and gazed--but little thought
What wealth the show to me had brought:

For oft, when on my couch I lie
In vacant or in pensive mood, 20
They flash upon that inward eye
Which is the bliss of solitude;
And then my heart with pleasure fills,
And dances with the daffodils. 1804.

(a)Discuss the following themes: memory, nature (b) identify and analyze the use of personification in the poem

(b)Answer the following questions:

o Describe the scene the speaker suddenly comes upon in his wandering.

o Find two similes in which the comparison is indicated by the word "as". In each simile, what is compared to what? What is suggested by each simile?

o What effect does the scene have on the speakers while he is present? What "wealth" is he later aware of?

o According to the speaker, in what activity do the flowers take part?

o What was the speaker's mood before he saw the daffodils? How do you know?

o Find three examples of personification in the poem. What human characteristics are given to nonhuman things?

o What is the speakers" inward eyes"? Why is it the "bliss of solitude"?

o Of what value to humans are natural scenes as the one presented in the poem?

o Wordsworth once described poetry as "powerful feelings recollected in tranquillity". Explain how this famous phrase relates to "I Wonder Lonely in the Clouds".

Activity 2

"I Hear an Army" by James Joyce

I hear an army charging upon the land,
And the thunder of horses plunging, foam about their
Arrogant, in black armor, behind them stand,
Disdaining the reins, with fluttering whips, the

They cry unto the night their battle-name:
I moan in sleep when I hear afar their whirling
They cleave the gloom of dreams, a blinding flame,
Clanging, clanging upon the heart as upon an anvil.

They come shaking in triumph their long, green hair"
They come out of the sea and run shouting by the
My heart, have you not wisdom thus to despair?
My love, my love, my love, why have you left me alone?

(a)Discuss the theme: nightmares

(b)Identify the use of onomatopoeia (imitation of sounds)

(c)Discuss the following questions:

1. How do your moods influence your dreams?

2. Describe the army that the poet hears.

3. What has the speaker's love done to him?

4. Is the army the poet describing real? Explain your answer.

5. How do words like "plunging". "fluttering", "whirling", and "clanging" contributes to the mood of the poem?

6. A famous poet once said that it is easier to write about heartbreak than about happiness in love. Comment on this remark.

Activity 3.

" The Sky is Low" by Emily Dickinson

The Sky is low-the Clouds are mean
A Traveleling Flake of Snow
Across a Barn or through a Rut
Debates if it will go-

A Narrow Wind complains all Day
How some one treated him.
Nature, like Us is sometimes caught
Without her Diadem.

(a)Discuss the theme: nature and human nature

(b)Identify the use of personification in the poem.

(c)Discuss and answer the following questions:

1. Why do you think people so often interpret natural phenomenon terms of human nature?

2. Describe the scene in the poem.

3. What does " mean" suggest about nature?

4. What does "debates" suggest about the movement of the snowflake?

5. What impression of the wind do you get from lines 5-6?

6. Restate in your own words the meaning of lines 7-8.

7. How would you reply to someone who said that this poem is merely a weather report in rhyme?

8. Point out two examples of personification in the poem.

Activity 5.

"Women" by Alice Walker

They were women then
My mama's generation
Husky of voice- Stout of
With fists as well as
How they battered down
And ironed
Starched white
How they led
Headdragged Generals
Across mined
To discover books
A place for us
How they knew what we
Must know
Without knowing a page
Of it

(a)Discuss the following themes:

o relations between generations

o social change

(b)Identify and analyze the use of imagery and parallelism in a poem

(c)Discuss and answer the following questions:

1. From what generation do the woman of the poem come?

2. What physical characteristics are given the woman in the first 6 lines?

3. Find three activities of these women. What three things did they discover?

4. What words and images in the poem shoe the strength of the women?

5. Explain the last 5 line of the poem. Why do you think the poet italicized the word "must"?

6. What improvements does the poem imply have taken place from one generation to the next? What has been lost?

7. Explain how sacrifice and hardship can be positive experience.

Activity 6.

