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Define the meanings of the following polysemantic units in bold type. Comment on the ways of developing their polysemy. Translate the sentence into Ukrainian.

1. a) Thats all up in the air.Thats the trouble with you. Youre too impractical for words (A. J. Cronin). b) Some were excited because there was scandal in the air(Ch. P. Snow).

2. a) Oh, I wouldnt let you pay me, Professor Alsto! Ill try to get the department to foot the bill(U. Sinclair). b) Never mix your emotions with your duties. It always ends us with your having to foot the bill(S. Heym).

3. a) You dont seem yourself. Youve been overdoing it. Its nothing. She forced a smile. No, youre a bit off colour(A. J. Cronin). b) If I crack anything thats just the least bit off colourI get the razz for fair! (S. Lewis).

4. a) Some poor sods come a cropper,he said, bending to look at the prostrate body (A. Sillitoe). b) He had been involved in a duel between two rival groups of company promoters, and came a cropper(K. S. Prichard).

5. a) He let flyat the cows with a handful of small stones (Longman). b) Youre up against me. Sorry, but there it is! You can let fly(J. Galsworthy).

Group the following phraseological units into synonymous pairs. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

To smooth the ice; safe and sound; the day pigs fly; every day is not Sunday; by a short cut; to catch it hot; to ride Shanks mare; an old salt; thats where the shoe pinches; to turn a blind eye to smth.; to pin smb. to the wall; after a Christmas comes a Lent; to kick up a dust; to come to the wrong shop; such master, such servant; to spoil ones game; in a bee line; to take the wind out of ones sails; on tomorrow come never; to leg it; to drive smb. into a corner; to have ones heart in ones mouth; to paint the lily; after dinner comes the reckoning; a sea dog; to close ones eyes to smth.; alive and hearty; to raise a big smoke; such as a tree is, such is the fruit; to get it in the neck; theres the rub; ones heart sinks into ones boots; if you dance you must pay the fiddler; to bark up a wrong tree.

Choose antonyms to the following phraseological units (use the list in brackets below). Translate these antonymous pairs into Ukrainian.

Milk for babes; Tom Thumb; to know smth. from A to Z; to keep ones chin up; under a bushel; a green hand at smth.; within ones reach; big wigs; as slow as a snail; to keep ones tongue between ones teeth; cold as a fish; not to care a rap for smth.; to be worse than ones word; not to have a penny; to bless oneself with; to be in ones good books; as rich as Croesus; to open a door to smth. (as quick as a Hash; to be in ones bad books; to close the door to smth.; not to know A from B; as poor as a church mouse; to keep ones word; a hard nut to crack; hot as pepper; to wag ones tongue; above board; to hang down ones head; an old hand at smth.; to make much of smth.; above ones reach; small potatoes; to roll in money; long drink of water.)

 

LECTURE 4. WORD-STRUCTURE

Segmentation of Words into Morphemes

Close observation and comparison of words clearly shows that a great many words have a composite nature and are made up of smaller units, each possessing sound-form and meaning. These are generally referred to as morphemes defined as the smallest indivisible two-facet language units. For instance, words like boiler, driller fall into the morphemes boil-, drill- and -erby virtue of the recurrence of the morpheme -erin these and other similar words and of the morphemes boil-and drill-in to boil, a boil, boilingand to drill, a drill, drilling, a drill-press,etc. Likewise, words like flower-potand shoe-laceare segmented into the morphemes flower-, pot-, shoe-and lace- (cf. flower-show, flowerful,etc., shoe-brush, shoeless,etc., on the one hand; and pot-lid, pottery,etc., lace-boots, lacing,etc., on the other).

Like a word a morpheme is a two-facet language unit, an association of a certain meaning with a certain sound-pattern. Unlike a word a morpheme is not an autonomous unit and can occur in speech only as a constituent part of the word.

Morphemes cannot be segmented into smaller units without losing their constitutive essence, i.e. two facetedness association of a certain meaning with a given sound-pattern, cf. the morpheme lace-denoting 'a string or cord put through small holes in shoes'.

Principles of Morphemic Analysis. Types of Word Segmentability

As far as the complexity of the morphemic structure of the word is concerned all English words fall into two large classes. To lass I belong segmentable words, i.e. those allowing of segmentation into morphemes, e.g. agreement, information, fearless, quickly, door-handle,etc. To lass II belong non-segmentable words, i.e. those not allowing of such segmentation, e.g. house, girl, woman, husband,etc.

