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Тема 12. Медицинское обслуживание в России

MEDICAL SERVICE IN RUSSIA

Задание 1. Запомните произношение следующих слов. Повторяйте их за диктором:


  1. population
  2. ambulant
  3. therapeutist
  4. neurologist
  5. otholaryngologist
  6. apparatus
  7. diagnostic laboratory
  8. roentgenologic
  9. roentgenographic
  10. roentgenoscopic
  11. ultrasonic
  12. analysis
  13. physical examination
  14. injection
  15. procedure

Задание 2. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания. Повторяйте их за диктором:

1. unit единица

2. district polyclinic участковая поликлиника

3. district doctor участковый врач

4. adult взрослый

5. medical insurance card страховой медицинский

полис

6. free of charge бесплатно

7. assistance помощь

8. staff штат

9. surgeon хирург

10. to make an appointment with the doctor записаться на прием к

врачу

11. registry регистратура

12. to call in a doctor вызвать врача на дом

13. (to) record запись, делать запись

14. patient’s medical history история болезни пациента

15. consulting room кабинет врача

16. treatment лечение

17. diagnostic laboratory диагностическая

лаборатория

18. blood кровь

19. urine моча

20. gastric juice желудочный сок

21. sputum мокрота

22. ultrasonic ультразвуковой

23. investigation исследование

24. to make diagnosis ставить диагноз

25. сomplaint жалоба

26. to complain of … жаловаться на …

27. to examine осматривать

28. to listen to heart and lungs прослушать сердце,

легкие

29. to count the pulse rate измерить частоту пульса

30. to measure blood pressure измерить артериальное

давление

31. to palpate abdomen пальпировать живот

32. lymph nodes лимфатические узлы

33. findings, data данные, результаты

34. case-history история болезни

35. account отчет

36. current illness настоящее заболевание

37. past history анамнез

38. hereditary diseases наследственные

заболевания

39. additional дополнительный

40. to have at one’s disposal иметь в ч.-либо

распоряжении

41. to gain information получать информацию

42. to prescribe treatment прописывать лечение

43. to put a patient on a sick list выдать больному

больничный лист

44. medical check-up медицинский осмотр

45. to give an injection сделать инъекцию

46. to put a bandage накладывать повязку

47. range зд. спектр, круг

48. to make procedure выполнять процедуру

49. maternity consultation женская консультация

50. expectant mother беременная женщина

51. pregnancy беременность

52.delivery роды

Задание 3. Прослушайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание:

AT THE POLYCLINIC

The basic medical unit in our country is а polyclinic. There are district polyclinics for the adult population and for the children. The medical insurance cards guarantee people free of charge medical assistance.

The staff of the polyclinic consists of different specialists: therapeutists, neurologists, otholaringologists, eye doctors, surgeons and others. Patient makes an appointment with the doctor at the registry or calls him to his home. Personal information of any patient is kept on a computer now. Computers contain detailed records of the patient’s medical history.

Ambulant patients are seen at the polyclinic by the district doctors. Doctors receive their patients in the consulting rooms, which have modern apparatuses and equipment for patients' examination and treatment. Besides the consulting rooms there is a diagnostic laboratory for making analyses of blood, urine, gastric juice, sputum, an electrocardiography room, rooms for various roentgenologic, roentgenographic, roentgenoscopic, ultrasonic investigations of organs and a procedure room.

Before making a diagnosis, the doctor asks about the patient's complaints, examines him thoroughly. He listens to his heart and lungs, counts his pulse rate, measures his blood pressure and palpates his abdomen and lymph nodes. All findings of physical examination are recorded into the patient’s case-history. A case history is a detailed account of patient’s current illness. It also includes information about his past history, history of familial and hereditary diseases.

Sometimes additional investigations are necessary. Nowadays doctors have at their disposal modern diagnostic apparatuses which help them to gain information required to make a proper diagnosis.

On the basis of all data the doctor makes a diagnosis and prescribes a proper treatment. In serious cases a doctor puts a patient on a sick list or refers him to a hospital.

Prevention of diseases is important. That‘s why population must undergo regular medical check-ups at polyclinics.

Nurses help doctors to examine patients, to fill in case-histories. They also give injections, put bandages and make a wide range of medical and diagnostic procedures.

Doctors at a maternity consultation centres look after the health of expectant mothers from the early months of pregnancy up to delivery.

