Тема 14. Признаки и симптомы болезни
DISEASE: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Задание 1. Выучите следующие слова и словосочетания. Повторяйте их за диктором:
1. acute острый
2. malignant злокачественный
3. benign доброкачественный
4. duration продолжительность
5. to cause death приводить к смерти
6. abruptly внезапно
7. vomiting рвота
8. to require требовать
9. to refer зд. относиться
10. ulcerative colitis язвенный колит
11. relapsing attacks повторяющиеся приступы
12. to alternate чередоваться
13. complication осложнение
14. cancer рак
15. to indicate указывать на что-либо
16. sign признак
17. manifestation проявление
18. fever высокая температура
19. lack недостаток, отсутствие
20. severe burn сильный ожог
21. heart malfunction сердечная дисфункция
22. significant значительный
23. to be modified изменяться, модифицироваться
24.to lower снижать
Задание 2. Прослушайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание:
DISEASE: SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
Disease may be acute, chronic, malignant, or benign. Of these terms, chronic and acute have to do with the duration of a disease, malignant and benign with its potentiality for causing death.
An acute disease usually begins abruptly and is over soon. Acute appendicitis, for example, is characterized by vomiting, and pain usually localized in the lower right side. It usually requires immediate surgical treatment. The term chronic refers to a process that often begins very gradually and then persists for a long period. For example, ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease. Its peak incidence is early in the second decade of life. The disease is characterized by relapsing attacks of bloody diarrhea that persist for weeks to months. These attacks alternate with asymptomatic periods that can last from weeks to years.
The terms benign and malignant, most often used to describe tumours, can be used in a more general sense. Benign diseases are generally without complications, and a good prognosis is usual. Malignancy implies a process that, if left alone, will result in fatal illness. Cancer is the general term for all malignant tumours.
Diseases usually are indicated by signs and symptoms. A sign is defined as an objective manifestation of disease that can be determined by a physician; a symptom is subjective evidence of disease reported by the patient. Each disease has a lot of signs and symptoms; individual sign such as fever, however, may be found in a great number of diseases.
Fever is an abnormal rise in body temperature. It is most often a sign of infection but can be present when there is tissue destruction, as, for example, from a severe burn or when large amounts of tissue have died because of lack of blood supply. Fever is a highly significant indicator of disease.
The pulse rate is important information. The heart rate varies with the level of physical activity: the heart beats are faster during exercise and more slowly during rest. An abnormal pulse or heart rate may indicate a disease. The heart rate increases in the feverish patient. A weak, rapid pulse rate may be a sign of severe blood loss or of disease within the heart itself. Irregularity of the pulse is an important indicator of heart malfunction.
The respiratory rate (rate of breathing) is modified by disease. Persons with fever have an increased respiratory rate, which serves to lower body temperature.
Temperature, pulse, and respiratory rate – called the vital signs — may be important manifestations of disease. A fourth vital sign, blood pressure, is equally significant. Among other things, it indicates the amount of blood in circulation.
Задание 1.Найдите правильные ответы на вопросы и закончите предложения соответственно содержанию текста:
1. Which of the following is not characteristic for chronic disease?
b) The process is developing little by little.
c) Chronic diseases require immediate surgical treatment.
d) The process lasts a long period of time.
e) The acute condition may alter with periods when a patient feels well.
2. According to the text, … .
b) benign diseases result in severe complications;
c) a wart if left alone may result in cancer;
d) some benign tumours may be caused by a virus;
e) benign tumours produce illnesses that may be fatal.
3. Which of the following is not true?
b) Fever is one of the most important signs of the disease.
c) Symptoms are subjected to doctors.
d) Fever is an unusual increase in body temperature.
e) There is a great number of signs and symptoms in every illness.
4. Irregularity of the pulse shows everything except … .
c) the rise in temperature;
d) a heart disease;
e) the cause of disease.
5. Which of the following is not true?
b) The higher the temperature is, the quicker one breathes.
c) Temperature, pulse, blood pressure and rate of breathing are significant manifestations of disease.
d) Fever shows the lack of blood supply.
e)Blood pressure shows the amount of blood in circulation.
Текст на аудирование
Задание 1.Прослушайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание:
Acute appendicitis is known to occur in all age groups. It is more frequent in women from 20 to 40 years old. Cases of appendicitis may occur even in infants and in very old age. Acute appendicitis begins suddenly with sharp pain which is at first felt in epigastrium but then becomes generalized in the abdomen. The pain becomes worse on deep breathing in and coughing. It may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, retention of stools and gases. Sometimes constipation or diarrhea may be present. The temperature is normal or subfebrile and there is moderate leucocytosis. With the development of the disease temperature elevation may be observed. The pulse is quick, 90-100 beats per minute. The tongue is coated and dry.
