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VII Name and translate all essential parts of the sewing machine.

 

VIII Translate the sentences into English:

1. , .

2. .

3. , , .

4. , , .

5. .

6. : .

7. , , 璺.

 

IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

A sewing machine, a time-consuming device, principle parts, to form stitches, the size of the needle, a foot, to interlock threads, the bobbin thread tension.

 

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. to devise ,

2. murky ,

3. to evolve

4. to fear

5. to put out of somebody -

6. to flee

7. to be in the grip of something

8. salvaged

9. a pauper

10. to fade away ,

 

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

 

The Sewing Machines Early History

The sewing machine is one of the most important machines ever devised. Its early history involves the contributions made by myriad of inventors. While the early history of the sewing machine is somewhat cloudy, its later pathway is much clearer. Important people were involved in fully developing the modern machine

Before the sewing machine was invented, garments, home decor items, and all fabric items were sewn by hand. Like most inventions, the history of the sewing machine is a bit murky; there is some confusion as to who really invented the machine first. It was actually a series of events and inventions by a number of contributors that evolved into one of the most popular machines ever used.

Some attempts were made in the 18th century but the ideas were not patented.

Genuine progress occurred in 1830, when the French government granted a patent to Barthelemy Thimonnier. Within a decade of receiving of his patent, Thimonnier had a factory running with 80 machines. Parisian tailors feared Thimonniers machines would replace hand sewing, putting the craftsmen tailors out of work. Late one night a group of tailors stormed the factory, destroyed every machine and caused Thimonnier to flee for his life. He started again, produced a vastly improved machine, and was set to go into full-scale production. But the tailors attacked again. France was in the grip of revolution, so Thimonnier could expect little help from the police or army. He fled to England with just one salvaged machine. For all his accomplishments, he died a pauper.

Had things gone a bit differently, Thimonniers name may have replaced Singers name today. However, Thimonniers machine faded away with him.

Most historians agree that the basic sewing machine was invented by Massachusetts farmer Elias Howe, who completed his first prototype in 1845. One year later it was patented and Howe tried to stimulate interest within the tailoring trade. But the world wasn't yet ready to replace hand sewing. Despite months of demonstrations, Howe could not make a sale. Desperately in debt, Howe sent his brother Amasa to England with the machine in the hope that it would receive more interest on the other side of the Atlantic. Amasa could find only one corset maker named William Thomas, who eventually bought the rights to the invention and arranged for Elias to come to London to further develop the machine. The two had major personality conflicts, and eventually Elias, now penniless, returned to America. When Elias arrived back home, he found that the sewing machine had finally caught on and that dozens of manufacturers, including Isaac Singer, were busy making machines. While Singer did pioneer aggressive sales tactics, he did not invent any notable sewing-machine advances. But that the story does have a somewhat happy ending. Both Singer and Howe reached a legal agreement and lived out their days as multimillionaires.

The sewing machine helped women have more time for other interests. Clothing, curtains, and so many more practical, everyday items no longer took days or weeks to complete. The world was on its way to being industrialized and the sewing machine certainly helped it on its way.

 

III Make up a plan of the text.

IV Translate the paragraph in italics in a written form.

 

V Questions for discussion:

1. Why were garments sewn by hand?

2. Why is it not clear who was the first inventor of a sewing machine?

3. Why did Parisian tailors fear sewing machines at first?

4. What was the result of that fear?

5. When was the first prototype of the modern sewing machine finished?

6. Why did Howe have to send his brother to England?

7. How did Singer manage to become number one in sewing industry those days?

8. Were the first inventors of the sewing machine successful in their lives?

TEXT C

 

Mind the following words and word-combinations:

1. repair (n)

2. immediate

3. to adjust

4. a wound bobbin

5. a bobbin case

6. ragged stitches

7. to skip ,

8. frustration

 

II Listen to the text and be ready to answer the questions:

1. Can a wrong used thread cause problems with sewing? How?

2. Why is it better to check your sewing machine before actual sewing?

 

III Listen to the text again. Decide if the statements are true or false.

