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V Pick out any slang terms in these statements.

"He's won the lottery and got loads of dosh,"

"Give me lots of spuds with my dinner."

"Put the kettle on, and we'll have a cup of Rosy Lee."

"He squealed to the cops, and that put a spanner in the works."

"The tea-leaves scarpered with all the moolah."

"She's got big blue eyes and a nice pair of pins."

Assignment 1. Define the stylistic value of each of the following words: 1) neutral; 2) common literary; 3) common colloquial; 4) special literary (specify); 5) special colloquial (specify):

1.leave, abandon, kick;

2. send packing, expel, give the axe, discharge;

3. free, dismiss, liberate, release;

4. associate, comrade, friend, buddy, china;

5. aerial, antenna, rabbit ears;

6. lodgings, accomodation, flat, digs;


7. phoneyness/phomness, hypocrisy;

8. conversation, chat, intercourse;

9. disposition, mood, spirit, guts, shade;

10. bad temper, depression, dumps, bate;

11. primate, monkey;

12. spring, prime;

13. quick, alive, quickie;

14. believe, accept, buy;

15. perjurer, story-teller, liar;

16. wits, comprehension, understanding, brains, smarts;

17. inform, acquaint, let know, put (someone) in the picture

18. alluring, beautiful, drop-dead;

19. show up, materialize, come, appear;

20. physician, doc, doctor;

21. daddy, father, parent;

22. intelligent, clever, smart, highbrow, brainy;

23. welkin, sky, azure, empyrean;

24. misappropriate, defalcate, steal, pocket, cabbage;

25. eve/ even, eventide, twilight, evening;

26. eatables, eats, nourishment, food;

27. get, arrest, collar;

28. eclipse, darkening;

29. dayspring, dawn, morning;

30. Homo sapiens, humanity, people, flesh;

31. start, commence, begin;

32. die, kick the bucket, pass away, decease;

33. be crazy about, like;

34. infant, descendant, kid, child;

35. nipper, crook, thief;

36. continue, proceed, go on;

37. catty, malicious;

38. mischief, misconduct, acting up, monkey business;

39. villain, culprit, criminal;

40. money, currency, needful, dough, dibs;

41. , , , , ;

42. , , , ;

43. , , , ;

44. , , , ;


 

45. , , , , ;

46. , , ;

47. , , ;

48. , , , ;

49. , , , , , ;

50. , , .

Assignment 2. Point out a neutral and a special literary word (medical term). Exchange them in their places and make adjustments for the second remark to sound logical then as well:

"Is the doctor treating her for nervousness?" - "Oh, dear, no. She's rich enough to have psychoneurosis."

Assignment 3. Determine the stylistic features of the following sentences and paraphrase special vocabulary into neutral:

1. Overtime emoluments are not available for employees who are not resident.

2. He had a buddy from Brooklyn. Sort of a brainy guy who, however, was just crazy about shooting madman stuff. Yeah, a show-offy-looking fella.

3. - It will cost ya a hundred bucks to buy that pitcher.

- Anyways, I gonna. I was not kidding when I toleja I'm pretty loaded t'day.

4. He made out like as if he didn't even hear they gonna give him the axe
at the institute.

5.1 have our brochure here setting out our services. Were you thinking of interment or incineration of the deceased?

6. Haply some hoary-headed swain may say,

Oft have we seen him at the deep of dawn ...(Gray)

1. Tell me, thou star, whose wings of light speed thee in thy fiery flight... (Shelley)

Assignment 4. Match the words with the Cockney slang equivalents:

 

1) north and south a) head
2) tit for tat b) teeth
3) rosie lee c) mouth
4) loaf of bread d) suite
5) dicky dirt e) wife



6) mince pies f) boots
7) whisle and hute g) eyes
8) plates of meat h) shirt
9) hampstead heath i) feet
10) trouble and strife j)tea
11) daisy roots k)hat

Assignment 5. Point out semantic principles of:/) phraseological fusions; 2) praseological unities; 3) phraseological combinations:

a) the emotional quality is based upon the image created by the whole;

b) they are not only motivated but contain one component used in its direct meaning while the other is used figuratively;

c) represent the highest stage of blending together.

Assignment 6. Group the following set expressions according to the semantic variants they represent in themselves: /) phraseological fusions; 2) praseological unities; 3) phraseological combinations:

to meet the requirements, to take something for granted, to lose one's heart to someone, to be the last straw, at sixes and sevens, to have a bite, to stick to one's word, neck and crop, to stick to one's guns, tit for tat, to know the way the wind is blowing, bosom friends, to make a mistake, in a nutshell, to talk shop, to fall between two stools, to turn the scale(s), a black sheep.

