General notes on style and stylistics

1.Stylistics as a brunch of linguistics, its object, subject matter and main tasks of investigations


1.2. General or theoretical stylistics

1.3. Stylistics of language

1.4.Stylistics of speech

1.5.Literary stylistics

1.6.Functional stylistics

1.7.Contrastive stylistics


2. The main categories of stylistics

2.1.The notion of style

2.2.The notion of norm

2.3. The notion of image

2.4. The notion of stylistic function

2.5. The notion of connotation and denotation

2.6.The notion of context


3. Expressive means and stylistic devices


4. Methods of stylistic analysis

Practical tasks

1. Define the type of the context in the following examples. How does it influence the underlined lexical units? Describe the effect produced:

a) Once upon a time ago , about last Friday, Winnie the Pooh lived in a forest all by himself under the name of Sanders. What does under the name mean? asked Christopher Robin. It means he has the name over the door in gold letters and lived under it.(A Miln)


c) , ; !; ! To take offence; to have a good time;

d) , , (. )


2. Identify the lexical units (words or/and phrases ) that perform a definite stylistic function in the following texts. Define this stylistic function and speak of any semantic changes these lexical units undergo:

a) If you want to be a great man and leave two thousand pounds a year and a nice clean wife and a kid with real eyes that open and close, youll have to work in your dinner time

Get some cash in the bank and then you can go in for art and be as bad as you like youll still be happy and youll be able to afford a nice little wife and nice little babies and nice little parties, and you get into some nice little society and get a whole lot of nice little compliments from all the other people (J. Cary).

b) Sir Jasper Ffinch-Ffarowmere, Bart., he read.

The name was strange to him. Sir Jasper Finch-Ffarowmere?, said Wilfrid.

Ffinch-Ffarowmere, corrected the visitor, his sensitive ear detecting the capital letters (P.G.Wodehouse).

c) The car went out of the square, along through the side street, out under the trees and down the hill and away from Pampona (E. Hemingway); They took me down behind the line of officers below the road toward a group of people in a field by the river bank (E. Hemingway).

3. Define the type of connotative meaning in the following words:

a) house, abode, dome, cot, crib, hutch, hovel, den, hole;

, , , , , , ;

b) He extricated himself from the bedclothes;

c) Never mind, said the stranger, cutting the address very short, said enough-no more; smart chap that cabman-handled his fives well; but if Id been your friend in the green jemmy-damn me- punch his head-, Cod I would-pigs whisper-pieman too,-no gammon.

This coherent speech was interrupted by the entrance of the Rochester coachman, to announce that(Ch. Dickens).



Lecture No 2

Contrastive analysis of the phonetic and graphical expressive means and stylistic devices in English and Ukrainian


1. General notes


2. Phonetic means of stylistics



2.2. Alliteration

2.3. Assonance


3. Rhyme


4. Rhythm


5. Graphical expressive means and stylistic devices

Practical tasks

1. Define the type of graphical & phonetic stylistic devices in the following texts. Indicate the cases in which graphical and phonetic properties of the text influence its semantics:

1. On a December evening just three weeks before Christmas, after an uneasily mild day that had died in a darkening flush of violet twilight, Christie Wilcox came down into Cressley to look for his long-lost friend, Tommy Flynn (St. Barstow).


2. Yes, indeed, hes such a good watch dog (A. Christie).



3. What can any woman mean to a Man in comparison with his Mother? Therefore, it was plain that she was next-of-kin, and that all George possessions, including widows pension, should come to her only (R. Aldington).


4. His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling, faintly through the universe and faintly falling like the descent of their last end, upon the living and the dead (J.Joyce).



5. I found dimpled spider, fat and white,

On a white heal-all, holding up a moth

Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth

Assorted characters of death and blight

Mixed ready to begin the morning right,

Like the ingredients of a witches broth

A snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth,

And dead wings carried like a paper kite.


What had that flower to do with being white,

The wayside blue and innocent heal-all?

What brought the kindred spider to that height,

Thet steered the white moth thither in the night?

What but design of darkness to appal?

If a design govern in a thing so small. (R. Frost)


6. Were foot slog slog slogin over Africa

Foot foot foot foot slogin over Africa.

Boots boots boots boots movinup and down again (R. Kipling).


7. white horses and black horses and broun horses and white and black horses and broun and white horses trotted tap-tap-tap tap-tap-tapety-tap over coble stones


8. im


you dear to

what else could a

no but it doesnt

of course but you dont seem

to realize I cant make

it clearer war just isnt what

we imagine but please for gods O

what the hell yea its true that was

but that me isnt me

cant you see now no not

anything but you

must understand

why because

i am

dead (A. Cammings)


9. You promised to tell me your history, you know, said Alice, and why is it you hate

Mine is a long and saf tale! said the mouse, turning to Alice and sighing.