1. Any sewing machine has to be sent to repair shops.

2. You should adjust upper tension to a certain type of material.

3. One should begin sewing using an empty bobbin.

4. One can mix different sizes of threads.

5. If you have an expensive sewing machine you may not check it before sewing.

UNIT 5

TEXT A

I Listen and remember the following words:

1. to lay out

2. beeswax

3. tangling

4. transparent

5. dimension

7. erasable ,

8. to hone

9. trimming

10. clipping

11. an eye

12. a buckle

 

II Read and remember the following phrases:

1. sewing supplies

2. hot-forged steel

3. pinking shears -

4. a seam ripper

5. a rotary cutter

6. bent-handled shears

7. seam allowance

8. a cording

9. a stretchable braid ,

10. a waistband stiffener

 

Sewing supplies

Sewing involves main steps: measuring, laying out the pattern, cutting, marking, stitching and pressing. For each of these steps there are special tools and supplies to make your sewing easier and help you complete your projects successfully.

Hand-sewing supplies are needles and pins. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles. Thimble protects your finger while hand sewing. Available in a variety of styles and sizes, it is worn on whichever finger you use to push the needle through the fabric. Pincushion provides a safe and handy place to store pins.

Needle threader eases threading of hand and machine needles.

Beeswax with holder strengthens thread and prevents tangling while hand sewing.

Measuring and marking tools. Transparent ruler allows you to see what you are measuring and marking. It also is used to check fabric grainline.

Yardstick (meterstick) should be made of smooth hardwood or metal.

Tape-measure has the flexibility helpful for measuring items with shape and dimension. Marking chalk is available in several forms; as powder in a rolling wheel dispenser, as a pencil, or as a flat slice. Chalk lines are easily removable from most fabrics.

Fabric marking pens are available in both air-erasable and water-erasable forms. Narrow marking tape is an alternative method for marking fabrics when other methods are less suitable.

Cutting tools. You should use cutting tools only for sewing. The best-quality scissors and shears are hot-forged, high-grade steel, honed to a fine cutting edge.

1) sewing scissors pointed for trimming and clipping work. The two handles are the same size.

2) Shears used for cutting fabrics. The two handles are shaped differently, to fit the hand comfortably.

3) Pinking or scalloping shears used to cut a decorative edge that reduces raveling of the fabric.

4) Embroidery scissors used for light detail work, like cutting threads, ripping stitches, and cutting buttonholes.

5) Electric scissors powered by a battery or other source of electricity. These make cutting faster.

6) seam ripper aids in removing stitches from fabric; lifts thread away from fabric before cutting.

7) Thread clippers used for clipping threads quickly.

8) Rotary cutter and cutting mat used to cut long, straight fabric strips quickly. Be sure to cut on the protective mat.

Bent-handled dressmaker's shears are best for cutting fabric shapes because the angle of the lower blade lets fabric lie flat on the cutting surface.

Sewing scissors have one pointed and one rounded tip for clipping threads and clipping seam allowances.

Pinking shears and pinking rotary cutters are used to finish seams. They cut fabric in a zigzag pattern instead of a straight line. In addition to your fabric, you will need many other items known as sewing supplies. These are supplies that become part of the garment. Thread, tapes and trims, elastics, beltings, and fasteners are all examples of sewing supplies.

Thread is a long strand of twisted fibers. When you buy thread, pull a length from the spool and examine it for evenness. Pull it to test its strength and stretch ability. Buy a thread type similar to your fabric. Use natural threads with natural fabrics.

Tapes and trims are long strips of woven, knitted, braided or lace fabric. Some stretch, and some do not. Some are only for decoration, and others are purely functional. You should choose a firmly woven tape, ribbon, or cording if its job is to prevent stretching. Choose a stretchable braid, lace, or ribbing if it has to stretch as the clothing is worn.

Elastic can be a single yarn or a woven or braided strip of fabric that stretches when pulled. Elastic comes in many widths. It is also made with different gripping power for different uses.

Belting and waistband stiffeners. Belting is a stiff band that can be covered with fabric to make a belt. There are also special waistband stiffeners. There are materials used to stiffen the waistband area of tailored pants.

Fusibles. This is a new category of sewing supplies. Fusibles are ironed into place. You can iron on patches, decorations, zippers, and hem tape. The fusible material on these items softens when it is heated. When it is soft it adheres to another fabric.

