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ANCIENT MECHANICAL PUPPETS AS ROBOTS

Japan's first robot (i.e., automatic device) was invented many centuries ago. In a collection of stories written in the early 12th century, called Konjaku Monogatari Shu, we can read about a device made by Kaya-no-Miko. The device poured water into paddy fields during dry periods of the year. Actually, this "robot" did not do the pumping -peasants would pour water into its bowl, and when the bowl reached a certain weight the "robot" would move, tipping the water into the field. This mechanical fellow provided an opportunity for peasants to have fun competing with each other while irrigating their fields.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, robot-like puppets called karakuri-ningyo developed to a remarkably high technological level, all for the sake of amusement.

These "robots" also performed on floats during folk festivals. Even today, you can see them at the Takayama Festival in Takayama, Gifu Prefecture. It is interesting to note here that, according to an oldsuperstition, the puppets moved because a god or spirit had entered them, and this human-like movement showed that they were even more quick-witted than people were.

The first true robot was developed in Japan in 1927, using Western technology. He could smile, flutter his eyes, and write. His name was Gautensoku, which means, "learning from divine reason". Here, too, we see how robots were thought to have a superhuman potential for quick thinking.

Exercise 8 Are these sentences True or False

1. The first robot in Japan was used to irrigate the fields.

2. Nowadays robot-like puppets are not used in Japan.

3. The robots moved because a spirit had entered them.

4. In 1945 Japan gave many technological ideas to the USA.

5. All the robots are cold and impersonal.

6. People were afraid that robots could harm them.

Exercise 10 Find in the text underlined words and match them with the definition below

personal opinion

work together, produce an effect on each other

a thing specially favoured thought out

a belie above others

an instrument that is cleverly f which is based on association of ideas

enjoyment Listen to the text again and cross the numerals the speaker doesn't use.

May, 11,1999

5,000; 1899; June 1; 1999; 3000; 20; 40; 2,000; 10,000; 14; 13,000; February, 2000;

30,000; 50,000; 1970; 1980; 1990.

V. Ү

Exercise 7 :

3 11 September 8,13

қң қ: Recycling

қң қ: қң қ қ .

қ ә: ұқ-

ө: қ

қ :

III. Ұ

) greeting

) conversation

II. қ қ ғ қ.

III.

ARTICLES

13. Complete this true story. Put in a/an or the.

Remember!

When the story first mentions something the noun has a/an.

A girl booked into anold hotel.

These phrases are new information. We don't know which girl or which hotel. But when the same thing is mentioned again, the noun has the. The girl didn't like thehotel. These phrases are old information. Now we know which girl and which hotel. They were mentioned earlier. We usethewhen it's clear which one
we are talking man was spending month in foreign country. He booked in hotel in beautiful old town. Then he went out to walk around town. But man couldn't return to hotel he got lost. When he was walking around he noticed post -office. He had nice idea!!! He entered post office and made telephone call to his wife. He learnt from his wife name of hotel. Luckily, he had sent telegram writing the full address of place he was staying!

Exercise 15. Report the following statements and questions

1. "I love milk" said Talgat.

2. "Do you grow vegetables, Jane?" Julia asked.

3. "We are having a party tomorrow" he said.

4. "What are you thinking about?" Mary asked me.

5. "Kuralai went to France, she took her daughter with her" she said.

6. "Have you tidied your room?" the father asked.

7. "I don't think you'll be there long" he said.

h) "Where did you leave your umbrella?" Jim asked Peter.

Remember!

*In Reported statement the verb form moves one tense back.

I'm reading. He said he was reading.

She's gone. He said she had gone.

She went to Europe He said she had gone to Europe.

The Past Simple and the Present Perfect both change to the Past Perfect.

*ln Reported questions the word order is not the same as in Direct questions.

"What are you doing?" He asked me what I was doing.

*ln Reported questions the rule is also one tense back. If there is no question word, "IF" is used in general questions.

Did you see Ann? He asked me if I had seen Ann.

Ү : қ қ

ғ. :

 

 

қң қ: The first flight.

қң қ: қң ө қ

, ң ә ұ

ң ү ә

қң ә ә ө-ө

.

қә: ұқ-

қ : ң ң

ө: қ

ә қ :

 

қ :

IV. Ұ

)

) қ

II. қң қ, қ .

Our theme in our lesson is The first flight..

III. ң қ

Exercise 1 Work in pairs and discuss what the words given below mean.

The earth , hot-air balloon, birds .envy-қғ , gasses, basket, balloon

Exercise 4 . Read the text "How a Balloon Flies" and find answers to the questions given
above.

A balloon flies because the widely separated molecules of a thin gas such as hydrogen or helium, or of the heated air that expands inside the bag, are less dense and thus lighter than those of the air outside the bag. In attempting to rise or escape from its confinement(қ), thebuoyant(ққғ) lightweight gas or heated air lifts the balloon along with it.

