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TELEPHONING. POST OFFICE. INTERNET

1. . :

1. modern

2. to telephone = to phone

3. means of communication

4. to make a phone call

5. apartment

6. city phone number

7. digit

8. area code

9. inside

10. cellular service

11. phone card

12. to pass a message

13. to receive a message

14. to dial a number

15. charge

16. to be free

17. to cost

18. to be fixed

19. commonly

20. long tone

21. to place a call

22. landline phone

23. long distance call

24. phone box

25. to deposit

26. beeping signal

27. constant tone

28. to book a call

29. a caller ,

30. the line is engaged

31. the line is free

32. to answer the call

33. taxophone

34. telephone directory

35. to connect

36. extension

37.to hang up

2. . .

TELEPHONING

Telephoning is one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization. The modern telephoning is characterized by a high degree of automation. The telephone is necessary means of communication in everyday life. It is also for professionals in business, commerce and administration who need to make and answer phone calls.

Almost every apartment in Russia has a telephone number. The city phone number itself usually has from 5 to 7 digits. All countries, regions and cities have their code; it is called an area code.

If for instance, you want to telephone your friend inside any Russian city, you should dial the phone number without any codes. Normally, all phone calls inside the city are free or cost very little. The charges are commonly covered by a regular fixed flat monthly payment.

If you make a phone call from Russia to any Russian city, you should dial 8, wait for a long tone, and then dial a phone number itself.

If you want to make a phone call from Russia to abroad, you should dial 8, wait for a long tone, then dial 10 (international access), then dial the code of the country you are phoning to, then dial the code of the city you are phoning to and then the city phone number. (8 10 33 62 237 65 36). Calls from the landline phone, usually have different rates at different time of a day. Usually a call costs cheaper if you call before 08:00 or after 20:00 on weekdays, or anytime at weekends.

To place a call from your home phone, you can do also with a phone card. All instructions how to make a call you can find on the card.

And one more variant to make a long-distance call it is to ask the operator to connect you.

Besides the landline phones, there are the telephones in public places. They are phone boxes or pay phones. To place a call, you have to deposit a phone card into the slot and dial the number you wish to reach.

All over the world there is a cellular service. It was designed to keep people in touch, not just in the area, but throughout the world or the region. It is very convenient. You can pass or receive a message. Besides, you may also do some photos, listen to music, use the Internet and gain any information.

There is also a video telephone in the world. You can speak over the telephone and see a person who you speak with.

Exercises

1. .

1. What is the telephoning?

2. How many digits has a city phone number?

3. How can you make a call inside Russia?

4. How can you make a call from Russia to abroad?

5. What kinds of rates has the landline phone?

6. How can you make a call from pay phones or from phone boxes?

7. What are the advantages of cellular service?

2 . . .

1. Youve got the wrong number. .

2. Sorry to have troubled you. o.

3. You are wanted on the phone. .

4. Hold the line. .

5. Can I speak to.. ? . ?

6. Which number do you have? ?

7. Put me through to the Manager. .

8. Can you hold? ?

9. Can you ring me back? ?

10. May I take a message? - ?

11. Could you speak more slowly, please? ,

.

12. It is a very bad line. .

13. Who would you like to speak to? ?

14. We were cut off. .

15. This is Mrs. Krause speaking. .

16. Speaking. .

17. Speak louder. .

18. Ill call back later. .

1. . :

1. gadget, device ,

2. network

3. provider

4. coverage

5. to offer

6. quite similar

7. incoming call

8. outcoming call

9. additional

10. voice mail

11. number identification

12. call diverting

13. free of charge

14. access

15. cellphone

16. facility

17. to download

18. additional

19. to explore ,

20. accessory

21. mobile cover

22.guarantee

2 . . .

MOBILE PHONES

Now there are various means of communications but mobile phones are considered the easiest, fastest and one of the cheapest means of communicating. There are many mobile phone gadgets brands available in the market. Some of them are the Nokia, Samsung, LG, Motorola and many others.

There are as well three major mobile network providers in Russia: MTS, BeeLine, and Megafon. The prices, coverage and the service offered by these operators are quite similar.

The pricing system in Russia for cellular services is the following: you should pay for all outcoming calls, outcoming text messages, and additional services, such as voice mail, number identification, call diverting, etc. All incoming calls and messages are free of charge. The price of the phone call depends on where you are calling from and where you are calling to. So if you are traveling with your own cellphone and SIM-card, you will be able to use it, if your provider has roaming agreement with one of the local mobile operators.