Fasteners close garments. Zippers, snaps, buttons, hooks and eyes, buckles, and nylon tape are all sewing supplies that are fasteners.

III Answer the questions:

1. What processes does sewing include?

2. What are hand-sewing supplies?

3. What do we use for measuring and marking?

4. What is the most widely used marking tool?

5. What is the difference between scissors and shears?

6. What other cutting tools were mentioned in the text?

7. What supplies have become the parts of the garment?

8. What supplies are used for decoration?

9. What are fasteners?

 

IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Every sewing step require

2. Hand-sewing supplies are..

3. With the help of..you can measure the figure before making a pattern.

4. To measure on the fabric one usually uses..

5. ..are scissors, shears, seam rippers etc.

6. Tapes and trims are

 

V Find the English equivalents to the words:

, , , , , , , , , ,

VI Make up sentences with the terms:

Special tools, a rolling wheel dispenser, cutting supplies, pinking shears, a zigzag pattern, elastics, belting, fusible.

 

VII Give definitions to the words:

Measuring, cutting, marking, stitching, seam allowance, sewing supplies.

 

VIII Translate the sentences into English:

1. .

2. .

3. , .

4. , .

5. , .

6. , .

7. .

8. .

9. .

 

IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

To involve main steps, special sewing supplies, hand-sewing supplies, measuring and marking tools, cutting tools, thread, tape, trims, elastic, fusible and fastener.

 

 

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. a blueprint ,

2. a bust, a chest ,

3. a waist

4. a hip

5. circumference

6. ease , ,

7. extra room

8. yardage

9. to estimate

10. a dart

 

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

 

Patterns

Patterns are "blueprints" for cutting and stitching clothing and accessories.

The bust or chest, waist, and hip measurements are used to determine pattern size. These three measurements are horizontal, representing body circumference or size. If one body measurement is usually large or small the pattern should be altered to fit this particular area.

Pattern figure type is related to the body's vertical measurements. Figure type refers to body build and height.

Pattern size is determined by exact body measurements. The garment made from a pattern, however, is larger than the body measurements. A small amount of extra room is added so a person can move and breathe freely in the clothes. Ease is the name given to the extra room built into a pattern for wearing comfort. After adding the minimum ease for comfort, style ease may be added. This is the amount of easy used in a design to give it a fitted or a loose and flowing appearance.

Pattern catalogues are of great help for dress-makers. All needed information can be found in the pattern catalogue. You will need to know the brand name, the pattern number, the pattern size, and sometimes, the pattern figure type. The name of the pattern company or brand name is on the corner of the pattern book. The four-digit number is the pattern style number. The available sizes are shown on the fabric yardage chart.

There is a wealth of information on the pattern envelope. The front of the envelope shows front views of the styles included in the pattern. Drawings show all seams, darts, and details, but it is hard to estimate the amount of fullness. For an idea of the true fullness, a photograph in the large catalogue may be more helpful.

The information on the front of the pattern envelope includes the prices, size, figure type, brand name, style number and style choices. There are some special features of the pattern. There may be an embroidery transfer, a sewing lesson, a designer style, a knit fabric requirement, or a quick or easy-to-sew design.

The back views, style description, and hemline widths on the envelope back also help you select a pattern. In addition the envelope back is your shopping guide or list. Suitable fabrics are suggested for the design. All yardage requirements for fabrics and supplies are listed. Special information, such as suitability for plaids or napped fabrics, is printed on the back of the pattern envelope.

The pattern guide sheets explain how to cut out the pattern and sew the pieces together.

Today, pattern pieces are well marked to help you identify, layout, cut, mark, and sew each piece. Some early pattern had no printed markings.

Pattern symbols tell you where to lengthen and shorten the pattern. A double line may be used to indicate the best place for lengthening or shortening. A note at the hemline may also provide this information. Pattern symbols also guide you in matching and stitching the pieces together. Matching symbols include notches, dots, squares, and triangles. Location guidelines may indicate the center front, elastic casing, pocket placement, buttonhole placement, trim placement, hem fold, and pleat fold and stitching lines.

 

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