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of Stylistic Expression in Belles-lettres

...

I. As the Manager of the Performance sits before the curtain on the
boards, and looks into the Fair, a feeling of profound melancholy comes over
him in his survey of the bustling place. There is a great quantity of eating and
drinking, making love and jilting, laughing and the contrary, smoking, cheating,
fighting, dancing, and fiddling: there are bullies pushing about, bucks ogling
the women, knaves picking pockets, policemen on the look-out, quacks (oth
er
quacks, plague take them!) bawling in front of their booths, and yokels
looking up at the tinselled dancers and poor old rouged tumblers, while the
light-fingered folk are operating upon their pockets behind. Yes, this is Vanity
Fair; not a moral place certainly; nor a merry one, though very noisy.

W. M. Thackeray, "Vanity Fair"

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II. The street

They pass me by like shadows, crowds on crowds, Dim ghosts of men, that hover to and fro Hugging their bodies round them, like thin shrouds


Wherein their souls were buried long ago:

They trampled on their youth, and faith, and love,

They cast their hope of human-kind away,

With Heaven's clear messages they madly strove,

And conquered, - and their spirits turned to clay:

Lo! how they wander round the world, their grave,

Whose ever-gaping maw by such is fed,

Gibbering at living men, and idly rave,

"We only truly live, but ye are dead."

Alas! poor fools, the anointed eye may trace

A dead soul's epitaph in every face!

James Russell Lowell

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ϲ. Reserving judgements is a matter of infinite hope. I am still a little afraid of missing something if I forget that, as my father snobbishly suggested, and I snobbishly repeat, a sense of the fundamental decencies is parcelled out unequally at birth.

And, after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit. Conduct may be founded on the hard rock or the wet marshes, but after a certain point I don't care what it's founded on. When I


came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to be in uniform and at a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart. Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from my reaction - Gatsby, who represented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn.

E Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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IV. A breeze blew through the room, blew curtains in at one end and out the other like pale flags, twisting them up toward the frosted wedding-cake of the ceiling, and then rippled over the wine-colored rug, making a shadow on it as wind does on the sea.

The only completely stationary object in the room was an enormous couch on which two young women were buoyed up as though upon an anchored balloon. They were both in white, and their dresses were rippling and fluttering as if they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the house. I must have stood for a few moments listening to the whip and snap of the curtains and the groan of a picture on the wall. Then there was a boom as Tom Buchanan shut the rear windows and the caught wind died out about the room, and the curtains and the rugs and the two young women ballooned slowly to the floor.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby" 196


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V. About half way between West Egg and New York the motor road joins the railroad and runs beside it for a quarter of a mile, so as to shrink away from a certain desolate area of land. This is a valley of ashes - a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat into ridges and hills and grotesque gardens; where ashes take the forms of houses and chimneys and rising smoke and, finally, with a transcendent effort, of ash-gray men who move dimly and already crumbling through the powdery air. Occasionally a line of gray cars crawls along an invisible track, gives out a ghastly creak, and comes to rest, and immediately the ash-gray men swarm up with leaden spades and stir up an impenetrable cloud, which screens their obscure operations from your sight.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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VI. There was music from my neighbor's house through the summer
nights. In his blue gardens men and girls came and went like moths among the
whisperings and the champagne and the stars. At high tide in the afternoon I
watched his guests diving from the tower of his raft, or taking the sun on the
hot sand of his beach while his two motor-boats slit the waters of the Sound,
drawing aquaplanes over cataracts of foam. On week-ends his Rolls-Royce
became an omnibus, bearing parties to and from the city between nine in the
morning and long past midnight, while his station wagon scampered like a
brisk yellow bug to meet all trains. And on Mondays eight servants, including
an extra gardener, toiled all day with mops and scrubbing-brushes and ham
mers and garden-shears, repairing the ravages of the night before.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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VII. Every Friday five crates of oranges and lemons arrived from a
fruiterer in New York - every Monday these same oranges and lemons left
his back door in a pyramid of pulpless halves. There was a machine in the
kitchen which could extract the juice of two hundred oranges in half an hour
if a little button was pressed two hundred times by a butler's thumb.

