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Lexicology as a branch of linguistics; its tasks and objectives.

Lexicology as a branch of linguistics; its tasks and objectives.

Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, the science of language. The term lexicology is composed of 2Greek morphemes lexic(word)& logos. Thus the literal meaning of the term lexicology is the science of the word. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims & methods of scientific research. Its basic task being a study & systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development & its current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable wordgroups, phraseological units & morphemes which make up words. Distinction is made between general& speciallexicology. General is concerned with the study of vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Special lexicology is the lexicology of a particular language (Germ,Eng)

2Relation of Lexicology to other linguistic fields.L has close ties with oth branches of linguistics as they also take into account approaching them from different angles.There is a relationship btw L and phonetics since it is also concerned with the study of the word, i.e. with the sound form of it. A close connection between L and grammar is conditioned by the ties btw the objects of their study. Even isolated words as presented in a dic bear a definite relation to the gram system of the lang because they belong to some part of speech and conform to some lexicogram characteristics of the wordclass to which they belong. L. is linked with the history of a lang since the latter investigates the changes and the development of the voc of a lang. There is also a close relationship btw L and stylistics. S-cs studies many problems treated in L. These are the problems of meaning, syn and oth issues. L is bound up with sociolinguistics. S-s investigates the extralinguistic or social causes of the changes in the voc of a lang.

 

What is a Word? The Notion of Lexeme.

Word is the principal and basic unit of the language system, the largest on the morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis.It has been universally acknowledged that a great many words have a composite nature and are made up of morphemes, the basic units on the morphemic level, which are defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet language units.

lexeme - A minimal lexical and abstract unit of morphological analysis in linguistics. For example, in the English language, run, runs, ran and running are forms of the same lexeme, conventionally written as RUN.

 

Lexical Fields.Word Families. Word Classes

Lexical field or semantic field is the way of organizing related words and expressions into a system which shows their relationship to one another. For example, father, mother, uncle, and aunt,belong to one lexical field. The words in a semantic field share a common semantic property.

Word Classes - A set of words that display the same formal properties, especially their inflections and distribution. Similar to the more traditional term part of speech.

Word families are groups of words that have a common feature or pattern - they have some of the same combinations of letters in them and a similar sound. For example, at, cat, hat, and fat are a family of words with the "at" sound and letter combination in common.The 37 most common word families in Eng are: ack, ain, ake, ale, all, ame, an, ank, ap, ash, at, ate, aw ay, eat, ell, est, ice.

Definition of the Word. Characteristics of Words.

Word is the principal and basic unit of the lang system, the largest on the morphologic and the smallest on the syntactic plane of linguistic analysis. It has been universally acknowledged that a great many ws have a composite nature and are made up of morphemes. The four types (root, derived ws, compound, shortenings) represent the main structural types of ME ws.According to the number of morphemes ws can be classified into monomorphic and polymorphic. Monomorphic or root-ws consist of only one root-morpheme, e.g. small, dog, make. All polymorphic ws fall into two subgroups: derived ws and compound according to the number of rootmorphemes they have. Derived ws are composed of 1 rootmorpheme and 1 or more derivational morphemes (acceptable, disagreeable) Compound ws are those which contain at least 2 rootmorphemes, the number of derivational morphemes being insignificant. There can be both root and derivational morphemes in compounds as in pen-holder,light-mindedness, or only root-morphemes as in lamp-shade, eye-ball, etc.

Synchronic and Diachronic Study of Vocabulary.

There are two principle approaches in ling science to the study of lang material : synchronic & diachronic . With regard to Special L the synchronic approachis concerned with the voc of a lang as it exists at a given time. Its Special Descriptive L that deals with the voc & voc units of a particular lang at a certain time. The diachronic approach in terms of Special L deals with the changes & development of voc in the coarse of time. It is Special Historical L that deals with the evaluation of the voc units of a lang as the time goes by. The two pproaches are interconnected & interrelated because every ling structure & system exists in a state of constant development so that the synchronic state of a lang system is a result of a long process of ling evaluation , of its historical development .

7 Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic Relations btw Words. Syntagmatics linear (simultaneous) relationship of ws in speech as distinct from associative (non-simultaneous) relationship of ws in lang.Paradigmatics 1) associative relationship of ws in lang as distinct from linear (simultaneous) relationship of ws in speech (syntagmatics); relation of units in absentia (syn, antonymic relations); 2) an approach to lang when the els of its system are regarded as associated units joined by oppositional relationship.Paradigmatic relationships between ling els can be established by use of thesubstitution test at the vertical level. Thus the initial consonants in beer, deer, peer form a paradigmatic class, as well as words such as today and tomorrow in the sentence: She will arrive today/tomorrow. Syntagmatic relationships are defined by the ability of els to be combined horizontally(linearly), the relationship between She will arrive and today. De Saussure called paradigmatic relationships associative relationships, because they represent the relation btw individual els in specific environments with such els in the memory which can potentially replace them. The distinction btw paradigmatic and syntagm relations is relevant to all levels of description; cf. in semantics the paradig semantic relations (such as synonymy and antonymy) vs the synt relations btw lexemes in selectional restrictions

Factors that Contribute to Shifts in Meaning

There are 2 groups of causes of development of new meanings: 1extraling (historical)changes in nation`s social life, culture, technology lead to gaps appearing in the voc which have to be filled. There are such ways of providing new names as 1)Making new ws 2)borrowing foreign ones 3)applying some old w to a new object. E.g carriage: vehicle drawn by horses with the appearance of railways a railway car. 2Ling factors: the development of new meaning&change of meaning may be caused through the influence of oth ws (mostly syn) E.g starve perish, when the verb to die had been borrowed from the Scandinavian these syns collided, as a result to starve acquired its meaning: to die/suffer from hunger.

Lexicology as a branch of linguistics; its tasks and objectives.

Lexicology is a branch of linguistics, the science of language. The term lexicology is composed of 2Greek morphemes lexic(word)& logos. Thus the literal meaning of the term lexicology is the science of the word. Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims & methods of scientific research. Its basic task being a study & systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development & its current use. Lexicology is concerned with words, variable wordgroups, phraseological units & morphemes which make up words. Distinction is made between general& speciallexicology. General is concerned with the study of vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Special lexicology is the lexicology of a particular language (Germ,Eng)

2Relation of Lexicology to other linguistic fields.L has close ties with oth branches of linguistics as they also take into account approaching them from different angles.There is a relationship btw L and phonetics since it is also concerned with the study of the word, i.e. with the sound form of it. A close connection between L and grammar is conditioned by the ties btw the objects of their study. Even isolated words as presented in a dic bear a definite relation to the gram system of the lang because they belong to some part of speech and conform to some lexicogram characteristics of the wordclass to which they belong. L. is linked with the history of a lang since the latter investigates the changes and the development of the voc of a lang. There is also a close relationship btw L and stylistics. S-cs studies many problems treated in L. These are the problems of meaning, syn and oth issues. L is bound up with sociolinguistics. S-s investigates the extralinguistic or social causes of the changes in the voc of a lang.

 

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