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1

Style and stylistics.

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. The notion of stylistics as a branch of general linguistics. Types of stylistics and fields of investigation.

2. The connection of stylistics with other branches of linguistics.

3. The notions of norm, form, and text.

4. The notion of context. Types of context.

5. The notions of speech and writing.

6. The notion of expressive means.

7. The notion of stylistic devices.

8. The notion of image.

9. The notion of style.

 

 

:1, . 17-23; 2, . 235-266.

:1, . 243-288; 2, . 118-139; 3, . 249-318; 4, . 89-109.

 

Practical assignments for seminar 1:

 

Assignment 1. Context.

Decide if these statements about context are true or false.

A dictionary gives the real meaning of a word.

Language does not exist except in a social context.

The road sign NO ENTRY is striking because of its red background.

Placing events outside their normal context can produce humorous effects.

Context can only refer to time or place.

Contextualising can help to clarify an item of communication.

 

Assignment 2. Stylistic analysis

Decide whether the following statements are true or false.

Stylistic analysis of literary and non-literary texts has an identical outcome.

Stylistic features are elements of the text which we admire.

Analysing fiction spoils the reader's pleasure.

Non-literary texts are easier to analyse than literary texts.

Stylistic analysis is a procedure by which we prove a hypothesis.

In stylistic analysis of non-literary texts we look at phonology, graphology, vocabulary, grammar and semantics.

 

Assignment 3.

Match the following notions with their features: 1) style, 2) norm, 3) context, 4) expressive means, 5) stylistic devices, 6) image:

 

a) phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic units and forms which are used in speech to intensify the meaning of the utterance, to make it emphatic;

b) a set of certain rules which in a certain epoch and in a certain society is considered to be most correct and standard for a definite functional style;

c) a subsystem of the principles, extralinguistic circumstances and the effect of the usage of phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic language means of expressing human thoughts and emotions;

d) reflection of reality in linguistic and extralinguistic contexts from the speaker's/writer's point of view;

e) phonetic, morphological, lexical and syntactic figures of speech formed on the basis of language units and forms;

f) linguistic or situational encirclement of a language unit in which it finds itself in speech.

 

 

Assignment 4.

Group the following expressive means into five columns according to their type:

1) phonetic, 2) morphological, 3) lexical, 4) syntactic, 5) graphic:

whispering; text segmentation; synonyms; vocabulary of non-neutral functional and etymological layers (poetic, archaic words, vulgarisms, ets.); orthography; pitch; emphatic constructions (with inverted word order, when the rheme of the utterance precedes the theme of it; when the auxiliary verb do is used emphatically; emphatic confirmation; a subordinate clause with the emphatic subject it; punctuation; demonstrative pronouns used emphatically; homonyms; ellipsis; melody; interjections; pausation; type; transpositions in grammatical categories / forms; singing; expressive affixes; one-member sentence; descriptive attributes; stress.

 

Assignment 5.

Group the following stylistic devices into three columns according to their type: 1) phonetic, 2) lexical (lexico-semantic), 3) syntactic:

repetition; simile; personification; antithesis; polysyndeton; oxymoron; stylistic inversion; metaphor; parallel constructions; periphrasis; rhetorical question; synecdoche; allegory; gradation; onomatopoeia; euphemism; parceling; metonymy; alliteration; hyperbole; enumeration; meiosis; aposiopesis; epithet; detachment; irony; assonance; zeugma; antonomasia; rhyme; litotes; rhythm; pun.


2

Functional styles of the English language

 

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. General considerations:

a. What is style?

b. What groups are functional styles classified into?

c. What influences the choice of the functional style?

2. The style of official documents. Speak about:

a. The aim of the style. b. The tone of speech. c. Graphic peculiarities. d. Lexical peculiarities. e. Morphological peculiarities. f. Syntactic peculiarities.

3. The style of scientific prose.

a. The aim of the style. b. The tone of speech. c. Graphic peculiarities. d. Lexical peculiarities. e. Morphological peculiarities. f. Syntactic peculiarities.

4. The newspaper style.

a. The aim of the style. b. Lexical peculiarities. c. Morphological peculiarities. d. Syntactic peculiarities. e. Graphic peculiarities.

5. The publicistic style.

a. The oratory style.

b. The style of radio and TV programs.

c. The style of essays and journalistic articles.

6. The belletristic style.

a. The main function of the style. b. The language of emotive prose. c. The language of drama. d. The language of poetry.

7. The colloquial styles.

a. The literary colloquial style.

b. The informal colloquial style and the dialect.

c. Substandard or special colloquial English.