We are now, what we call, in the age of communications. We choose the mobile phone gadgets for communicating and also for other purposes like listening to music, playing games, Internet access, sending texts, etc. So mobile phones are used for several reasons. Other features include the camera, video, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, infrared port, etc. In a single gadget we use all these features which we need all the day. We dont need a separate music player or a gaming device. Mobile phones have it all.

There are many new mobile phones which also have Internet facility for sending e-mails or downloading any music files and playing online games. Many phones are now coming with this additional service, namely GPS, which has maps of about 150 countries which can be explored by you. These days mobile phones have many accessories like the Bluetooth, earphones, headphones, mobile covers and so on.

Today there is a wide choice of the mobile phone gadgets and if you want to buy one, it is better to go to a specialized shop, where you can buy phone with all accessories and get a guarantee.

2. .

1. What brand of a mobile phone do you have?

2. What kind of cellular operator do you use?

3. Whom do you usually call?

4. How long do you usually speak over the telephone?

5. For what purposes do you use your mobile phone?

6.How much do you usually pay for your phone monthly?

3. . :

1. Ill ring you up tomorrow, just at about the same time.

2. A frequent signal showed that the number was engaged.

3. I was mistaken when I had phoned my friend.

4. Wait a minute, dont hang up.

5. Has anybody phoned today and asked you to tell me anything?

6. When I was speaking over the phone I was suddenly disengaged.

Dialogues

1. Telephoning :

Dialogue 1

A: - Good afternoon, Fowlers, can I help you?

B: - Extension 237 please.

A: - Im sorry, the line is busy, will you hold?

B: - Yes, Ill hold.

.

A: - Im putting you through.

C: - Marketing, Harry Webb speaking.

A: - Could I speak to George Garrison, please?

C: - Im sorry; he is at a meeting now.

A: - Do you know when hell be back?

C: - He should be back around four. Can I take a message?

A: - Yes, please ask him to call David Jones on 629 3478.

C: - Ok, Ill see he gets your message.

Dialogue 2

O: - Hello, Frank and Brothers. How can I help you?

P: - This is Peter Jackson. Can I have extension 3421?

O: - Certainly, hold on a minute, Ill put you through

F: - Bob Petersons office, Frank speaking.

P: - This is Peter Jackson calling, is Bob in?

F: - Im afraid hes out at the moment. Can I take message?

P: - Yes, Could you ask him to call me. I need to talk to him, it is urgent.

F: - Could you remind the number please?

P: - Yes, thats 456 7865 and this is Peter Jackson.

F: - Thank you Mr. Jackson, Ill make sure Bob gets it.

P: - Thanks, bye.

F: - Bye.

2. :

  1. .
  2. .
  3. .
  4. .
  5. .
  6. .
  7. .
  8. ?
  9. , .
  10. 891.
  11. ?

1. :

Model: In this case Ill say.

What will you say:

1. if youve got the wrong number?

2. if somebody has dialed your number by mistake?

3. to a person making a call wants to speak to somebody else, not to you?

4. to a person who answers your call?

5. if somebody is interested to know who you are?

2. :

1.

Hello, can I speak to Mr. Black?

Mr. Black, you are wanted on the phone.

2.

Hello, my name is Steve Johnson. Could I speak to Miss Maxwell?

Sorry, Miss Maxwell isnt available. She wont be back till 3 oclock.

3.

Is this 890165?

No, youve got the wrong number.

POST SERVICE

1. . :

1. post, mail

2. communication

3. to carry out

4. transfer

5. correspondence

6. periodicals

7. remittance

8. parcel posts

9. to post ,

10. letter

11. post card

12. pillar-box

13. to empty

14. operations handled

15. Air Mail

16. registered letters

17. post restante

18. money order

19. envelop

20. value

21. letter-box

22. delivery

23. receipt

24. to trace

25. charge

26. urgent

27. to maintain

28. to pick up

29. to handle

30. package

31. amount

32. weight

33. to insure

34. to be double sure

35. packing service

36. to fill in

37. to check up

38. to hand

39. to subscribe to -

40. P.O. box

41. expensive

42. bill

43. e-mail

44. postage

2. . .

POST SERVICE

Post communication or mail is a kind of communication which carries our regular transfer of items of mail the written correspondence, periodicals, remittances, parcel posts.