Assignment 7. Choose the sentence that shows the meaning of the idiom in italics:

1. That was a slap in the face.

a) Someone hit me in the face.

b) Someone insulted me.

c) Someone complimented me.

2. John is wet behind the ears.

a) He didn't dry his ears.

b) He doesn't have much experience.

c) He hears well.

3. They don't see eye to eye.

a) They never look at each other.

b) They always wear dark sunglasses.

c) They don't agree with each other.


4. That car is on its last legs.

a) It only has one tire.

b) It needs a paint job.

c) It is about to break down completely.

Assignment 8. Group the set expressions according to their connotation:a) positive; b) negative:

to wash one's dirty linen in the public, to keep in the pin, to take leave of one's senses, to kick the bucket, to look like a thousand dollars, to call names, to lend a helping hand, to flog a dead horse, to miss the boat, to pull the wool over someone's eyes, leaves without figs, to bring home the bacon, a wet night, to bury the tomahawk, the iron in one's soul, alive and kicking.

Assignment 9. Explain the meaning of the following set expressions and choose two synonyms for each of them from those mentioned below:

a) to eat the fat of the land; b) to fish in the air; c) to come off cheap:

to seek a hare in a hen's nest, to roll in luxury, to sow the sand, to get off with a whole skin, to live in a bed of roses, to get unscathed out of the battle.

Assignment 10. Indicate each set expression as belonging to one of the following kinds according to the sphere of usage: 1) legalism; 2) commercialism; 3) theatricalism; 4) military term; 5) naval term; 6) parliamentarism; 7) hunters' term:

a) to draw the badger; b) to make an affidavit; c) to block the bill; d) to come out of action; e) to be all adrift; f) short bill; g) full house.

Assignment 11. Indicate each set expression as belonging to one of the following kinds according to the vocabulary layer: 1) archaism; 2) poeticism; 3) barbarism; 4) bookish expression; 5) colloquialism; 6) jargonism:

a) proud sea; b) Achilles heel; c) ask me another; d) a la mode; e) monkey's allowance; f) at adventure.

Assignment 12. Group separately phraseological units contain-Ing: a) metaphor; b) metonymy:

the weaker vessel - ; all ears - ; an old hand - ; old fox - , ; blue bonnet -


; to count noses - ; queer fish - ; slow coach -, .

Assignment 13. Point out of the following: 1) cliches; 2) proverbs;3) sayings; 4) epigrams/ aphorisms; 5) quotations; 6) allusions:

a) Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice; When people agree with me I always feel that I must be wrong; b) No little Grandgrind had ever associated a cow in a field with that famous cow with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt...; It is difficult to answer to be or not to be; c) the irony of fate; swan song; d) This scholar treats style as "socially cognized and functionally conditioned internally united totality..."; The government "has a lot of life in it as a single-party ruling regime," adds the diplomat; e) A drowning man will clutch at astraw; Two many cooks spoil the broth; f) as pleased as Punch; tit for tat.

Assignment 14. Indicate the type of decomposition of phraseological units: 1) shortening; 2) expansion; 3) insertion; 4)substitution; 5) word orderchange; 6) contextual change; 7) complex change:

a) It's time to make political hay. b) The crow is not so bad a bird after all. It never shows the white feather and never complains without caws, c) 'The police say that you and your wife had some words." - "I had some, but I didn't get a chance to use them." d) I prefer a bird in the hand, e) Deep runs smooth water, f) He is murdering time, g) Little Jon had been born with a silver spoon in his mouth, which was rather curly and large.

Supplement Assignment. 1. Point out set expressions, define their types and illustrate kinds of decomposition. 2. Analyse all expressive means and stylistic devices which are used in the utterances. Comment on their stylistic functions and translation variants:

1. The dirty floor had evidently been as long a stranger to the scrubbing-brush as to carpet or floor-cloth. (Ch. Dickens) - , , , .

2. But he meant to do something. Somehow, somewhere, somewhen; he would prove his mettle. Off his own bat too. (R. Greenwood) - . , , . , .


 

3. Somehow or other she had formed great faith in the stability of this Jack and now he seemed a Jack of both sides. (R. Blackmore) - , , , .

4. Peter had been at great pains to fool them; but they seemed to him so easy to fool that his pains were wasted. (U. Sinclair) - ϳ , ; , .

5. ...when the young man casts sheep's eyes at the gel [=girl] every time she moves, and the gel is either singin' about the house or sittin' quiet as a mouse in a brown study - what do you think that means? (R. Aldington) - ... , , , , - , , ?

6. In 1866, Harper's Weekly wrote of President Andrew Jackson: 'He must know that they would willingly use him as a wedge to split the Union party, as a stalking horse to their own purposes...' (NLP) - 1866 " " : "³ , , ".

