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Form words with the following productive suffixes. State to what part of speech they belong. Give their Ukrainian equivalents.

-dom, -ee, -eer, -er, -ess, -fill, -ics, -ie (-y), -ing, -ism, -ist, -ness, -able, -ible, -an (-ian, -n),-ed, -ish, -less, -like, -ly, -y, -ate, -(i)fy, -ize.

Comment on polysemy and homonymy of affixes in the following words. Translate the words into Ukrainian.

unbearable, untie; degrade, depart, demobilize; dismember, disown; expresident, export, exceed; submarine, subdivision; kingdom, freedom; miner, Londoner, boiler; reading, covering; marriage, postage, breakage, hostage; errant, servant; amazement, abridgement, development; amateur, grandeur; greyish, womanish, Finnish; manly, poorly, monthly; brighten, golden; badly, lovely.

Classify the words in bold type into homographs, homophones and absolute homonyms. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

1. a) Minute by minute, the silence seemed to grow more pregnant with abilities (A. Christie). b) Poirot was busy mopping a grey suit with a minutesponge (Id.). 2. a) The cupped receiver made a biasing sea-sound. Like the sound of distant surf you heard when you held a sea shellover your ear (Ch. Barnard, S. Stander). b) He dropped the gun. Barney picked it up, jacked a shellinto the chamber, an handed the gun back (E. Queen). 3. a) They returned to the barwhere they ordered beer (A. Saxton). b) Joe fumbled in his knapsack and took out a barof chocolate (H. Robbins). 4. a) He raised his mugand John clinked it with his own (M. Bragg). b) I broke my nose playing baseball when I was a kid, Mugger said earnestly. It give me this ugly mug,see... (E. Queen). 5. a) The terrace tiles were already warm under her barefeet (J. Mortimer). b) The bearwas huge. Reared up on its hind legs, it loomed over her... (B. Lowry). 6. a) Then came spring,the great time of travelling (J. Kerouac). b) She was all wound up like a tight spring(H. Robbins).

Comment on the examples of converted words in the sentences below. State to what part of speech they belong and the derivational pattern f conversion.

1.Miss Watkins was a nobody. She was a drifter. No family, no close friends (P. Benchley). 2. He turned his head wearily on the pillow. The nurse shooed us from the room then (H. Robbins). 3. It stood up as they neared my table (Id.). 4. It called Jane in and told her to get all the department heads up into my office... What was the good of being boss if nobody showed up for you to boss? (Id.). 5. George signalled for the check. The waiter brought it and he paid him (Id.). 6. Mr. Murchison had one little eccentricity, which he kept extremely private. It was a mere nothing, a thought, a whim; it seems unfair to mention it (J. Collier). 7. The talk reverted to the subject which had been tabooed before (A. Christie). 8. Seizing the knocker, she executed a deafening rat-a-tat-tat and, in addition, thumped upon the panels of the door (Id.). 9. I heard a miaow behind me, and, turning, saw a lean white cat (H. Wells). 10. He was sweating a little from being down around the engines, and he straightened up and wiped his face with a piece of waste (E. Hemingway).

 

LECTURE 6. WORD-FORMATION. COMPOUNDING

1. Compounding or word-compositionis one of the productive types of word-formation in Modern English. Composition like all other ways of deriving words has its own peculiarities as to the means used, the nature of bases and their distribution,as tothe range of application,the scope of semantic classesand the factors conducive to productivity.

Compounds, as has been mentioned elsewhere, are made up of two ICs which are both derivational bases. Compound words are inseparable vocabulary units. They are formally and semantically dependent on the constituent bases and the semantic relations between them which mirror the relations between the motivating units. The ICs of compound words represent bases of all three structural types. The bases built on stems may be of different degree of complexity as, e.g., week-end, office-management, postage-stamp, aircraft-carrier, fancy-dress-maker,etc.

Structure

Compound words like all other inseparable vocabulary units take shape in a definite system of grammatical forms, syntactic and semantic features. Compounds, on the one hand, are generally clearly distinguished from and often opposed to free word-groups, on the other hand they lie astride the border-line between words and word-groups and display close ties and correlation with the system of free word-groups. The structural inseparability of compound words finds expression in the unity of their specific distributional pattern and specific stress and spelling pattern.

Structurally compound words are characterised by the specific order and arrangement in which bases follow one another. The order in which the two bases are placed within a compound is rigidly fixed in Modern English and itis the second IC that makes the head-member of the word, i.e. its structural and semantic centre. The head-member is of basic importance as it preconditions both the lexico-grammatical and semantic features of the first component.

Phnetiall compounds are also marked by a specific structure of their own. No phonemic changes of bases occur in composition but the compound word acquires a new stress pattern, different from the stress in the motivating words, for example words keyand hole or hotand houseeach possess their own stress but when the stems of these words are brought together to make up a new compound word, keyhole - a hole in a lock into which a key fits, or hot-house - a heated building for growing delicate plants, the latter is given a different stress pattern - a unity stress on the first component in our case. Compound words have three stress patterns:

a) a high or unity stress on the first component as in honeymoon, doorway,etc.

b) a double stress, with a primary stress on the first component and aweaker, secondary stress on the second component, e.g. ´blood-`vessel, ´mad-`doctor - a psychiatrist, ´washing-ma`chine, etc. These two stress patterns are the commonest among compound words and in many cases they acquire a contrasting force distinguishing compound words from word-groups.

c) It is not infrequent, however, for both ICs to have level stress as in, e.g., arm-'chair, icy-'cold, grass-'green,etc.

Graphicallymost compounds have two types of spelling - they are spelt either solidly or with a hyphen. Both types of spelling when accompanied by structural and phonetic peculiarities serve as a sufficient indication of inseparability of compound words in contradistinction to phrases. It is true that hyphenated spelling by itself may be sometimes misleading, as it may be used in word-groups to emphasise their phraseological character as in e.g. daughter-in-law, man-of-war, brother-in-armsor in longer combinations of words to indicate the semantic unity of a string of words used attributively as, e.g., I-know-what-you're-going-to-say expression, we-are-in-the-know jargon, the young-must-be-right attitude.

For example, the words war-path, war-time, money-lenderare spelt both with a hyphen and solidly; blood-poisoning, money-order, wave-length, war-ship with a hyphen and with a break; underfoot, insofar, underhand solidly and with a break. It is noteworthy that new compounds of this type tend to solid or hyphenated spelling.

Meaning

Semantically compound words are generally motivated units. The meaning of the compound is first of all derived from the combined lexical meanings of its components. The semantic peculiarity of the derivational bases and the semantic difference between the base and the stem on which the latter is built is most obvious in compound words. Compound words with a common second or first component can serve as illustrations. The stem of the word boardis polysemantic and its multiple meanings serve as different derivational bases, each with its own selective range for the semantic features of the other component, each forming a separate set of compound words, based on specific derivative relations. Thus the base boardmeaning a flat piece of wood square or oblong makes a set of compounds chess-board, notice-board, key-board, diving-board, foot-board, sign-board;compounds paste-board, carboardare built on the base meaning thick, stiff paper; the base board-meaning an authorised body of men, forms compounds school-board, board-room.

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