 

:1, . 17-23; 2, . 235-266.

:1, . 243-288; 2, . 118-139; 3, . 249-318; 4, . 89-109.

Practical assignments for seminar 2:

Define functional style and features of the following passages:

1) Satellite communication systems, like other wireless communication systems, convey information using electromagnetic waves. Since radio was the first practical application of wireless technology, we may refer to them as radio waves.

2) Never you mind what they say, dear, said Mrs. Hodges. I've 'ad to go through it same as you 'ave. They don't know any better, poor things. You take my word for it, they'll like you all right if you 'old your own same as I 'ave. (W.S. Maugham)

 

3)

INCIDENTALLY

Last Tuesday, ten Melitopol machine building plants employing 22,000 workers came to a standstill. The enterprises are lacking the funds required to pay for 50% of electricity consumed according to the latest government's decision. This will entail an automatic suspension of allocations into the state budget and a further increase in arrears of wages and salaries. The Board of Melitopol Directors sent a telegram to President and the Cabinet asking the government to suspend the decision and keep the payment procedure unchanged for a three months period, The Day's Victor Puzhaichereda reports.

4) The Petrivka book market:

Alive & Kicking

Text: Tetiana Honcharova

For several years there have been persistent rumours that Kyiv's most popular makeshift book market Petrivka is nearing its end. But it is alive and shows no signs of deterioration, although rumours persist. People were especially worried after the so-called Book Square opened on Ploshcha Slavy [Victory Sq.]. Petrivka enemies were rubbing their hands in anticipation, but their expectations were not to be rewarded. Petrivka staggered under the blow but survived.

After all, what better place is there for the local book, video and CD lovers? Petrivka offers a stunning assortment and the prices are more or less affordable. []

5) CONTRACT

Horlivka July 17,

Parties to this Contract are:

Horlivka open-type Stockholding Company CONCERN STIROL hereinafter referred to as the Seller represented by Mr Rachinsky acting on the basis of the Statute from one part, the firm S.E.R.C.L. hereinafter referred to as the Buyer represented by its President Mr Roland Hytterhaegen acting on the basis of the Statute from the other part, concluded the present contract on the following: [}

Wrist watch music power.

Panasonics Ewear music machine is so small you can wear it like a watch.

Despite its size it provides 2 hours of your music from a 64mb SD memory card that is no bigger than a postage stamp. For the fashion conscious lady you can even wear it as a pendant round your neck. Apparently it unfortunately does not also tell the time so you still have to wear your watch on the other wrist.

This would be an interesting idea for your mobile as well because in the heat of summer when clothing is sparse it would be most convenient to wear your phone on your wrist.

7)The City of Dreadful Night rises from its bed and turns its face towards the dawning day. With return of life comes return of sound. [] What is it? Something borne on mens shoulders comes by in the half-light, and I stand back. A womans corpse going down to the burning-ghat, and a bystander says, She died at midnight from the heat. So the city was of Death as well as Night, after all.

(Rudyard Kipling, The City of Dreadful Night)

8) Dear Ladies and Gentlemen,

I am pleased to welcome you to the 2011 UMC Annual Report on behalf of the UMC Board of Directors.

2001 was an extremely successful year for UMC and its Subscribers

A number of important technologies were introduced

Importantly, UMC moved closer to the Customer

The financial results

On behalf of the UMC Board of Directors, I would like to thank all UMC employees, business partners and most importantly our Subscribers, for a record result in 2011.


3

Stylistic lexicology

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. What does stylistic lexicology deal with? How is vocabulary different from grammar in textual analysis?

2. What three layers of vocabulary form English word-stock?

3. What are neutral words and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

4. What are terms and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

5. What are poetic words used for? Supply examples.

6. What is the difference between obsolescent, obsolete and archaic words? Supply examples.

7. What is the difference between barbarisms and foreignisms? Supply examples.

8. What are neologisms and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

9. . What is common colloquial vocabulary? What are the peculiarities of its usage? Supply examples.

10. What are jargonisms and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

11. What are professionalisms and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

12. What are dialecticisms and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

13. What is slang? What are the peculiarities of its usage? Supply examples.

14. What are vulgar or obscene words and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

15. What are idioms / set expressions and the peculiarities of their usage? Supply examples.

:1, . 23-30; 2, . 93-136.

:1, . 105-130; 2, . 44-64; 3, . 70-122; 4, . 60-70.

Practical assignments for seminar 3:

Assignment 1.