7. There is not half enough of this type of propaganda today. We have all become so hard and practical that we are ashamed of painting the vision splendid - of showing glimpses of the promised land. (H. Pollitt) - . , , , .

8. told how murderers walk'd the earth beneath the curse of Cain. (OED) - ³ , , , .

9- She had an ally in the lion's mouth: a spy in the friend's camp; a faithful traitor! (J. Galsworthy) - , , !

*" Feel a fellow ought to do his bit. Once we set our hand to the plough, we got to keep on till we make a safe harbour. (S. Lewis) - , . , , .


 




11. That evening Chance, which visits the lives of even the best-invested Forsytes, put a clue into Fleur's hands (J. Galsworthy) - - , . 1 .

12. had thrown his humanity into the gutter, he had betrayed the trust that men place in one another, and with his thirty pieces of silver he had bought... what had he bought? (J. Wain) - ³ , , , ... ?

13. , , , "", . At first she, like a naughty fly, flew into a rage, and then fought for control in an up-hill fight with her self to which all her neighbours had already applied all craft and bone-graft.

14. . , , , - ', (, ) ' . -All my life have I been on the trail. On the trail after knowledge which costs not a lot if you can appreciate the lot which from time immemorial has been worth memorizing at a time and which can be put back (up to a time, sure thing) into a sack as old sake.

15. ³ , . - is too alive to fall asleep with the dead sleep of fatigue and health.

16. He , '. - Keep up with me, but don't keep at my heels.

17. . 1 \ , . - It was a bribery set-back. And when he fought for control over the public the public control fought him down and set back.

18. ³ , , ] - , , , , . Without batting an eyelash could he stake his fortune on the turn of a


card and hazard his life for any passion which, erect of carriage and with a peal of laughter over something, for the wit of which I wouldn't vouch, was passing by. j 9. , . - The proof of the pudding is the eating. But he was not an eater.

20. , , , . - When one doesn't only know that one is worth one's weight in gold but begins to put on airs, one may out of a blue sky fall under such a burden of knowledge.

21. ,  , . dz . . , , . . - For God's sake, either get out of the habit of putting on airs or get out of here. I'll give a sigh of relief. Relieved will be breath of air. Maybe I'll choke with a peal of laughter at my complete independence, but will not allow others to laugh at my feelings. I will not hazard my soul for any other passion.

22. , , ... , - , . - The eating is the proof of the pudding for which he hazarded his fortune, gnawed knowledge... Life would give peals of laughter at him, gnawed him, and out of a blue sky threw him to the ground when he appeared up in the clouds.

23. - - , . . - The moment - memories - on the spur of the moment moved by him when he in involuntary movements was soaping and washing his soaped hands. Then he gave a sigh of relief.

24. ? . . . ͳ, . ... ? ? , ... ? , ? , . ... - hazard life for an adventure? A peal of laughter. A sigh of


relief. Like over a dead. No, life goes on. I stake on the turn of a card.. What? Am I dreaming? It's worth while getting out of the habit of dreaming on the spur of the moment when out of a blue sky there may come.. What? God knows, what. Maybe even nothing for which it would be worth while hazarding life. But it's a pity...

Seminar No 4 Morphological Stylistics

V Assignment 1. Find cases of transposition of nouns and comment

on them:

1.They would put away the card-table and empty the ash-receivers with many "Oh, I beg your pardon's" and "No, no -1 was in your way's." 2. "Madge, what's 'necessitas', masculine or feminine?" - "Why, feminine, of com - "Why?" - "Why, she was the mother of invention." 3. "Who is your favorite classic novelist?" - "Thackeray." - "Great Scott!" - "Some think so; still 1 prefer Thackeray." 4. This is the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps. Its members are called "Neurotics." 5. "Yes," prattled the elderly lady, "that is the Duke and Duchess; the couple behind them are the Mayor and the Mayoress, and those on the right are the Vicar and the-er-Vixen." 6. "If I speak of afoot, and you show me your feet, and I give you a boot, would a pair be called beetl If one is a tooth and a whole set are teeth, why shouldn't the plural of booth be called beethV 7. The man I argued yesterday's explanation puzzled me greatly.

Assignment 2, Analyse stylistic use of the articles:

1. A 'Drive Safe' sign: "It's better to be late, Mr. Motorist, than to be the late, Mr. Motorist." 2. Advertisement: "Lion tamer wants tamer lion." 3.1 thought it was fine - especially the Chopin. 4. I don't want to turn into a Teddy Bolan. 5.1 will never go to a Sahara. 6. Sun: Friend not Foe. 7. Slowly but surely man is conquering Nature.