"maggie and milly and molly and may" by E.E. Cumming

maggie and milly and molly and may
went down to the beach(to play one day)

and maggie discovered a shell that sang
so sweetly she couldn't remember her troubles, and

milly befriend a stranded star
whose rays five languid fingers were;

and molly was chased by a horrible thing
which raced sideways while blowing bubbles and

may came home with as mooth round stone
as small as a world and as large as alone.

for whatever we lose(like a you or me)
it's always ourselves we find in the sea

(a)Discuss the following themes:

o the effect of nature

o self-awareness

(b)Analyze the total effect of the poem, including the use of alliteration, assonance, and figurative language.

(c)Discuss and answer the following questions:

1. Where did Maggie, Milly, Molly, and May go? Why?

2. What did Maggie find? What effect did it have on her?

3. Describe the item that Milly "befriended".

4. Give two details to describe the thing that chased Molly.

5. What item did May bring home? Explain the only capital letter in the poem.

6. Why do you think the speaker choose not to name the "horrible thing" that chased Molly?

7. Explain the last two lines of the poem.

8. What can we infer about the personality of each girl from what she found in the sea?


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1. The problem of context in stylistics. Contextual meaning. Tropes: figures of substitution (metaphor, personification, metonymy, epithet, antonomasia, hyperbole, meiosis, litotes, irony)

2. Meaning from a stylistic point of view. Stylistic devices based on the polysemantic effect.

3. Tropes: figures of combination (simile, oxymoron, antithesis, paradox, climax,zeugma and pun).

4. Syntactic stylistic devices based on the reduction of sentence model (nominative sentences, elliptical sentences, breakin-the-narrative, asyndeton).

5. Syntactic stylistic devices based on the extension of sentence model (repetition, enumeration, polysyndeton). Syntactic stylistic devices based on the change of word order (inversion, detachment).

6. Syntactic stylistic devices: parallelism, chiasmus, parceling, attachment. Rhetoric question.

7. Compositional patterns and rhythmical arrangement of a verse. Graphical and phonetic stylistic devices.


Appendix 1. Glossary


Accented verse a verse where only a number of stresses is taken into consideration. The number of syllables is not constituent, the lines have neither pattern of metrical feet, nor fixed length. There is no notion of stanza and there is no thyme.

Allegory( circumlocution (), parable ()) is another type of metaphor (see metaphor and personification). Allegory unlike metaphor and personification can be understood only within the whole text, i. e. the domain of allegory is not a sentence but the whole literary text or a logically completed narration in which all described things, characters, events have figurative meaning.

Alliteration is the repetition of similar sounds, in particular, consonant sounds, in close succession, usually at the beginning of successive words; a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance.

Antithesis is a figure of contrast that stands close to oxymoron. The major difference between them is structural: oxymoron is realized through a single word combination or a sentence, while antithesis is a confrontation of at least two separate phrases or sentences semantically opposite.The essence of antithesis lies in the intentional emphasizing of two contradictory but logically and emotionally closely connected notions, phenomena, objects, situations, events, ideas, images.

Antonomasia(or renaming ) is a lexical stylistic device that lies in the interplay between the logical and nominal meanings of a word. Antonomasia is a kind of metaphor in which the nominal meaning of a proper noun is suppressed by its logical meaning or the logical meaning of a common noun acquires the new nominal component.

Apocoinu construction is the omission of the pronominal (adverbial) connective of the complex sentence that creates the blend of the main and subordinate clause. As a result of this process the predicative or the object of the first clause is simultaneously used as the subject of the second one.

Aposiopesis is an abrupt break off of the narration caused by the speakers unwillingness to proceed or his/her disability to speak because of the emotional rush, hesitation, indecision, etc. Aposiopesis is a common feature of colloquial speech. In literary discourse aposiopesis, like ellipsis and one-member sentences, is mostly to be found in dialogues, direct, indirect or represented speech.

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