In the post office there is a number of windows with a sign showing the operations handled. You can buy here all kinds of stamps, post cards, and envelops.

There are post offices in every town and nearly every village in the country. If you want to post an ordinary letter or a post card, you need not go to the post office; you can drop it into the nearest pillar-box. Pillar-boxes are emptied twice a day. If you want to send a telegram, you can either take it to the nearest post-office or dictate it over the telephone.

When sending a letter of special value, you should have it registered. Registered letters are not left with the ordinary mail in the letter-box, but delivered personally. The sender is given a receipt at the post office, so he can always trace the letter. Of course, there is a special charge for this service.

At the post-office we can send all kinds of telegrams: photo-telegrams, express-telegrams, ordinary and urgent telegrams. You can subscribe to different newspapers and magazines at the window Printed matter. At the post office, there are also P.O. boxes. P.O. box means a post office box, it is a numbered box to which someones mail can be sent.

The Post Restate window keeps mail until called for. The post-office maintains this service for those who prefer to pick up the mail in person.

The window marked Parcel Post handles all parcels or packages. The amount you have to pay depends on the weight of the parcel. You must not forget to insure your parcel if you have got something valuable in it. The larger post offices maintain a wrapping and packing services.

Atthe Money Order window we can send the money. If a remittance is received to our name we can get the money there. We are given a printed form to fill in. The clerk asks for our passport, checks it up with the filled printed form, returns the passport and hands us the money.

At some post-offices there is a special window where you may pay bills for your telephone, gas and electricity.

Today, besides the ordinary post service we have the express mail delivery services, such as DHL, FedEx. These services can deliver your letter or parcel during 1-3 days to any part of the world. Of course such kind of service is more expensive than ordinary post service.

And finally, with the development of new technologies a new type of mail e-mail has appeared. Nowadays people use it wider for personal and professional use than any other kind of service.

Exercises

1. .

1. What kinds of service does the post communication carry out?

2. Do you need to go to the post-office, if you want to send a letter?

3. What can you buy at the post-office?

4. What are the windows at the post-office?

5. What is the difference between the ordinary letter and registered letter?

6. How can you get the remittance?

7. What is a P.O. box?

8. Where may you pay your telephone, gas and electricity bills?

9.What do you know about the e-mail?

2. :

1. , , .

2. .

3. .

1. .

2. , .

4. , .

5. , .

6. , , .

7. .

8. ?

Dialogues

1. :

Dialogue 1

R: -I would like to send this letter to Japan by airmail, how much is the charge?

G: - It is $1.2. Do you need extra stamps?

R: - I do, Ive been also expecting a package from New-York. Here is my identity card and the receipt.

G: - Would you mind signing this form? Here is the package.

R: - Finally, I would like to send this registered letter to London.

G: - Please fill in the complete address in capital letters.

Dialogue 2

G: -Ive got a telegram to send. Please give me a message form.

C: - Here you are, sir. Please write legibly, and make out the address and the addressers name in block capitals.

G: - Ok. Ill.

C: - Shall it be ordinary, urgent or express, sir?

G: - Oh, lets have it urgent. Whats the charge?

C: - Let me see Itll be ninety pence.

2. :

A.You dont know at what counter of the post office you can do one or another thing. Ask for help.

You want:

a) to send a parcel

b) to cash a money order

c) to send a telegram

d) to subscribe to newspapers

Model: Excuse me, where can I get a form for a money order?

B. You are going to send something. Ask what the postage is.

You are sending:

a) a registered letter to France

a)two albums by book-post to London

b) a parcel insured to Japan

c)an ordinary letter to New York

Model: Id like to send a letter to England by air mail. Whats the postage on it, please?

1. . :

1. source

2. access

3. global ,

4. network

5. embrace

6. military

7. to design ,

8. to survive ,

9. nuclear

10. path

11. available

12. host ,

13. rest

14. to locate

15. to count ,

16. fairly

17. accurately

18. to grow p

19. worldwide

20. user ,

21. message

22. fast

23. easy

24. to save ,

25. to receive

26. to leave

27. desktop

28. reliable

29. cheap

30. to increase

31. to conduct ,

32. transaction ,

33.beforehand

2. . .

THE INTERNET

The Internet gives access to a lot of information. It is possible to find data and descriptions, chapters from necessary books, to make a long story short, everything you need. The Internet, a global computer network, which embraces millions of users all over the world, began to function in the United States in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive in a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another.

Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United States, while the rest are located in other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet. There are millions and their number is growing by thousands each month worldwide. Users of computers in the network can send messages to each other, to communicate online and to do a lot of other things. In many offices and organizations computer messages have replaced messages written on paper, and they are now called e-mail or electronic mail. E-mail is not only fast and easy, but it also saves paper and the work of moving paper from one place to another. Workers can send and receive e-mail without leaving their desks and their desktop computers.

The Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunication systems of their communities.

Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and can do it very cheaply. But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, they increase the commercial use of this network. For example, some American banks and companies conduct transactions over the Internet.

If you do not have your own computer, but want to use the Internet, you can use an Internet café. These cafés will charge for the amount of time you spend on the Internet and you will either pay after you have finished or buy credits beforehand. If you dont have easy access to an Internet café, your library may have computers with Internet access and sometimes you can even use it for free for a limited period of time.

2. .

1. What is the Internet?

2. What was the Internet originally designed for?

3. What country has the most of the Internet host computers?

4. What can you do thanks to the Internet?

5.Where can you find the Internet if you havent it at home?

3. :

1. , , .

2. .

3. ?

4. , .

5. .

6. , .

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. ( ).

5. .

6. .

10. .

MY FLAT

1. . :

1.flat

2.three-room flat

3.house

4.high-storied house

5.to wove (.)

6.floor ,

7.to face (the park, the square) (.) (,

)

8.ground floor (.)

9.first floor (.)

10.elevator

11.modern conveniences

12.gas

13.central heating

14.running water

15.pretty

16.cozy

17.roomy

18.living-room

19.carpet

20.arm chair

21.furniture

22.bedroom

23.double bed

24.single bed

25.wardrobe

26.dressing table

27.bedside stand

28.shelf

29.sunny side

30.kitchen

31.electric appliance

32.refrigerator

33.microwave oven

34.stove

35.mixer

36.mincer

37.coffee-maker

38.dish washer

39.bathroom

40.washing machine

41.sink

42.glass shelf

43.toilet articles

44.mirror

45.hot whirlpool

46.ceramic

47.hall (.)

48.rack

49.key rack

50.hall stand

51.umbrella stand

52.corner

53.pleasant

54.atmosphere

55.friendship

56.mutual

57.understanding

58.to move

59.to face

60.that is why

 

2. :

on the first floor -

on the sunny side -

in the middle of smth - -

in the corner -

on the left -

on the right -

on the wall -

at the window -

to the left of -

in front of the door -

around the table -

above the table -

3. . .

MY FLAT

My family lives in a large town. There are many modern high-storied buildings in it. Recently we moved into a new flat of the eight-floor house. Our flat is on the seventh floor. It faces the park. There is an elevator and all conveniences in our house. We have gas, central heating, hot and cold running water. They make our life more comfortable.

We live in a three-room flat. It is not very large but pretty, comfortable and roomy. Our flat is on the sunny side of the house and each room has a wide window. That is why all rooms of it are light.

The living-room is the largest in our flat. The walls of it are light-green. There is a big red-and-green carpet on the floor in the middle of the room. To the right of the window there is a sofa and two armchairs. The furniture in the living-room is very comfortable. In front of the sofa there is a TV set and a DVD recorder. On the window there are nice stripped red and green curtains.

In my parents bedroom there is a double bed with bedside stands, a wardrobe and a dressing table with a mirror above it. On the walls of coral colour there are some pictures of flowers. There are two lamps on the wall above the bed. The curtains on the window are white.

My own room is very cozy. There is a single bed and a desk in it. The wall papers of it are coloured. The ceiling is blue with many single lamps. I like music very much, that is why I have a CD player. There is a computer to the left of the desk. On the wall behind the computer there are two shelves with books on them. On other walls there are many photos of my friends, my family, and me.

Our kitchen is modern equipped, too. There is a refrigerator, microwave oven, stove, mixer, mincer, coffee-maker, and dish washer in it. Of course, all these electric appliances make our life easier and more comfortable. To the right of the door there is a table and six chairs around it.

In the bathroom there is a washing machine. To the right of the washing machine there is a sink and a glass shelf for toilet articles with a mirror above it. To the right of the door there is a big hot whirlpool. The floor and the walls of the bathroom are ceramic.

Our hall is not large. In the hall there is a hall stand for coats. An umbrella stand is in the left corner and a key rack is on the left wall.