The operation of breaking a segmentable word into the constituent morphemes is referred to in present day linguistic literature as the analysis of word-structure on the morphemic level. The morphemic analysis aims at splitting a segmentable word into its constituent morphemes - the basic units at this level of word-structure analysis - and at determining their number and types. The degree of morphemic segment - ability is not the same for different words.Three types of morphemic segmentability of words are distinguished: complete, conditional and defective.

Complete segmentability is characteristic of a great many words the morphemic structure of which is transparent enough, as their individual morphemes clearly stand out within the word lending themselves easily to isolation.

Conditional morphemic segmentability characterises words whose segmentation into the constituent morphemes is doubtful for semantic reasons. In words like retain, contain, detainor receive, deceive, conceive, perceivethe sound-clusters [ri-], [di-], [k3n-] seem, on the one hand, to be singled out quite easily due to their recurrence in a number of words, on the other hand, they undoubtedly have nothing in common with the phonetically identical morphemes re-, de-as found in words like rewrite, reorganise, deorganise, decode.

Defective morphemic segmentability is the property of words whose component morphemes seldom or never recur in other words. One of the component morphemes is a unique morpheme in the sense that it does not, as a rule, recur in a different linguistic environment.

A unique morpheme is isolated and understood as meaningful because the constituent morphemes display a more or less clear denotational meaning. There is no doubt that in the nouns streamlet, ringlet, leaflet,etc. the morpheme -lethas the denotational meaning of diminutiveness and is combined with the morphemes stream-, ring-, leaf-,etc. each having a clear denotational meaning. Things are entirely different with the word hamlet.The morpheme -letretains the same meaning of diminutiveness, but the sound-cluster [hæm] that is left after the isolation of the morpheme -letdoes not recur in any other English word with anything like the meaning it has in the word hamlet.

The distinction between complete and conditional segmentability is based on semantic features of morphemes properandpseudo-morphemes.

Classification of Morphemes

Morphemes may be classified:

a) from the semantic point of view;

b) from the structural point of view.

a) Semantically morphemes fall into two classes: root-morphemesandnon-rootoraffixational morphemes. Roots and affixes make two distinct classes of morphemes due to the different roles they play in word-structure. Roots and affixational morphemes are generally easily distinguished and the difference between them is clearly felt as, e.g., in the words helpless, handy, blackness, Londoner, refill,etc.: the root-morphemes help-, hand-, black-, London-, -fillare understood as the lexical centres of the words, as the basic constituent part of a word without which the word is inconceivable.

The root-morpheme is the lexical nucleus of a ward, it has an individual lexical meaning shared by no other morpheme of the language. Besides it may also possess all other types of meaning proper to morphemesexcept the part-of-speech meaning which is not found in roots. The root-morpheme is isolated as the morpheme common to a set of words making up a word-cluster, for example the morpheme teach-in to teach, teacher, teaching, theor-in theory, theorist, theoretical,etc.

Non-root morphemes include inflectional morphemes or inflections and affixational morphemes or affixes. Inflections carry only grammatical meaning and are thus relevant only for the formation of word-forms, whereas affixes are relevant for building various types of stems - the part of a word that remains unchanged throughout its paradigm. Lexicology is concerned only with affixational morphemes.

Affixes are classified into prefixes and suffixes: a prefix precedes the root-morpheme, a suffix follows it. Affixes besides the meaning proper to root-morphemes possess the part-of-speech meaning and a generalised lexical meaning.

b) Structurally morphemes fall into three types: free morphemes, bound morphemes, semi-free (semi-bound) morphemes.

A free morphemeis defined as one that coincides with the stem or a word-form. A great many root-morphemes are free morphemes, for example, the root-morpheme friend-of the noun friendshipis naturally qualified as a free morpheme because it coincides with one of the forms of the noun friend.

A bound morphemeoccurs only as a constituent part of a word. Affixes are, naturally, bound morphemes, for they always make part of a word, e.g. the suffixes -ness, -ship, -ise (-ize),etc., the prefixes un-, dis-, de-,etc.(e.g. readiness, comradeship, to activise; unnatural, to displease, to decipher).

Semi-bound (semi-free) morphemesare morphemes that can function in a morphemic sequence both as an affix and as a free morpheme. For example, the morpheme welland halfon the one hand occur as free morphemes that coincide with the stem and the word-form in utterances like sleep well, half an hour,on the other hand they occur as bound morphemes in words like well-known, half-eaten, half-done.

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