At least once a fortnight a corps of caterers came down with several hundred feet of canvas and enough colored lights to make a Christmas tree of


Gatsby's enormous garden. On buffet tables, garnished with glistening hors-d'oeuvre, spiced baked hams crowded against salads of harlequin designs and pastry pigs and turkeys bewitched to a dark gold.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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VIII. On Sunday morning while church bells rang in the villages alongshore, the world and its mistress returned to Gatsby's house and twinkled hilariously on his lawn.

"He's a bootlegger '," said the young ladies, moving somewhere between his cocktails and his flowers. "One time he killed a man who had found out that he was nephew to Von Hindenburg 2 and second cousin to the devil. Reach me a rose, honey, and pour me a last drop into that there crystal glass."

Once I wrote down on the empty spaces of a timetable the names of those who came to Gatsby's house that summer. It is an old timetable now, disintegrating at its folds, and headed "This schedule in effect July 5lh, 1922." But I can still read the gray names, and they will give you a better impression than my generalities of those who accepted Gatsby's hospitality and paid him the subtle tribute of knowing nothing whatever about him.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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IX. " love to see you at my table, Nick. You remind me of a - of a rose, an absolute rose. Doesn't he?" She turned to Miss Baker for confirmation: "An absolute rose?"

This was untrue. I am not even faintly like a rose. She was only extempoz-ing, but a stirring warmth flowed from her, as if her heart was trying to come out to you concealed in one of those breathless, thrilling words. Then suddenly she threw her napkin on the table and excused herself and went into the house.

Miss Baker and I exchanged a short glance consciously devoid of meaning. I was about to speak when she sat up alertly and said "Sh!" in a warning voice. A subdued impassioned murmur was audible in the room beyond, and Miss Baker leaned forward unashamed, trying to hear.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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X. By seven o'clock the orchestra has arrived, no thin five-piece affair,
but a whole pitful of oboes and trombones and saxophones and viols and
cornets and piccolos, and low and high drums. The last swimmers have come
in from the beach now and are dressing up-stairs; the cars from New York
are parked five deep in the drive, and already the halls and salons and veran
das are gaudy with primary colors, and hair shorn in strange new ways, and
shawls beyond the dreams of Castile. The bar is in full swing, and floating
rounds of cocktails permeate the garden outside, until the air is alive with chat
ter and laughter, and casual innuendo and introductions forgotten on the spot,
and enthusiastic meetings between women who never knew other's names.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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XI. The day-coach - he was penniless now - was hot. He went out to
the open vestibule and sat down on a folding-chair, and the station slid away
and the backs of unfamiliar buildings moved by. Then out into the spring
fields, where a yellow trolley raced them for a minute with the people in it
who might once have seen the pale magic of her face along the casual street.


The track curved and now it was going away from the sun, which, as sank lower, seemed to spread itself in benediction over the vanishing ci where she had drawn her breath. He stretched out his hand desperately as to snatch only a wisp of air, to save a fragment of the spot that she had made lovely for him.

F. Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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XII. Outside the wind was loud and there was a faint flow of thunder along the Sound. All the lights were going on in West Egg now; the electric trains, men-carrying, were plunging home through the rain from New York. It was trie hour of a profound human change, and excitement was generating on the air.

As I went over to say good-by I saw that the expression of bewilderment had come back into Gatsby's face, as though a faint doubt had occurred to him as to the quality of his present happiness. Almost five years! There must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short his dreams - not through her own fault, but because of the colossal vitality of his illusion. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He had thrown himself into it with a creative passion, adding to it all the time, decking it out with every bright feather that drifted his way.

E Scott Fitzgerald, "The Great Gatsby"

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XIII. There was not a breath of air moving, nor a sound but that of the surf booming half a mile away along the beaches and against the rocks outside. A peculiar stagnant smell hung over the anchorage - a smell of sodden leaves and rotting tree trunks. I observed the doctor sniffing and sniffing, like some one tasting a bad egg.

"I don't know about treasure," he said, "but I'll stake my wig there's fever here."

If the conduct of the men had been alarming in the boat, it became truly threatening when they had come aboard. They lay about the deck growling together in talk. The slightest order was received with a black look, and grudgingly and carelessly obeyed. Even the honest hands must have caught the infection, for there was not one man aboard to mend another. Mutiny, it was plain, hung over us like a thunder-cloud.

R. L. Stevenson, "Treasure Island"

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XIV. By this time the schooner and her little consort were gliding pretty
swiftly through the water; indeed, we had already fetched up level with the
camp fire. The ship was talking, as sailors say, loudly, treading the innumera
ble ripples with an incessant weltering splash; and until I got my eye above
the window-sill I could not comprehend why the watchmen had taken no
alarm. One glance, however, was sufficient; and it was only one glance that
I durst take from that unsteady skiff. It showed me Hands and his companion
locked together in deadly wrestle, each with a hand upon the other's throat.

I dropped upon the thwart again, none too soon, for I was near overboard. I could see nothing for the moment but these two furious, encrimsoned faces, swaying together under the smoky lamp; and I shut my eyes to let them grow once more familiar with the darkness.

R. L. Stevenson, "Treasure Island"

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XV. There was a great, smooth swell upon the sea. The wind blowing
steady and gentle from the south, there was no contrariety between that and
the current, and the billows rose and fell unbroken.

Had it been otherwise, I must long ago have perished; but as it was, it is surprising how easily and securely my little boat could ride. Often, as I lay still at the bottom, and kept no more than an eye above the gun-wale, I would see a big blue summit heaving close above me; yet the coracle would but bounce


a little, dance as if on springs, and subside on the other side into the trough as

lightly as a bird.

.. .And I had hardly moved before the boat, giving up at once her gentle dancing movement, ran straight down a slope of water so steep that it made me giddy, and struck her nose, with a spout of spray, deep into the side of the next wave. [...] It was plain she was not to be interfered with, and at that rate, since I could in no way influence her course, what hope had 1 left of reaching land?

R. L. Stevenson, "Treasure Island"

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XVI. John de Graffenreid Atwood ate of the lotus, root, stem, and flower. The tropics gobbled him up. He plunged enthusiastically into his work, which was to try to forget Rosine.

Now, they who dine on the lotus rarely consume it plain. There is a sauce au diable that goes with it; and the distillers are the chefs who prepare it. And on Johnny's menu card it read "brandy." With a bottle between them, he and Billy Keogh would sit on the porch of the little consulate at night and roar out great, indecorous songs, until the natives, slipping hastily past, would shrug a shoulder and mutter things to themselves about the "Americanos diablos."

...Johnny was in that phase of lotus-eating when all the world tastes

bitter in one's mouth.

O. Henry, "Shoes"

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XVII. "...when I cash in my winnings, I don't want to find any widows' and orphans' chips in my stack."

The grass-grown globe was the green table on which Keogh gambled. The games he played were of his own invention. He was no grubber after the diffident dollar. Nor did he care to follow it with horn and hounds. Rather he loved to coax it with egregious and brilliant flies from its habitat in the waters of strange streams. Yet Keogh was a business man; and his schemes, in spite of their singularity, were as solidly set as the plans of a building contractor. In Arthur's time Sir William Keogh would have been a Knight of the Round Table. In these modern days he rides abroad, seeking the Graft instead of the Grail.!

O. Henry, "Ships"

'According to a medieval legend only a knight pure in thought, word and act could find and keep the Holy Grail, but as soon as its keeper became impure the Grail vanished.

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XVIH. An hour later Billy Keogh lounged into the consulate, clean and cool in his linen clothes, and grinning like a pleased shark.

"Guess what?" he said to Johnny, lounging in his hammock. Too hot to guess," said Johnny, lazily.

"Your shoe-store man's come," said Keogh, rolling the sweet morsel on his tongue, "with a stock of goods big enough to supply the continent as far down as Terra Fuego. [...] Four-thousand-dollar stock of goods!" gasped Keogh, in ecstasy. "Talk about coals to Newcastle!.."

Keogh loved to take his mirth easily. He selected a clean place on the matting and lay upon the floor. The walls shook with his enjoyment.

O. Henry, "Shoes"

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XIX. "Ah," said he, "this '11 be as good as drink to my mate Bill." The expression of his face as he said those words was not at all pleasant, and I had my own reasons for thinking that the stranger was mistaken, even supposing he meant what he said. But it was no affair of mine, I thought; and, besides, it was difficult to know what to do. The stranger kept hanging about just inside the inn door, peering round the corner like a cat waiting for a mouse. Once I stepped out myself into the road, but he immediately called me


 




back, and, as I did not obey quick enough for his fancy, a most horrible change came over his tallowy face, and he ordered me in, with an oath that made me jump.

R. L. Stevenson, "Treasure Island"

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XX. examined them with the care with which a warrior examines his arms before he goes forth to battle for his lady-love and life. The burrs were the ripe August product, as hard as filberts, and bristling with spines as tough and sharp as needles. Johnny whistled softly a little tune, and went out to find Billy Keogh.

Later in the night, when Coralio was steeped in slumber, he and Billy went forth into the deserted streets with their coats bulging like balloons. All up and down the Calle Grande they went, sowing the sharp burrs carefully in the sand, along the narrow sidewalks in every foot of grass between the silent houses. [...] And then, nearly at the dawn, they laid themselves down to rest calmly, as great generals do after planning a victory according to the revised tactics, and slept, knowing that they had sowed with the accuracy of Satan sowing tares and the perseverance of Paul planting.

O. Henry, "Ships"

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Final Tests

Variant 1

1.1. each of the followingwords marked with a number match the most suitable word marked with a letter so that an image is formed:

 

l)Rain is a) a firework
2) Anger is b) a prison
3) Peace is c) a rose
4) Poverty is d) sadness

1.2. What stylistic device is realised in the formed images: a) metaphor, b) metonymy?

2.1. Decide what style [a) newspaper, b) colloquial, c) scientific] is
represented in the following extract:

It's no good worrying and trying to look ahead and plan and scheme and weigh your every action, because you never can tell when doing such-and-such won't make so-and-so happen - while, on the other hand, if you do so-and-so it may just as easily lead to such-and-such.

2.2. Whatdoes the sentence contain:a) enumeration and framing
repetition, b) polysyndeton and ellipsis, c) enumeration and chiasmus,
d) polysyndeton and framing repetition?


 




3.1. What meanings are effective in the following joke: a) neutral
and colloquial, b) neutral and literary?

"What did you find out about the salivary glands?" "I couldn't find out a thing, they're too secretive."

3.2. What stylistic device is observed in the joke: a) zeugma
b) pun?

4. Decide what the sentences contain: a) direct meaning, b) meta
phor,
c) metonymy:

1) The head of the pin is rather large.

2) The dinner cost two dollars a head.

3) He is the head of the firm.

4) The man has a large head.

5) Her name is at the head of the list.

5. What does the sentence contain: a) metaphor and metonymy,
b) only metaphor?

His eyes fell on the picture of Anne.

6. What stylistic device(s) is/are used in the following sentenc
es:
a) hyperbole and metaphor, b) hyperbole and metonymy, c) only
hyperbole?

1)The whole town was there.

2) There was an uneasy sea of doubt and hope.

7. Group the following word combinations into two columns, con
taining
/) descriptive attributes, 2) epithets:

a) black-winged bird, b) iron will, c) wooden manners, d) honey-coloured air, e) blooming flowers, f) cold water.

8. What stylistic device is the following sentence based on: a) oxy
moron,
b) antithesis?

Books are a guide of youth and an entertainment for age. 210


9. Decide in each case whether the sentence: a) contains litotes,
b) has simple negation:

1) Don't you think that the problem is really great?

2) Jack was unpredictable.

3) It was unillegal business.

10. Define the kind of metaphor in the following sentence:/: a) nom-
inational, b) cognitive, c) imaginative; II: a) simple, b) sustained:

Don't jump to conclusions - you might get a nasty fall.

11. Distinguish between: a) ellipsis and b) nominative sentence:

1) (at an examination) "How far are you from the correct answer?" "Two seats."

2) The program said, 'Second Act, Two Years Later' I couldn't wait to see the second act of the play.

3) Committee: body that keeps minutes and wastes hours.

4) Two seats. Isn't it enough?

12. Indicate the type of repetition out of the following: a) simple,
b) consecutive, c) anaphora, d) epiphora, e) linking, f) framing, g) chain,
h) chiasmus:

1) Leave me all alone. I want to stay all alone.

2) Oh, they know me! They know me!

3) The suggestion is interesting, indeed. I like the suggestion.

4) Time waits for no man. Thus, don't lose time.

13. Choose from the syntactic stylistic devices [ a) polysyndeton,
b) tautology, c) ellipsis, d) asyndeton, e) enumeration, f) a nominative
clause, g) parallel constructions, h) parceling]
those that are used the
following sentence:

It was the money, of course; money which did strange things to human beings, making them greedy, panicked, at times sub-human.


14.1. Indicate the type of decomposition of the phraseological
unit [ a) shortening, b) expansion, c) insertion, d) substitution, e) word
order change, f) contextual change, g) complex change]
in the following:

Where there's a will there's an heir of expectation.

14.2. What stylistic device is observed in the utterance: a) meta
phor,
b) metonymy?

15. Name expressive means and stylistic devices and group them as follows:

1)expressive means: a) phonetic, b) morphological, c) lexical, d) syntactic, e) graphic;

2) stylistic devices: a) phonetic, b) lexical (lexico-semantic), c) syntactic.

Variant 2

1.1. To each of the following words marked with a number match the most suitable word marked with a letter so that an image is formed:

 

1)A traitor is a) the hammer of God
2) Life is b) a many-headed beast
3) Thunder is c) a journey
4) A crowd is d) a snake

1.2. What stylistic device is realized in the formed images: a) metonymy, b) metaphor?

2.1. Decide what style [ a) newspaper, b) scientific, c) publicistic] is represented in the following extract:

In other words, education is the instruction of the intellect in the laws of nature, under which name I include not merely things and their forces, but men and their ways; and the fashioning of the affections and of the will into an earnest and loving desire to move in harmony with those laws.


2.2. What does the sentence contain:a) parceling and enumeration,b) detachment and parallel constructions, c) detachment and enumeration, d) parceling and parallel constructions?

3.1. What meanings are effective in the following joke: a) neutral
and colloquial, b) neutral and literary?

Cannibal - "'We've just captured an actor." Chief ~ "Hurray! I was hoping for a good ham sandwich."

3.2. What stylistic device is observed in the joke: a) pun, b) zeugma?

4. Decide what the sentences contain: a) direct meaning, b) meta
phor,
c) metonymy:

1)The body of the plane was repaired.

2) She is a quiet little body.

3) This animal has a large body.

4) The body of his discourse was about poetry.

5) The distance of such celestial bodies can be readily determined.

5. What does the sentence contain: a) only metaphor, b) metaphor
and metonymy?

Lady Alison fell into a train of thought.

6. What stylistic device(s) is/are used in the following sentenc
es:
a) hyperbole and metaphor, b) hyperbole and metonymy, c) only
hyperbole?

1) This is a world of effort you know, Fanny.

2) I see a frightful lot of writers and painters.

7. Group the following word combinations into two columns, con
taining
1) descriptive attributes, 2) epithets:

a) cold reason, b) wooden tables, c) black-winged wind, d) blooming girls, e) brown-eyed cat, f) iron bridge.


8. What stylistic device is the following sentence based on: 1) an
tithesis,
2) oxymoron?

Past pain is pleasure.

9. Decide in each case whether the sentence: a) contains litotes
b) has simple negation:

1) No policeman would ever cope with this.

2) He's not good enough at maths.

3) The drinks had no effect of making them less conversational than before.

10. Define the kind of metaphor in the following sentence:/.-

a) nominational, b) cognitive, c) imaginative; II: a) simple, b) sustained:

I put the letter well into the mouth of the box and it fell turning over and over.

11. Distinguish between: a) ellipsis and b) nominative sentence:

1)A notice: 'Van Dyke, by Himself'.

2) "Don't you know what they call a star with a tail?" "Sure - Mickey Mouse."

3) Mickey Mouse - a famous image.

4) "Did you have any luck playing golf?" "Marvellous luck."

12. Indicate the type of repetition out of the following: a) simple,

b) consecutive, c) anaphora, d) epiphora, e) linking, f) framing, g) chain,
h) chiasmus:

1)Nobody knows the answer; the answer is not simple.

2) She listened, she stopped knitting, she saw the light again.

3) Let's make it clear -1 don't know you, and you don't know me.

4) It is enough! It is enough!

13. Choose from the syntactic stylistic devices [ a) polysyndeton,
b) tautology, c) ellipsis, d) asyndeton, e) enumeration, f) a nominative
clause, g) parallel constructions]
those that are used the following
sentence:

The sun was high, the sky unclouded, the air warm with a dry fresh breeze


14.1. Indicate the type of decomposition of the phraseological
unit [a) shortening, b) expansion, c) insertion, d) substitution, e) word
order change, f) contextual change, g) complex change]
in the following:

Don't make a mountain out of accounting.

14.2. What stylistic device is observed in the utterance: a) meta
phor,
b) metonymy?

15. Name expressive means and stylistic devices and group them as follows:

1) expressive means: a) phonetic, b) morphological, c) lexical, d) syntactic, e) graphic;

2) stylistic devices: a) phonetic. lexical -semantic'). c) syntactic.

Examination Questions

1. The subject of stylistics and its place in the system of related disciplines. Types of stylisties.

2. The main stylistic notions: style, norm, form.

3. The main stylistic notions: text, context.

4. The main stylistic notions: speech, writing.

5. The main stylistic notions: expressive means of language.

6. The main stylistic notions: stylistic devices.

7. The main stylistic notions: image.

8. The style of official documents. The style of scientific prose.

9. The newspaper style. The publicistic style.

10. The belletristic style. The language of emotive prose.

11. The styles of drama and poetry.

12. The literary colloquial style and informal colloquial style.

 

13. Special colloquial English.

14. Neutral words and common literary words.

15. Special literary vocabulary: terms, poetic words, archaic words.


 




16. Special literary vocabulary: barbarisms, foreignisms, neologisms.

17. Common colloquial vocabulary.

18. Special colloquial vocabulary: slang, jargonisms.

19. Special colloquial vocabulary: professionalisms, dialectal words, vulgar words.

20. Set expressions.

21. Stylistic transposition of nouns. Stylistic use of the articles.

22. Stylistic transposition of pronouns and adjectives.

23. Stylistic transposition of verbs.

24. Instrumentation means: alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia.

25. Versification means: rhyme, rhythm.

26. Graphic means: punctuation.

27. Graphic means: orthography, type, text segmentation.

28. Figures of quantity: hyperbole, meiosis, litotes.

29. Figures of quality: metonymy, synecdoche.

30. Figures of quality: periphrasis, euphemism.

31. Figures of quality: metaphor.

32. Figures of quality: antonomasia, personification.

33. Figures of quality: allegory, epithet.

34. Figures of quality: irony.

35. Figures of identity :similie.

36. Stylistic use of synonyms.

37. Figures of contrast: oxymoron.

38. Figures of contrast: antithesis.

39. Figures of inequality: climax and anticlimax.

40. Figures of inequality: zeugma and pun.

41. Sentence model reduction: ellipsis and aposiopesis.

42. Sentence model reduction: nominative sentences and asyndeton.

43. Sentence model extension: repetition and enumeration.

44. Sentence model extension: tautology and polysyndeton.

45. Sentence model extension: "it is /was/he, who...", sentence structures with the emphatic verb "to do", parenthetic sentences .

46. Stylistic inversion.

47. Detachment of sentence parts.

48. Parallel constructions.

49. Rhetoric questions and other variants of syntactic transposition.

50. Disruption of syntactic models: parceling.


BASIC LITERATURE

. . ( ). - .: , 1981.

. . . . - .: , 2002.

. . - .: , 2001.

. . (). - : , 1987.

. . (. . ). - .: , 1985.

. . . (. ). - : , 1989.

. . . . -.: , 2002.

. ., . . . -.: , 1960.

. . . - .: , 1979.

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