I like my flat very much. It is so pleasant to come home, when working day has gone. Of course, for me my home is not only a flat or a house, but also it is people who live there and the atmosphere of love and mutual understanding.

Exercises

1. :

1. Where does your family live?

2. How many floors does your house have?

3. Where does your house face?

4. What floor is your flat on?

5. What is there in your house?

6. What conveniences do you have in your house?

7. What makes your life more comfortable?

8. How many rooms are there in your flat?

9. Why are all rooms of your flat light?

10. What is there in your living-room?

11. What curtains are there at the window?

12. What is the bedroom of your parents?

13. What furniture is there in the parents bedroom?

14. Have you got your own room in the flat?

15. What is your room?

16. What furniture is there in your room?

17. What electric appliances are there in the kitchen?

18. What is there in your bathroom?

19. What is there in your hall?

20.What is your house for you?

2. :

1. My family lives a large town.

2. Recently we moved a new flat.

3. Our flat is the seventh floor.

4. Our flat is the sunny side of the house.

5. There is a big red-and-green carpet the floor.

6. To the right the window there is a sofa and two armchairs.

7. the bedroom of my parents there is a double bed.

8. There is a dressing table with a mirror it.

9. There are two lamps the wall the bed.

10. There is a computer the left the desk.

11. There are many photos my friends.

12.To the right there is a table and six chairs it.

3. .

1. My family lives in a large town.

2.There are many modern high-storied buildings in this town.

3. Recently we moved into a new flat.

4. Our house has eight floors and faces the park.

5. Our flat is on the seventhfloor.

6.In our house there is an elevator, and all modern conveniences.

7. They make our life more comfortable.

8. Our three-room flat isprettyandroomy.

9. Our flat is on the sunny side of the house.

10. There is a big red-and-green carpet on the floor in the middle of the room.

11. To the right of the window there is a sofa and two armchairs.

12. In the bedroom of my parents there is a double bed with bedside stands, a wardrobe and a dressing table.

13. My own room isvery cozy.

14. The wall papers of it are coloured.

15. On the wall behind the computer there are two shelves with books on them.

16. There is the refrigerator, microwave oven, stove and dish washer in our kitchen.

17. In the bathroom there is a washig mashine.

18.In the hall there is a hall stand for coats to the right of the door.

19. An umbrella stand is in the left corner and a key rack is on the left wall.

4. .

Ask your friend where he lives. if he lives in a modern high-stored building. what house he (she) has. what floor the flat is. what conveniences the house has. what side of the house the flat is. what her living-room is. if there is a sofa in it. what his own room is. if he likes music. where there is a refrigerator.

5. :

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. , .

5. .

6. .

7. .

8. .

9. .

10. .

11. .

12. .

13. .

1. . :

1. suburb

2. the ground floor 1-

3. the first floor 2-

4. lavatory

5. fireplace

6. to warm

7. garden

8. tulip

9. to grow

10. a lawn

11. at the side

12. garage

13.castle

2. . .

Suburban House

Many families in London live in flats but most people like to live in their own houses in suburbs. A suburban house consists of only two floors: the ground floor and the first floor.

On the ground floor there is a dining-room, a sitting room, a kitchen and a hall. In the hall there is a stand for hats, coats and umbrellas.

On the first floor there are usually four bedrooms, a bathroom and a lavatory.

The fireplace warms the house. In front of the house there is a small garden in which roses, tulips and many flowers are grown. At the back of the house there is a large garden with a lawn and some fruit trees. At the side of the house there is a garage.

The English people usually say My house is my castle.

3. :

1. Where do many families live in London?

2. What houses do most people live?

3. What rooms are there on the ground floor?

4. Where is a stand for hats and coats?

5. What is there on the first floor?

6. What warms the house?

7. Where is a small garden?

8.What are there in a larger garden?

4. , .

1. Most people live in houses in

2. Suburban houses of only two floors.

3. In the hall there is a for hats, coats and umbrellas.

4. ... there are four bedrooms, a bathroom and a lavatory.

5. warms the house.

6. Roses, tulips and many flowers

7. of the house there is a much larger garden.

8. of the house there is a garage.

Dialogue

1. . :

- Good afternoon, Ann.

- How do you do, Kate? I am glad to see you.

- Where are you going?

- The lecture is over, and I'm going home. We moved into a new flat in Mira Street.

- My great congratulations to you. What floor is your flat on?

- It is on the fifth floor in a new six-storeyed house.