Its a long tail certainly, said Alice looking down with wonder at the mouses tail; but why do you call it sad? And she kept puzzling about it while the mouse was speaking, so that her idea of the tale was something like this


Fury said to

a mouse, that

he met

in the


Let us

both go

to law:

I will



Come, Ill

take no


We must

have a trial;







to do.

Said the

mouse to

the cur,

Such a


dear sir,

With no

jury or


would be


our breath.

Ill be


Ill be




old Fury:

Ill try

the whole






death (L. Carrol)

2. Indicate the type of additional information created by graphon in the following sentences:

1. The stuttering film producer S.S. Sisodia was known as: Whiwhisky because Im papa partial to a titi tipple; mamadam, my caca card (S. Rushdie).


2. My Daddys coming tomorrow on a nairplane (J. D. Salinger).



3. Lookat him go. Djaver see him walk home from school? Youre French Canadian, aintcha (J.Kerouac).


4. Usually she became implacable in defense of her beloved fragment of the coast and if the summer weekenders grew brazen, - getoutofitsillyoldmoo, itsthesoddingbeach, - she would turn the garden hose remorselessly upon them (S. Rushdie)



Lecture No 3

Stylistic resources of English and Ukrainian Grammar

1. Stylistic resources of English and Ukrainian Word-building


1.1. Affixation

1.2. Compounding


2. Morphological Expressive means and stylistic devices


2.1. Stylistic functions of Noun

2.1.1. Transposition of lexico-grammatical classes of nouns as stylistic device

2.1.2. Stylistic devices based on the meaning of the category of number

2.1.3. Stylistic devices based on the meaning of the category of case

2.1.4. Stylistic potential of the category of gender


3. Stylistic functions of English articles


4. Degrees of comparison of adjectives as stylistic device


5. Stylistic functions of pronoun


6. Stylistic functions of Verb


6.1. Stylistic resources of tense and aspect in English and Ukrainian

6.2. Stylistic potential of the category of mood


Practical tasks


1. Comment on the expressiveness of affixation in the following words:

Weakling, piglet, girlie, kitchenette;

Snobbish, dullish, biggish, mannish (about woman), bluish;

Dantesque, Shakespearian;

Drunkard, scandal-monger, black-marketeer;

, , ;

, , , ;

, , , , , ;

, , , ,

, ;

, , , , .


2. State the function of the following cases of morphemic foregrounding:

1. Most deputies work two to an office in a space of Dickensian grimness.

2. In a sudden burst of slipping, climbing, jingling, clinking and talking they arrived at the convent door (Ch. Dickens).

3. Three million years ago something had passed this way, had left this unknown and perhaps unknowable symbol of its purpose, and had returned to the planets or to the stars (A. Cronin).

4. Hes no public offender, bless you, no! Hes medalled and ribboned, and stared and crossed, and I dont know what alld, like a born nobleman (Ch. Dickens).

5. He wished she had not looked at him in this new way. For things were changing, something was changing now, this minute, just when he thought they would never change again, just when he found a way to live in that changelessness (R.P. Warren).

6. This is the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps. Its members are called Neurotics.

7. But it is impossible that I should give myself. My being, my meness is unique and indivisible ( Angela Carter).

8. , .

9. -- .

10. , , , , (. ).


3. Reveal the stylistic potential of transposition and distribution of different parts of speech in the following sentences. Indicate any stylistic mistakes that distort the utterance:

1. If you forget to invite somebodys Aunt Millie, I want to be able to say I had nothing to do with it. There were numerous Aunt Millies because of and in spite of Arthurs and Ediths triple cheking of the list (OHara).

2. A Forsyte is not an uncommon animal (J. Galsworthy).

3. That wonderful girl! That beauty! That world of wealth and social position she lived in (J. London).

4. Just you go in and win (Waugh).

5. A drive safe sign: Its better to be late, Mr. Motorist, than to be the late, Mr. Motorist.

6. The girl began to intuit what was required of her J. Hawkes).

7. Well, no. And I am sorry about that. I am sorriest about that (J. Steinback)

8. (. ).

9. , , , , , , , (.).

10. (. ).

11. , (. ).

12. I must say these are fine biscuits! exclaimed a young husband. How could you say those are fine biscuits?- inquired the young wifes mother in a private interview. I didnt say they were fine, I said I must say so.

13. What would you do if you were in my shoes? Polish them.

14. Militant feminist grumble that history is exactly what it says His-story and not Her-story at all (D. Barthelm).

15. , , .

16. .

17. ? (. ).

18. .

19. (. ).

20. .



Lecture No 4

Lexical Stylistics

1. Word and its meaning from stylistic point of view


2. Stylistic classification of English and Ukrainian vocabulary


3. Special literary vocabulary


3.1. Terms

Poetic words

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