Exercises

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста:

1. What is the polyclinic?

2. How do people receive medical assistance at the polyclinic?

3. What specialists work at the polyclinic?

4. Where do the doctors receive their patients?

5. What rooms are there at the polyclinic?

6. How does the patient make an appointment with a doctor?

7. How does the doctor perform a patient’s physical examination?

8. Where does the doctor record all data of the examinations?

9. What does the doctor do in serious case?

10. What are the duties of nurses?

11.Where do the expectant mothers receive their regular observations?

Задание 2. Переведите следующие слова и словосочетания на английский язык:

Участковая поликлиника, штат поликлиники, кабинет врача, жалобы больного, записаться на прием к врачу, кабинет ЭКГ, история болезни, медицинский полис, дополнительные исследования, выдать больничный лист, делать инъекции, вызвать врача на дом, ультразвуковые исследования, регистратура, медицинские и диагностические процедуры, хирург, бесплатно.

Задание 3. Поставьте личные местоимения в скобках в нужную форму. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.Let (I) listen to your heart and lungs. 2. Let (he) take your temperature. 3. Ask (she) to stay in bed for some days. 4. Let (I) palpate your abdomen. 5. Ask (he) to be X-rayed to-day.

Задание 4. Вставьте модальные глаголы «must», «can», «may»по смыслу. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. … I make an appointment with Dr. Smirnov?

2. The doctor … have your blood analysis to be sure of a diagnosis.

3. As my sister is ill, she … stay in bed.

4. You … follow the doctor’s instructions.

5. … I count your pulse rate?

6.You … take your case-history from the table.

Задание 5. Поставьте общие и специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям:

1. My sister complains of a bad headache.

2. Doctor Smirnov receives patients in his consulting room.

3. The nurse took the patient’s temperature.

4. Ultrasound apparatuses help doctors to make diagnosis.

5. The staff of the polyclinic consists of many specialists.

AT THE CHEMIST'S

Задание 1. Запомните произношение следующих слов. Повторяйте их за диктором:


1. medicine

2. department

3. pill

4. tablet

5. mixture

6. tincture

7. antibiotics

8. vitamins

9. antiseptics

10. bandage

11. plaster

12.thermometer


Задание 2. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания. Повторяйте их за диктором:

1. prescription рецепт

2. chemist’s shop аптека

3. chemist’s department отдел ручной продажи

4. prescription department рецептурный отдел

5. to order drugs заказать лекарства

6. solid form твердая форма

7. liquid form жидкая форма

8. powder порошок

9. ointment мазь

10. syrup сироп

11. solution раствор

12. pain-killer болеутоляющее

13. lexative слабительное

14. label этикетка, наклейка

15. to indicate указывать, обозначать

16. for internal use для внутреннего употребления

17. for external use для наружного применения

18. manufacturer производитель

19. composition состав

20. side effect побочный эффект

21. precautions меры предосторожности

22. overdosage передозировка

23. cotton-wool вата

24. dressing material перевязочный материал

25. adhesive plaster лейкопластырь

26. mustard plaster горчичник

27. hot-water bottle грелка

28. medicine dropper медицинская пипетка

29. thermometer термометр

30. syringe шприц

31.hygienic means гигиенические средства

Задание 3. Прослушайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание:

TEXT

When you receive a prescription from the doctor or need some medicines you go to the chemist’s shop.

There are two departments at a big chemist’s shop. At the chemist’s department one can have medicines right away; other drugs can be ordered at the prescription department.

At the chemist’s one can buy drugs in solid and liquid forms such as: pills or tablets, capsules, powders, mixtures, drops, ointments, tinctures, syrups, and so on. It may be pain-killers, antibiotics, antiseptics, laxatives, tonics, vitamins, and other drugs and solutions.

Every small bottle, tube or box of medicine has a label on it. The labels indicate drugs for internal, external use or injections. The annotation to the drug contains essential information about it: the name of a drug, manufacturer, and composition, directions for use, possible side effects and precautions. It is very important, because any overdosage may cause side effect or even death.

At the chemist’s we may buy things necessary for patients’ care: cotton-wool, dressing material, adhesive plasters, mustard plasters. One can get hot-water bottles, medicine droppers, thermometers, tonometers, syringes and so on. There is also a big choice of hygienic means for children and adults.

Exercises

Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы по содержанию текста.