- How many rooms are there in your flat?

- Our flat has three rooms, a kitchen, a bathroom and a corridor.

- Are there all modern conveniences in your flat?

- Of course, there is gas, electricity, running water and a central heating in it.

- Have you got your own room in the flat?

- Yes, I have got it. I like my room very much. There is a sofa, a bookcase, a small desk, and a wardrobe in it. It is very cozy.

- Is it enough for you?

- Yes, it is quite enough for me.

- It's no use to describe our flat. I invite you to our house.

- Thank you very much. I'll visit you with pleasure.

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. ( ).

5. .

6. .

11.

TOWN

1. . :

  1. founder
  2. to found
  3. fortress
  4. boundary
  5. settlement
  6. Khoper
  7. Cossaks
  8. to turn into
  9. strategic point
  10. North Caucasus
  11. Greek
  12. city of a cross
  13. Forecaucasus
  14. east
  15. extensive
  16. picturesque
  17. plateau
  18. surrounded
  19. endless
  20. steppes
  21. to attract ,
  22. shady
  23. alley
  24. Victory park
  25. Alexandrovsky park
  26. Central park
  27. science
  28. exhibit
  29. library
  30. machine
  31. branch
  32. to reflect
  33. outstanding
  34. event
  35. eparchy
  36. Orthodox Church
  37. cathedral
  38. flowerbed
  39. to enjoy ,

  1. sight
  2. scene ,
  3. blossom
  4. to strike
  5. diversity

2. . . .

STAVROPOL

Stavropol was founded in 1777 as a fortress on the southern boundaries of Russia under the decree of Empress Ekaterina II. The first settlements around the Stavropol fortress were formed by Khoper Cossaks. The fortress turned into a town in 1785.

Originally it was founded as a strategic point, but later the town became a cultural centre of the North Caucasus. The word Stavropol is a Greek word meaning city of a cross. The first street, which is now called Karl Marx Prospekt, was built in 1785.

The town is located in the center of the Forecaucasus. It is on the east side of the extensive picturesque Stavropol plateau. It is like a green island, surrounded in woods and located among endless steppes. Stavropol is one of the greenest towns of Russia. Beautiful parks attract visitors, opening shady alleys in front of them. Among them are: Victory Park, Alexandrovsky Park, Central Park and others.

Now Stavropol is a town of students and science. There are many colleges and higher educational institutions in the town such as: the Stavropol State Medical Academy, the State Stavropol University, the North Caucasian Technical University, the Stavropol State Agricultural University and many others.

There are some museums, for example: the Museum of Fine Arts, the Lopatin Home-Museum and the Grechishkin Museum of Paintings. The largest museum of the town is the Regional Museum. Its collection includes over 200 000 exhibits.

Stavropol is the centre of cultural life. There is the Lermontov Drama Theatre, the Concert Hall and a big library, many schools and kindergartens, a good Palace for Children, where children can go and do many interesting things. Young people can visit different night clubs and cinemas. They can dance, listen to the music, meet their friends and chat with them there.

Stavropol is an economic and industrial center of the Region. The machine building and agriculture are especially strong branches of the economy.

There are many historical monuments which reflect the outstanding events of the town. They are: the Lenin Square, the Komsomol Hill, the Central Flame and the Monument for Unknown Soldier.

The town is also the centre of the Stavropol and Vladikavkaz Eparchy of Russian Orthodox Church. There are many churches and cathedrals in the town.

In the streets there are a lot of trees and flower-beds. From early spring till late autumn visitors may enjoy the sights and the scenes of exotic flowers in blossom. In spring and summer the flower-beds strike with their diversity. Stavropol is a fast growing town. Its population is over 450 thousand people. More than 130 nationalities and people of different religions live in friendship and they are always willing to help each other.

3. :

1. When was Stavropol founded?

2. Where was Stavropol founded as a fortress?

3. What were the first settlements around the Stavropol fortress?

4. When did the fortress turn into a town?

5. What was the town originally founded as?

6. What is the meaning of the word Stavropol?

7. Where is the town located?

8. What does the town look like among endless steppes?

9. What attract visitors in the town?

10. What parks are there in the town?

11. Why is Stavropol a town of students?

12. What museums are there in the town?

13. What is the largest museum in the town?

14. What proves that the town is a center of culture?

15. What are the main economic branches in the town?

16. What monuments are there in the town?

17. What do historical monuments reflect?

18. What proves that Stavropol is the center of Stavropol and Vladikavkaz Eparchy of Russia?

19. What may the visitors enjoy from spring till autumn?

20. What is the population of the town?

21.How do people of different nationalities and religions live in the region?