Assignment 3. Determine transposition of pronouns:

1. Are they going to take thee away? 2. They arrived at the fifth inning* "What's the score, Jim?" she asked a fan. "Nothing to nothing." was the reply. "Oh, goodly!" she exclaimed. "We haven't missed a thing!" 3. *'So


your son is in college? How is he making it?" - "To be exact, he isn't making it. I'm making it and he's spending it." 4. Chivalry is how you feel when you're cold. 5. Sign on the wall of a research laboratory: "Consider the turtle - He doesn't make any progress unless he sticks his neck out." 6. The masculine pronouns are he, his, him, but imagine the feminine she, shis, and shiinl 7. "Correct this sentence: 'it was me that spilt the ink. '" - "It wasn't me that spilt the ink."

Assignment 4. Point out and explain cases of transposition of adjectives:

1. "Iwant you to teach my son a foreign language." - "Certainly, madam, French, German, Russian, Italian, Spanish -?" - "Which is the most foreign?" 2. Landlady: "I think you had better board elsewhere." Boarder: "Yes, I often have." Landlady: "Often had what?" Boarder: "Had better board elsewhere." 3. "What are the comparative and superlative of bad, Berty?" - "Bad - worse - dead." 4. "Unmarried?" - "Twice." 5.1 don't like Sunday evenings: I feel so Mondayish.

Assignment 5. Pick out and analyse transposition of verbs:

1. "An' what's more, I ain't 'ad a day's illness in my life!" - "Lor lumme, what on earth d'yer find to talk about?" 2. "And your brother, who was trying so hard to get a government job, what is he doing now?" - "Nothing. He got the job." 3. "I would like to settle that little debt of mine." - "I'm very glad to hear it!" - "I said I would like to; but I can't." 4. "I must say these are fine biscuits!" Exclaimed the young husband. "How could you say those are fine biscuits?" inquired the young wife's mother, in a private interview. "I didn't say they were fine. I only said I must say so." 5. A man who is always complaining is the easiest man to satisfy because nothing satisfies him. 6. At fifteen I'm an orphan, and Vic moves in. "From now on you'll do as I tell you," he says. It impressed me. 7. "Can you tell me where this road goes, please?" - "It don't go anywhere; it just stops where it is." 8. "I'm taking Political economy at college." - "That's a useless course. Why learn to econ-0niize in politics? It's not being done." 9. "Waiter!" - "Yes, sir." - "What's this?" - "it's bean soup, sir." - "No matter what it's been. What is it now?" '0.1 said, "This deed, sir, will you do?" And soon the deed was dod! 11. "What would you do if you were in my shoes?" - "Polish them!" 12. "Does a doctor ^tor a doctor according to the doctored doctor's doctrine or doctoring, or


 




does the doctor doing the doctrine doctor the other doctor according to his 1 own doctoring doctrine?" 13. "If we forget, then we've forgotten, But things we wet are never wotten, And houses let cannot be lotten." 14. "So you're not going to Paris, this year?" - "No - it's London we're not going to this year; it was Paris we didn't go to last year!"

Assignment 6. Analyse stylistic value of adverbs:

1. "Her husband didn't leave her much when he died, did he?" - "No; but he left her very often when he was alive." 2. "Shay, pardon me, offisher, but where am I?" - "You're on the corner of Broadway and Forty-second Street." - "Cut out the details. What town am I in?" 3. "Your hair wants cutting badly, sir," said a barber insinuatingly to a customer. "No, it doesn't," replied the man in the chair "it wants cutting nicely. You cut it badly last time." 4. Jane was terrifically beautiful. 5. He seemed prosperous, extremely married and unromantic.

Assignment 7. Define stylistic value of morphological transposition in the following sentences:

1. Roll on, thou dark and deep blue Ocean - roll! 2. What were you talking about to that old mare downstairs? 3. The real war was not between the Bill Davidsons and the Jean Duvals and the Hans MUllers [...] ( , ). 4. The blonde I had been dancing with's name was Bemice - Crabs or Krebs. 5. A world without goodness - it'd be Paradise. But it wouldn't no more than now. The only paradises were fools' paradises, ostriches' paradises. 6. Waters on a starry night are beautiful and fair. 7. He was engaged to be married to a Miss Hubbard. 8. You are not the Andrew Manson I married, 9. It was a dead leaf, deader than the deadest tree leaf. 10. You have come from Them to spy on me. I told my uncle that the next one would suffer. And you're him. 11. A great pity! Surely something could be done! One must not take such situations lying down. She walks on, and reached a station, hot and cross. 12. You can never know what you can do till you try. 13.1 don't want to write; 1 want to live. What does she (I) mean by that. It's hard to say. 14. All the people like us are We, and everyone else is they. 15. "And what are we going to do now, escape?" the warder asked the prisoner. 16. You're burning yourself out. And for what? 17. I'm going there tomorrow. 18. The auditorium is quite the largest in the world-19. She is terribly pretty.


Seminar No 5

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