1. Where do you go if you need some medicine?

2. What departments are there at the chemist’s?

3. In what forms can you order or buy drugs at the chemist’s?

4. Where is the name of the drug and the dose to be taken usually indicated?

5. What information does the annotation to a drug contain?

6.What one can buy at the chemist’s?

Задание 2. Найдите в тексте эквиваленты следующим словосочетаниям:

1. a department where one can order drugs;

2. a small slip of paper on which the name of a medicine is written;

3. drugs taken orally;

4. an excessive dose of a drug;

5. an instrument by which a medicine is introduced into the vein;

6. an instrument for measuring a temperature.

Задание 3. Перефразируйте предложения согласно модели. Переведите на русский язык.

Model: I stick a label.

The label is stuck by me.

1. The overdosage may cause a death.

2. This drug caused a side effect.

3. I bought vitamins at the chemist’s shop.

4. My sister applied a hot-water bottle to her feet.

5.The doctor administered a cough mixture.

Задание 4. Составьте вопросы к следующим предложениям (общий и специальный вопросы):

1. The nurse made him an intramuscular injection.

2. This drug caused allergic reaction on the skin.

3. This child takes this medicine three times a day.

4. The doctor will prescribe some sleeping drugs to her.

5. The name of the drug is indicated on a label.

Текст на аудирование

Задание 1. Повторяйте за диктором слова и словосочетания. Запомните их значение:

1. to fall ill заболеть

2. turn очередь

3. sore throat больное горло

4. armpit подмышка

5. swollen опухший, припухший

6. to strip to the waist раздеться до пояса

7. râle хрип

8. quinzy ангина

9. to relieve облегчить

10. to gargle полоскать

 

Задание 2. Прослушайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание:

MY VISIT TO A DOCTOR

I fell ill and went to our district polyclinic. At the registry a registering clerk asked my name and address and found my case-history. I took it and went to my district doctor, who was receiving her patients in the Consulting Room Number 5. Several patients were waiting until it was their turn. Soon a nurse asked me to come in.

I must say, that Dr. Ivanova is an experienced therapeutist. She treats all the members of our family. First of all she asked me about my complaints.

I felt badly. I had temperature and a sore throat. The nurse asked me to keep the thermometer in my armpit for some minutes. It was 38°C! My tonsils were swollen and red. The doctor asked me to strip to the waist and listened to my heart and lungs. There were no râles in the lungs. The doctor said that it was quinzy. She prescribed me a bed regimen for some days, medicines and vitamins. To relieve the pain in the throat she advised me to gargle my throat with an antiseptic solution several times a day. I always follow the prescribed treatment to be well again as soon as possible.

Задание 3. Расскажите, что Вы поняли, прослушав текст (на русском языке).

Задание 4. Составьте план пересказа текста на русском языке.

Задание 5. Перескажите текст на английском языке.

Dialogue

Задание 1. Прослушайте диалог. Воспроизведите его в парах.

Ann– Good morning, Kate! I’m seriously ill and want you to go to the nearest chemist’s, to buy drugs.

Kate– Certainly Ann, I’ll help you with pleasure, what drugs do you need?

Ann – Doctor thinks, that I have grippe. I have a bad headache, temperature, cough and pains in joints.

Kate– Well I’ll go to the chemist’s immediately, because grippe is a very serious disease for its complications.

(Kate comes to the chemist’s. She addresses to the chemist):

Kate – What will you advise for grippe? My friend has high temperature and cough.

Chem– Take these drugs to relieve the symptoms of grippe and this cough mixture must be taken, a tablespoonful, three times a day. I also advise to take vitamins. She must follow doctor’s instructions and stay in bed.

Kate- Thank you very much, I think my friend will recover soon, good-bye.

ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

1. Выполните лабораторную работу по теме в лингафонном кабинете.

2. Выучите новые слова и выражения по теме.

3. Переведите тексты темы на русский язык.

4. Составьте план пересказа темы на русском языке (используйте графологическую структуру к теме).

5.Подготовьте пересказ и диалог по теме на английском языке.