Normally, when something soars([so:]ққ) skyward, it does so by virtue(ү[vә:tju:]) of its aerodynamic design. Like an airplane, it is lifted by the effect of outside forces, usually wind, upon its surface. It does not soar because it is lighter than the surrounding atmosphere. Even afeature() in the breeze is an aerodynamic form. It flies solely ( қ) by the force of air currents playing upon it. If the breeze stops, the feather(қ) slowly floats to earth.

On the other hand, a balloon's buoyancy is static, not dependent on a dynamic force such as wind or motor. A balloon rises because it is filled with gas or heated air that is thinner indensity(ғқ) and thus lighter in weight than the surrounding atmosphere.

Because of this static, or self-sustaining(ұ ұ) lift, a balloon is sometimes called anaerostat, and the science of ballooning, aerostation. Balloonists also may be called aeronauts, from the Greek words aero (of the air) and nautes (sailor).

IV. қ

Exercise 3 Answer the questions

How does a balloon fly?

What is it filled with?

Who are aeronauts?

Who are balloonists?

V.

5. Exercise 6 Guess the meanings of the underlined words in the sentences taken from the text.

a) heated air lifts the balloon along with it.

b) it is lifted by the effect of outside forces usually wind

3. If the breeze stops, the feather slowly floats to the earth.

4. The pilot may be referred to as an aeronaut or a balloonist.

 

VI. Ү

Exercise 7

5 11 September 15,20

қң қ: The first flight.

қң қ: қң ө қ

, ң ә ұ

ң ү ә

қң ә ә ө-ө

.

қә: ұқ-Test yorself

қ : ң ңTest yorself

ө: қ

ә қ :

 

қ :

V. Ұ

)

) қ

II. қң қ, қ .

Our theme in our lesson is The first flight

III. ң қ

Vocabulary

To sound, strange, ghost, absolutely, to terrify, whole, half, to feel, extremely, argument, angry,suddenly

V. Ex14 p19

VI. Ү

Exercise 15 p 20

 

6 11 September 21

қң қ: The first flight.

қң қ: қң ө қ

, ң ә ұ

ң ү ә

қң ә ә ө-ө

.

қә: ұқ-

қ : ң ң

ө: қ

ә қ :

 

қ :

VI. Ұ

)

) қ

II. қң қ, қ .

Our theme in our lesson is The first flight..

III. ң қ

Exercise 1 Work in pairs and discuss what the words given below mean.

The earth , hot-air balloon, birds .envy ,tragic, gasses, basket, balloon

Exercise 4 . Read the text "How a Balloon Flies" and find answers to the questions given
above.

A balloon flies because the widely separated molecules of a thin gas such as hydrogen or helium, or of the heated air that expands inside the bag, are less dense and thus lighter than those of the air outside the bag. In attempting to rise or escape from its confinement, the buoyant lightweight gas or heated air lifts the balloon along with it.

Normally, when something soars skyward, it does so by virtue of its aerodynamic design. Like an airplane, it is lifted by the effect of outside forces, usually wind, upon its surface. It does not soar because it is lighter than the surrounding atmosphere. Even a feature in the breeze is an aerodynamic form. It flies solely by the force of air currents playing upon it. If the breeze stops, the feather slowly floats to earth.

On the other hand, a balloon's buoyancy is static, not dependent on a dynamic force such as wind or motor. A balloon rises because it is filled with gas or heated air that is thinner in density and thus lighter in weight than the surrounding atmosphere.

Because of this static, or self-sustaining lift, a balloon is sometimes called an aerostat, and the science of ballooning, aerostation. Balloonists also may be called aeronauts, from the Greek wordsaero (of the air) and nautes (sailor).

IV. қ

Exercise 3 Answer the questions

How does a balloon fly?

What is it filled with?

Who are aeronauts?

Who are balloonists?

V.

5. Exercise 6 Guess the meanings of the underlined words in the sentences taken from the text.

a) heated air lifts the balloon along with it.

b) it is lifted by the effect of outside forces usually wind

3. If the breeze stops, the feather slowly floats to the earth.

4. The pilot may be referred to as an aeronaut or a balloonist.

 

VI. Ү

Exercise 7

September 22,27

7 11

қң қ: Television

қң қ: қң ө

қ , ң ә

ұ

ң ү ә

қң ә ә ө-ө

.

қә: ұқ-

қ : ң ң

ө: қ

ә қ :

 

қ :

I. Ұ

)

) қ

II. қң қ, қ .

Our theme in our lesson is Television.

III. ң қ

ә

Who Invented Television?

A Scotsman, John Baird, invented the first TV in 1926, but his system could not broadcast1 sound and image at the same time. To get around this problem, he first showed a televised 2 picture of Gracie Fields, a famous singer, and then he played her voice 3 without the image. Baird also demonstrated the first colour television in Britain in 1928. But it was Vladimir Zworykin, a Russian engineer living in the United States, who invented modern television technology. Zworykin built a TV camera that broke down a picture into thousands of light cells that could be transmitted 5 on a radio wave 6; thistechnology is used worldwide today.

ө

1 broadcast ['bro:dkast] ; 2 televise ['telivaiz] ; 3 voice ; 4 cell , ; 5 transmit [,tranz'mit] , ; 6 wave .

IV. қ

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