The attack of appendicitis may last for some days. Then the temperature may return to normal, abdominal pains decrease and only a moderate tenderness is felt in the right lower part of the abdomen on palpation. Palpation should be done with great gentleness to avoid rupture of the abscess.
Acute appendicitis is treated surgically. The operation is performed either under local or under general anesthesia.
The appendix must be removed immediately to prevent its rupture which may result in peritonitis. Such forms of appendicitis as gangrenous and perforating are particularly dangerous to life. But sometimes even a mild form of appendicitis has a severe course and results in perforation.
Задание 2.Укажите, какие из перечисленных симптомов относятся к острому аппендициту:
Nausea, constipation, headache, fatigue, sharp pain in the abdomen, toothache, diarrhea, coated tongue, dizziness.
Задание 3 .Поставьте глагол в нужную форму:
1. Acute appendicitis is (to know) to occur in all age groups.
2. It (to begin) suddenly.
3. The pain (to become) generalized in the abdomen.
4. Acute appendicitis (to accompany) by nausea.
5. The temperature (to be) normal.
6. The attack usually (to last) 3-4 days.
7.A moderate tenderness is (to feel) in the right lower part of the abdomen.
Задание 4. Составьте предложения по модели:
Model: Grippe is characterized by pains in the limbs, high temperature, malaise, headache.
Grippe – pains in the limbs, high temperature, malaise, headache.
Scarlet fever – sore-throat, elevated temperature, rash.
Chicken-pox – general malaise, temperature, eruption, itching.
Appendicitis – severe pain, gastric disturbances, nausea, vomiting.
Tuberculosis – cough, night sweats, low grade temperature, weakness, malaise, anorexia, loss of weight.
Heart failure – dyspnea, radiating pains, edema, palpitation.
Gastritis – pains, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation.
Pleurisy– dry cough, sharp pains, fever, malaise.
Mumps– swelling of the parotid glands, difficulties in swallowing, sweating, loss of appetite, temperature.
Задание 8.Прослушайте диалог, постарайтесь понять его содержание.
Обратите внимание на ключевые слова и словосочетания.
1.to suffer страдать, болеть
4.indigestion нарушение пищерарения
5.to catch a cold простудиться
6.to cough кашлять
7.to sneeze чихать
8.to guess догадываться
9.to be run down быть разбитым, больным
10.a nervous breakdown нервный срыв, расстройство
11.to give up smoking бросать курить
13.to keep off smth. держаться подальше, избегать ч-л.
14. to hurt повредить
Задание 1.Прослушайте диалог. Воспроизведите его в парах.
A Visit To The Doctor
Doctor: Well, what is the trouble? You are looking rather unwell, I must say.
Mr. Brown. You had better ask me what is not trouble with me, sir. It seems to me I am suffering all the illnesses imaginable: headache, earache, insomnia, indigestion, pains in the stomach, muscle pain, appetite loss. And to make things worse I’ve caught a cold, I’ve got a sore throat, so I am sneezing and coughing all the time. I feel hot and feverish. I got short of breath. Actually, I feel more dead than alive.
Doctor: I am sorry to hear that. Anyway, I don’t think things are so bad as you can imagine. Let me have a look at you. I’d like to sound your chest. Your heart, chest and lungs seem to be not bad. Now let me see your throat. Yes, it looks a bit sore. Show me your tongue. Have you taken your temperature?
Mr. Brown. Not yet, but I guess I should.
Doctor: Well, I don’t find anything radically wrong with you. But it is clear that you’re down, and if you don’t take care of yourself, you may have a nervous breakdown. So, first of all I advise you to stop worrying. Take some rest, have regular meals, keep off alcohol. If possible, give up smoking, at least for a time. Have this tonic made up and take 1 tablespoon three times a day before meals.
Mr. Brown. What about diet, doctor?
Doctor: Well, keep to a diet of salads and fruit, and a bit meat. If you do this I can promise you soon full recovery.
Mr. Brown. But if I don’t?
Doctor: Youhave to decide what is the lesser evil – to follow my advice or prepare for a better world! And one more thing. Keep off accidents so that your neck, arms and legs were not hurt!
Задание 2. Подберите перевод следующих клише и выражений в правом столбце:
Задание 3.Составьте вопросы, ответы на которые приводятся ниже:
- I am suffering all the illnesses imaginable
- Yes? I have a sore throat
- I feel hot and feverish
- Take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day before meals
- Come to me in some days
ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ
1. Выполните лабораторную работу по теме в лингафонном кабинете.
2. Выучите новые слова и выражения по теме.
3. Переведите тексты темы на русский язык.
4. Составьте план пересказа темы на русском языке (используйте графологическую структуру к теме).
5.Подготовьте пересказ и диалог по теме на английском языке.