Тема 13. Больница

HOSPITAL

Задание 1. Запомните произношение следующих слов. Повторяйте их за диктором:


  1. maternity
  2. surgical
  3. certain
  4. burn
  5. therapeutic
  6. anaesthesia
  7. heart
  8. blood
  9. pressure
  10. procedure

Задание 2. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания. Повторяйте их за диктором:

1. the Public Health System система здравоохранения

2. medical institution медицинское учреждение

3. curative лечебный

4. emergency hospital - больница скорой помощи

5. maternity home родильный дом

6. urgent medical treatment скорая (неотложная) помощь

7. resuscitation specialists реаниматологи

8. ENT-specialist (ear, nose, throat) отоларинголог

9. surgical department хирургическое отделение

10. burns’ department ожоговое отделение

11. clinical chair клиническая кафедра

12. on hospital ground на базе больницы

13. under the guidance of под руководством

14. to be admitted to the hospital поступать в больницу

15. associate professor доцент

16. reception ward приемное отделение

17. preliminary предварительный

18. morning round утреннийобход

19. ward палата

20. doctor in charge палатный врач

21. medical treatment room физиотерапевтический кабинет

22. to fill in a case history заполнять карточку больного

23. to carry out выполнять

24. assignment назначение

25. to put bandages делать повязки

26. a surgery block хирургический блок

27. to perform the operation сделать операцию

28. shadowless lamp бестеневая лампа

29. blood transfusion переливание крови

30. a marked improvement значительное улучшение

31. to discharge the patient from the hospital выписать пациента из

больницы

Задание 3. Прослушайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание:

HOSPITAL

The medical service in our country is based on the principle of qualified medical aid. The public health system includes a variety of medical institutions. There are polyclinics, hospitals and other curative and preventive institutions.

Hospital is a medical institution where in-patients are treated. There are general hospitals and specialized ones such as infection hospitals, children’s hospitals, mental, oncological, emergency and other hospitals and clinics. Babies are born in maternity homes. Urgent medical aid is provided by the physicians and resuscitation specialists of the first-aid ambulance centres.

Each general hospital has several departments. There are surgical, therapeutic, cardiac, neurology, burns and other departments. Medical staff of the hospital consists of a head doctor, therapeautists, surgeons, neurologists, ENT-specialists, cardiologists, gynecologists, psychiatrics, oncologists and other specialists. Nursing staff consists of doctors’ assistants and nurses.

Medical Academy has some clinical chairs on the hospital grounds. The medical students study here under the guidance of professors, associate professors and assistants.

When the patient is admitted to the hospital he is taken to the reception ward. After a preliminary examination the patient is directed to a certain department. There are several wards, doctors’ and nurses’ rooms, a medical treatment room, a dining-room, a sterilizing- and a bath-rooms, toilets in each department.

Every day the doctors make the morning rounds. The doctor in charge examines the patient, listens to the heart and lungs, takes blood pressure, palpates the abdomen etc. Then the doctor fills in a case-history and gives instructions to the nurse as to the treatment of the patients.

Nurses carry out doctors’ assignments: they make injections, take the patients' temperature, feel the pulse, put bandages, apply compress etc. They also sterilize instruments and prepare everything for the operations. Operations are performed in the surgery block. It's equipped with an operating table, a shadowless lamp, an apparatus for anesthesia, blood transfusion.

Every hospital has its laboratory for making analyses. Laboratory assistants make blood, urine and other analyses.

When the doctors see a marked improvement in patients’ condition they can discharge them from the hospital.

Exercises

Задание 1.Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты данных слов и словосочетаний:

Медицинское учреждение, детская больница, больница скорой помощи, родильный дом, отделение, палата, обучаться под чьим-либо руководством, приемное отделение, предварительный осмотр, физиотерапевтический кабинет, обход, лечение больного, прослушать сердце и легкие, аппарат для анестезии, быть оборудованным.

Задание 2. Расположите вопросы соответственно содержанию текста, ответьте на них устно:

1. Where are the operations performed?

2. Are there any laboratories at the hospital?

3. What are the hospital’s departments?

4. When do the doctors make their rounds?

5. What are the duties of a nurse?

6. What is the surgery block equipped with?

7.What is the main principle of medical service in Russia?

