1. :

1. periodontal

2. to attack

3. gum

4. ligament

5. pregnancy

6. filling

7. bridge

8. bleeding

9. swollen

10. permanent

11. to become loose

12. rapidly

13. adult

14. mild ,

15. plaque ,

16. to irritate

17. tender

18. to detach ,

19. pocket

20. to expose ,

21. susceptible

22. decay ,

23. sensitive

24. touch

25. socket ,

26. extraction

27. thorough

28. scaling

29. planing ,

30. tartar ,

31. to restore

32. to smooth

33. graft

34. splint


2. . :


Periodontal diseases are caused by bacterial infections that attack gums, ligaments and the bone structure. Poor oral hygiene, smoking or poor diet, some types of drugs, pregnancy, defective fillings and bridges can increase risk of periodontal diseases. The signs of periodontal diseases are:

easy bleeding from gums;

swollen and red gums;

permanent teeth become loose;

persistent bad breath or bad taste;

gums pull away from the teeth;

any changes in the fit of dentures.

There are several kinds of periodontal diseases. Some of them develop slowly and without any pain, while others progress rapidly. These diseases may occur at any age, but for adults they are the main cause of tooth loss.

Gingivitis is a mild periodontal disease, which develops when toxins in plaque irritate the gums, making them red, tender, swollen and easy to bleed.

Periodontitis is a serious periodontal disease. The gums detach from teeth, and pockets are formed. Exposed teeth roots become susceptible to decay and sensitive to cold and touch. If not treated, the affected teeth become loose in their sockets. They may fall out or require extraction by a dentist.

Treatment methods depend on the type of disease and the patient's condition. The first stage usually involves thorough cleaning. Sometimes dentists place antibiotic fibers into periodontal pockets after scaling and planning tooth roots. To restore periodontal health, dentists use different ultrasound instruments to reach areas requiring removal of tartar, which causes chronic infection. Tooth roots are cleaned and smoothed.

Sometimes bone surgery is required. Gums are returned back to their usual position or are placed into a new position. Grafts of the patient's bone or artificial bone may be used, as well as membranes. To stabilize loose teeth dentists often use splints.


1. :

1. What are periodontal diseases caused by?

2. What factors can increase risk of periodontal diseases?

3. What are the signs of periodontal diseases?

4. Do all kinds of periodontal diseases develop the same way?

5. What is gingivitis?

6. What infringements is periodontitis characterized by?

7. What are treatment methods at periodontitis?

8.When are bone grafts and splints sometimes used?

2. :

, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

3. . :

1. Periodontal diseases are caused by bacterial infections.

2. Easy bleeding from gums is one of the signs of periodontal disease.

3. Some of periodontal diseases develop slowly and without any pain.

4. The gums detach from teeth.

5. Exposed teeth roots become susceptible to decay and sensitive to cold and touch.

6. The first stage usually involves thorough cleaning.

7. Sometimes bone surgery is required.

8.Dentists often use splints to stabilize loose teeth.

1. :

1. caries

2. widespread

3. demineralization

4. enamel

5. to approach

6. inflammation

7. periapical

8. density

9. medication

10. filling

11. fluorine

12. restriction

13. sugar intake

14. oral hygiene


2. . :


Dental caries is a widespread disease. Caries is caused by microorganisms and is characterized by demineralization of the mineral part of enamel. When the disease approaches the pulp it may cause inflammation and death of the pulp. The infected pulp causes changes in the periapical tissues.

The objective signs of caries are: hard tooth tissues changes in colour and density, and development of defects. Carious process may progress rapidly or slowly due to the general state of the organism.

Dental caries is treated by tooth preparation, medication and filling. The pathologic changed tissues are removed surgically. Anatomic form and function of the tooth is restored by filling.

The dentists must pay much attention to the fluorine prophylaxis, restriction of sugar intake, a balanced diet, thorough oral hygiene, and cleaning the teeth immediately after meals.


3. .

4. :

1. What is caries caused by?

2. What is caries characterized by?

3. What are the objective signs of caries?

4. Does carious process develop rapidly or slowly?

5. What are treatment methods of dental caries?

6.What preventive factors must the dentists pay much attention to?

5. .


1. :

1. cavity

2. sensitive

3. heat

4. to get loose

5. ache

6. checkup ,

7. to restore

8. temporary

9.to spread

2. :

At the Dentist's

Dentist:What's wrong, David?

Patient: Ihave a toothache. It's a lower tooth on the right.

D.: Is there a cavity?

P.: I don't think so. It is sensitive to heat and cold; besides I can t sleep at night.

D.: Let me have a look at it. There is a filling here, but I am afraid it has got loose. When did the ache appear?

P.: Two weeks ago.

D.: You should have come for a checkup long ago. You'd better have it X-rayed.

(The dentist has the tooth X-rayed and then examines the picture).

D.: I am afraid I'll have to fill the root canal.

P.: Is it possible to restore the tooth?

D.: Yes, I'll clean the root canal and put a temporary filling because the inflammatory process has spread on the surrounding tissues. You'll come to me again tomorrow.

3. . :

a) Dentist:Sit down, please. What's wrong?


D.:Is there a cavity?


D.: Let me have a look at it. When did the ache appear?


D.: You'd better have it X-rayed.

b) D.: I'm afraid I'll have to fill the root canal.


D.: Yes, I'll clean the root canal and put a temporary filling.

c) P.: Good morning, doctor.


P.: For some days I have been having a pain in my tongue. I fractured one of my teeth. It causes a terrible pain.


4. . :

Nick: , . . - ? .

Peter:Ihaven't had an accident, but I have had a dreadful time.

N.: ?

P.: I have just come from the dental surgery.

N.: ?

P.: I woke up in the night with violent toothache. In the morning I rang up the dentist. I saw him in the afternoon and he gave me a temporary filling. But the tooth has been aching. It hurts dreadfully.

N.: He ?

P.: Yes, perhaps, but the dentist says that it is the last alternative in the treatment.

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. ( ).

5. .

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |