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Man-made and Synthetic Fibres

Man-made fabrics. For thousands of years people used natural fibres. Then people learned to make fibres themselves.

Cellulose fibres. Scientists wanted to find a fibre that would look and act like silk. Their study resulted in the production of a fibre called rayon. Most rayon and acetate fabrics are made from wood pulp. Rayon dyes well and, if treated chemically, it does not wrinkle much. Rayon is a man-made fibre made from a plant source.

Non-cellulose fibres are made entirely by chemical processes. Nylon was the first non-cellulose fibre. It is made from chemicals and petroleum products. Today, nylon has almost as many uses as cotton has. It is wrinkle-resistened, does not shrink and repels water. Nylon is used for rainwear, camping clothes and equipment, parachutes. But it is not comfortable to wear in hot weather. Nylon became a household word in 1940 when it was knitted into hosiery. In 1942 it was called into service for the armed forces use in parachutes, flak vests, combat uniforms, tires and many other vital military uses. Until the war nylon was not available to the public. Nylon became one of the most versatile fibres of the man-made fabrics. In addition to hosiery, nylon is used in tricot, netting for bridal veils, and in carpeting.

Nylon is stronger yet weighs less than any other commonly used fibre. It is elastic and resilient and responsive to heat setting. Nylon fibres are smooth, non-absorbent and dry quickly. Extensive washing and drying in an automatic dryer can eventually cause piling. Nylon whites should be washed separately to avoid greying. This fabric may get yellow so it should be bleached frequently. Nylon melts at high temperatures. If ironing is necessary, always use a low temperature on the wrong side.

Synthetic fabrics, made from chemically produced fibres, include nylon, acrylic, acetate, and polyester. Each fibre has unique characteristics, desirable for different reasons. Many fabrics are blend of natural and synthetic fibres, offering you the best qualities of each, such as the breathable comfort of cotton blended with the wrinkle resistance of polyester, synthetic fabrics are made to resemble the look and feel of natural fabrics. Polyester may look like cotton or silk, acetate and nylon shimmer like silk, and acrylic mimics the texture and appearance of wool.

Blended fibres. Chemical processes are also used to combine two or more fibres into one fabric. Since cotton has a tendency to wrinkle, combining it with a nonwrinkling fibre reduces this tendency. Cotton for example, is often combined with polyester. It makes a fabric that looks like cotton and is cool to wear like cotton. But, like polyester, this fabric does not wrinkle easily. Fibres combined in this way are called blends. Blended fibres and fabrics can take advantage of each fibres' good qualities.

 

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraphs in italics in a written form.

V Questions for discussion:

1. Why did people begin to make fibres themselves?

2. What man-made fibre has properties like silk?

3. What are most acetate fabrics made from?

4. Is nylon man-made fibre? Why?

5. What is the difference between man-made and synthetic fibres?

6. Where is nylon usually used?

7. What are the properties of nylon?

8. What do blended fibres mean?

9. What are their advantages?

TEXT C

 

I Mind the following words and word-combinations:

1. scratchy ,

2. a curl -

3. spongy ,

4. to crease

5. tearing

6. fuzzy ,

7. sheen

8. worsted wool

 

II Listen to the text and be ready to answer the questions:

1. Why is wool pleasant to wear?

2. How do the production processes influence the quality of wool?

 

III Listen to the text again. Decide if the statements are true or false.

1. Wool is very allergetic.

2. Wool is very scratchy because it is made from animals.

3. Wool has high water absorption qualities.

4. Wool resists wear and tear.

5. Wool isnt classified according to the origin.

UNIT 4

TEXT A

 

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. sturdy

2. luxury

3. hemmimg

4. to slip

5. to pierce

6. stationary ,

7. adjustable

8. a cord ,

9. to pull ,

10. evenly ,

11. to accommodate

 

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. time-consuming

2. a side-to-side stitch

3. a reverse-cycle stitch

4. a general purpose foot

5. a zipper foot

6. an embroidery foot -

7. a grooved bottom

8. a quilted project

9. a needle clamp

10. tug-of-war

 

The Sewing Machine

The sewing machine is the centre for many creative hours of sewing activity. Without the sewing machine, the world would be a very different place. Like the automobile and countless other innovations from the past 300 years, the sewing machine takes something time-consuming and laborious and makes it fast and easy. With the invention of the mechanized sewing machine, manufacturers could suddenly produce piles of high-quality clothing at minimal expense. Because of this technology, the vast majority of people in the world can now afford the sort of sturdy, finely-stitched clothes that were a luxury only 200 years ago.

There are some principle parts common to all modern sewing machines. The parts may look different on different models and they may have slightly different locations.

There are many types of home sewing machines. Different models allow you to sew in one, two or three directions forward, backward and side-to-side. The stitches formed may be straight, zigzag or automatic. An automatic stitch combines forward, backward and side-to-side stitches into a specific design. The design is repeated and forms a pattern. Automatic or reverse-cycle stitches are useful for hemming and decorating.

Basically a sewing machine is used to join together some pieces of material or to stitch a decoration onto a fabric. It sews a stitch, moves the fabric and sews the next stitch. There are sewing machines that will sew together items like shoes, tents and sails. Can you imagine things like that being sewn together by hand? Using machines for sewing has made the process much easier and faster. At top speed the home sewing machine can sew about 700 to 1.100 stitches per minute.

Sewing machine needles come in a variety of styles and sizes. The correct needle choice depends mostly on the fabric you have selected. Sharp points, used for woven fabrics, are designed to slip between the loops of knit fabric rather than pierce and possibly damage the fabric. Universal points are designed to work on both woven and knitted fabrics. The size of the needle is designated by a number. A larger number means the needle is thicker and that it is appropriate for use with heavier fabrics and heavier threads.

Stitches are made by locking the upper thread with a lower thread, carried on a bobbin. Bobbin thread tension is controlled by a spring on the bobbin case, which may be built in or removable.

A general-purpose foot, probably the one you will use most often, has a wide opening to accommodate the side-to-side movements of the needle in all types of stitches. It is also suitable for most straight stitching. A zipper foot is used to insert zippers or to stitch any seam that has more bulk on one side than the other. For some sewing machines, the zipper foot is stationary, requiring you to move the needle position to the right or left.

For other styles, the position of the zipper foot itself is adjustable. A special purpose or embroidery foot has a grooved bottom that allows the foot to ride smoothly over decorative stitches or raised cords.

A walking foot feeds top and bottom layers at equal rates, allowing you to more lazily match patterns or stitch bulky layers, as in quilted projects.

Inserting the needle you should loosen the needle clamp. After selecting the appropriate needle, insert it into the machine as high as it will go. The grooved side of the needle faces forward, if your bobbin gets inserted from the front or top. It faces to the left, if your bobbin gets inserted on the left.

The machine forms stitches by interlocking the bobbin thread with the needle thread. Every time the needle goes down into the fabric, a sharp hook catches the needle thread and wraps the bobbin thread around it. Imagine this little tug-of-war. If the needle thread tension is stronger than the bobbin thread tension, the needle thread pulls the bobbin thread through the top. If the bobbin thread tension is stronger, it pulls the needle thread through to the bottom. When the tensions are evenly balanced, the stitch will lock exactly half way between the top and bottom of the layers being sewn, which is right where you want it.

III Answer the questions:

1. Why is a sewing machine so important nowadays?

2. Is it cost effective?

3. Do modern sewing machines greatly differ from each other?

4. What are the main types of home sewing machines?

5. What type of machine is useful for hemming?

6. What does the needle choice depend on?

7. What is the main function of a foot?

8. What is the right way to insert a needle?

9. How does a machine form a stitch?

 

IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Without a sewing machine our life would be

2. This technology gives us an opportunity to ...

3. Different types of sewing machines have

4. The stitches may be

5. Generally any sewing machine is used to

6. If you want to insert a needle you should

 

V Find the English equivalents to the words:

, , , , , , , ,

 

V Give definitions to the words:

A presser foot, a thread guide, a stitch, a needle, thread tension

 

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