Задание 3. Поставьте сказуемое в соответствующую форму:

1. The patients (to treat) at the in-patient department.

2. Medical staff (to consist) of various doctors.

3. Nurses (to carry out) doctor’s assignments.

4. Operation (to perform) in the surgery block.

5. Every hospital (to have) a laboratory.

6. The doctor (to see) a marked improvement in patients’ condition.

7. The doctor in charge is allowed (to discharge) the patients from the hospital.

Текст на аудирование

Задание 1. Повторяйте за диктором слова и словосочетания. Запомните их значение:

1. National Health Service (the NHS) - национальное здравоохранение

в Великобритании

2. taxes налоги

3. general practitioner врач общей практики

4. to make an appointment to see the doctor записаться на прием к врачу

5. the cost of drugs стоимость лекарств

6. free treatment бесплатное лечение

7. to have private health insurance иметь полис частной

страховой компании

8. to wait for a long time ждать долгое время

9. to call an ambulance вызвать машину скорой

помощи

10. free urgent medical treatment бесплатная скорая

медицинская помощь

Задание 2. Прослушайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание:

Medical Service in Britain

In Britain there is a National Health Service (the NHS), which is paid for by taxes and national insurance, and in general people do not have to pay for medical treatment. Every person is registered with a doctor in their local area, known as a general practitioner or GP. This means that the patient’s name is on the GP’s list, and the patient may make an appointment to see the doctor or may call the doctor out to him if he is ill. People sometimes have to pay part of the cost of drugs that the doctor prescribes. GPs are trained in general medicine but are not specialists in any particular subject. If a patient needs to see a specialist doctor, he must first go to his GP and then the GP will make an appointment for the patient to see a specialist at a hospital or clinic.

Although everyone in Britain can have free treatment under the NHS, it is also possible to have treatment done privately, for which one has to pay. Some people have private health insurance to help them to pay for private treatment. Under the NHS people who need to go to hospital may have to wait for a long time on a waiting list for their treatment. If they pay for the treatment, they will probably get it more quickly. Anyone who is very ill can call an ambulance and get taken to hospital for free urgent medical treatment. Ambulances are a free service in Britain.

Задание 3. Ответьте на следующие вопросы по содержанию текста:

1. Является ли здравоохранение платным для граждан Великобритании?

2. Каким образом пациент может обратиться к узкому специалисту?

3. Существует ли частное медицинское страхование в Великобритании?

4.Можно ли вызвать машину скорой помощи бесплатно?

Задание 4.Закончите предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста:

1. In Britain people do not have to pay for…...

2. Every person is registered with a doctor known as…….

3. If a patient needs to see a specialist doctor, he must first go to his ……

4. Some people have private health…..

5. Anyone who is very ill can call an ambulance and get free …..

Dialogue

Задание 1. Повторяйте за диктором слова и словосочетания. Запомните их значение:

1. to do smb’s best сделать все возможное,

постараться

2. in-patient стационарный больной

3. As far as I know. насколько я знаю.

4. kindergarten детский сад

5. prevention профилактика

6. cure лечение

7. staff штат

8. as for … что касается …

9.to meet the requirement удовлетворять потребности

Задание 2.Прослушайте диалог и воспроизведите его в парах:

A.: - A lot of people in Britain don’t know very much about the Health Service in Russia. Could you tell me some words about its structure?

B.: - I'll certainly do my best. As you know, I’m a medical student and know the system of medical aid in our country. Well, where should I begin?

A.: - First of all, I’d like to know something about Hospital Service. Is it free of charge?

B.: - If you have Insurance Policy you can get medical services free of charge with the exception of some types of stomatologic aid.

A.: - What departments are there in the hospital?

B.: - As far as I know there are many departments in each hospital: therapeutic, neurology, cardiac, burns, etc. There are also specialized clinics: mental, oncological, infectious and others.

A.: - That’s excellent. But what about children? Where are they treated?

B.: - There are special children’s hospitals where they have got all sorts of treatment. Besides in kindergartens and at schools children are given regular medical examination. “Prevention is better than cure”, as we say.

A.: - You are quite right. What’s the medical staff at the hospital?

B.: - As a rule, medical staff consists of a chief-doctor, therapeutists, surgeons, cardiologists, neurologists and many other specialists. They work in the departments. As for nurses, they assist the surgeons during operations, take the patient's temperature, provide medical procedures.

A.: - I suppose, a general hospital has necessary equipment, hasn't it?

B.: - Yes, of course. Each hospital is modern equipped and has necessary instruments.

A.: - I know your state is doing all it can to meet the requirements of a modern Health Service. Thank you for the information. Good-bye!

B.: - Good-bye!

ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

1. Выполните лабораторную работу по теме в лингафонном кабинете.

2. Выучите новые слова и выражения по теме.

3. Переведите тексты темы на русский язык.

4. Составьте план пересказа темы на русском языке (используйте графологическую структуру к теме).

5.Подготовьте пересказ и диалог по теме на английском языке.

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