4. :

1. The founder of Stavropol is Suvorov.

2. It was founded in 1777 as a fortress.

3. The first settlements around the Stavropol fortress were Khoper Cossaks.

4. Originally it was founded as a strategic point.

5. The word Stavropol is a Greek word meaning city of a cross.

6.It is like a green island, surrounded by woods.

7. Beautiful parks attract visitors.

8. Stavropol is a town of students and science.

9. Stavropol is an economic and industrial center of the region.

10. The machine building and agriculture are especially strong branches of the economy.

11. In the streets there are a lot of trees and flower-beds.

12.In spring and summer the flower-beds strike with their diversity.

5. :

1. Stavropol was founded 1777.

2. The fortress turned a town in 1785.

3. It is the east side of the extensive picturesque Stavropol plateau.

4. It is like a green island, surrounded woods and located endless steppes.

5. them are: Victory Park, Alexandrovsky Park, Central Park and others.

6. Its collection includes 200 000 exhibits.

7.There is the Lermontov Drama Theatre, the Concert Hall, a big library, and a good Palace Children in the town.

6. .

1. It in 1777.

2. Stavropol was founded as a on the southern of Russia.

3. The first around the Stavropol fortress were

4. Originally it was founded as a point.

5. . Prospect was the first street built in 1785.

6. The town is located in the centre of the

7. It is on the east side of the picturesque Stavropol plateau.

8. It is like a green island by woods.

9. Stavropol is one of the towns of Russia.

10. parks attract visitors.

11. Stavropol is an centre of region.

12. There are many monuments .

13.There are many trees and in the streets.

7. .

1. . :

1. administrative

2. economic

3. political

4. educational centre

5. to be first mentioned

6. in the chronicles

7. to grow into

8. wealthy city

9. the present-day Moscow

10. the seat of the government

11. a government office

12. to be located

13. the leading industry

14. engineering

15. chemical industry

16. light industry

17. unique

18. a city of science and learning

19.a higher education institution

2. :

MOSCOW

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its administrative, economic, political and educational centre. The city was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgoruky and was first mentioned in the chronicles. By the 15th century Moscow had grown into a wealthy city.

The present-day Moscow is the seat of the government of the Russian Federation. President of Russia lives and works here; government offices are located here, too.

Moscow is a major industrial city. Its leading industries are engineering, chemical and light ones.

Moscow is known for its many historical buildings, museums and art galleries, as well as for the famous Bolshoi, Maly and Art Theatres.

3. :

1. What is the capital of Russia?

2. What centre is Moscow in Russia?

3. Who was the city founded by?

4. What is the present-day Moscow?

5. What are located in this city?

6. What leading industries are in Moscow?

7.What is Moscow known for?

4. :

1. The founder of Moscow.

2. The present-day Moscow.

3. Industries of Moscow.

4.Cultural life of Moscow.

5. . :

You are right . You are not right .

1. Moscow is the capital of Russia.

2. The city was founded by Ivan the Terrible.

3. Moscow is a major agricultural city.

4. Its leading industries are engineering and light industries.

5.Moscow is a city of science.

6. .

Dialogues

1. .

Dialogue 1

- Is it possible to see anything of Moscow in one or two days?

- Well, yes, but of course, not half enough.

- What do you think I ought to see first?

- Well, if you are interested in historical places, you should go to the Red Square. Do you like art galleries?

- Rather.

- Then why not to go to the State Tretyakov Gallery? But you could spend a whole day there. Its much too big to be seen in an hour or so.

- What about going to the Bolshoi Opera House?

- Thats not a bad idea. How can I get there?

- Let me see. I think your best way from here is to walk across the square.

- Is it much of a walk?

- Oh, no, a quarter of an hour or so.

Dialogue 2

- Where did you come from, Nick?

- Well, I came from a place called Stavropol.

- Mmm . Sounds great. But I've never heard of it.

- Many people havent. It is in the south of our country. It was a small, sleepy sort of place hundred years ago.

- And now it's changed, hasn't it?

- Oh, yes, now it's a town. It's expanded a lot: new shops, offices, factories.

- Well, every town is growing now. One day the whole world is going to become one great town or city.

- I agree with you.

1. .

2. .

3.

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