Define the stylistic value of each of the following words: 1) neutral; 2) common literary; 3) common colloquial; 4) special literary; 5) special colloquial:

1. leave, abandon, kick; 2. send packing, expel, give the axe, discharge; 3. free, dismiss, liberate, release; 4. associate, comrade, friend, buddy, china; 5. aerial, antenna, rabbit ears; 6. lodgings, accommodation, flat, digs; 7. conversation, chat, intercourse; 8. disposition, mood, spirit, guts, shade; 9. primate, monkey; 10. spring, prime; 11. believe, accept, buy; 12. physician, doc, doctor; 13. daddy, father, parent; 14. dayspring, dawn, morning; 15. Homo sapiens, humanity, people, flesh; 16. start, commence, begin; 17. infant, descendant, kid, child; 18. eatables, eats, nourishment, food; 19. eclipse, darkening; 20. die, kick the bucket, pass away, decease.

 

Assignment 2.

Match the worlds with the Cockney slang equivalents:

1) north and south; 2) tit for tat; 3) rosie lee; 4) loaf of bread; 5) dicky dirt; 6) mince pies; 7) whisle and hute; 8) plates of meat; 9) hampstead heath; 10) trouble and strife; 11) daisy roots.

a) head; b) teeth; c) mouth; d) suit; e) wife; f) boots; g) eyes; h) shirt; i) feet; j) tea; k) hat.

Assignment 3.

Choose the sentence that shows the meaning of the idiom in italics:

1. That was a slap in the face. a) Someone hit me in the face. b) Someone insulted me. c) Someone complimented me. 3. John is wet behind the ears. a) He didn't dry his ears. b) He doesn't have much experience. c) He hears well. 2. They don't see eye to eye. a) They never look at each other. b) They always wear dark sunglasses. c) They don't agree with each other. 4. That car is on its last legs. a) It only has one tire. b) It needs a paint job. c) It is about to break down completely.

Assignment 4

Indicate each set expression as belonging to one of the following kinds according to the sphere of usage:

1) legalism; 2) commercialism; 3) theatricalism; 4) military term; 5) naval term; 6) parliamentarism; 7) hunter's term:

a) to draw the badger; b) to make an affidavit; c) to block the bill; d) to come out of action; e) to be all adrift; f) short bill; g) full house.

Assignment 5

Indicate each set expression as belonging to one of the following kindsaccording to the vocabulary layer:

1) archaism; 2) poeticism; 3) barbarism; 4) bookish expression; 5) colloquialism; 6) jargonism:

a) proud sea; b) Achilles heel; c) ask me another; d) a la mode; e)monkey's allowance; f) at adventure.

Assignment 6.

Plot

The IT Crowd is set in the offices of Reynholm Industries, a fictional British corporation in central London. Moss and Roy, the two technicians, are portrayed as socially inept geeks or standard nerds. Despite the companys dependence on their services, they are despised, ignored, and considered losers by the rest of the staff.

Roy is someone whose spiky personality ensures that he will always be kept as far away from normal people as possible. Society would probably keep him in a cage hanging over a cliff if he didnt know anything about computers; as it is, they store him deep in a basement, where, far from prying eyes, he is able to indulge his love of everything that is bad for him: fast food, comics and endless nonsensical arguments with his best friend, Moss. [The Internet source: http://www.comedy.co.uk/guide/tv/ the_it_crowd/characters/].

Mosss wide and intricate knowledge of all things technical is reflected in his extremely accurate yet utterly indecipherable suggestions, while he demonstrates a complete inability to deal with practical problems like extinguishing fires and removing spiders.

Jen, the newest member of the team, is hopelessly non-technical, despite claiming on her CV that she has "a lot of experience with computers". She would like nothing better than to be on the fifth floor amongst all the other gorgeous people but, as luck would have it, she is stranded in the "isle of nerddom" that is the basement. Unfortunately, Jen knows nothing about computers which makes it rather difficult for her to complete her job.

 


1

Practical assignments

Assignment 1. Identify examples of alliteration, assonance and onomatopoeia in the following utterances.

1. Pick up a Penguin.

2. Abracadabra? The magic spell is upon you!

3. Well croon in tune, beneath the moon.

4. Find a bin to put it in.

5. Jack and Jill went up the hill.

6. Splish! Splash! I was taking a bath.

7. The bees were buzzing around the hive.

8. The chaffinch and the cuckoo are common birds in Britain.

 

Assignment 2. Define the type of rhyme (couplets/ triple/ cross rhyme/ framing) and instrumentation means:

I saw thee weep the big bright tear Came oer that eye of blue; And then me thought it did appear A violet dropping dew. (Byron)
But any man that walks the mead, In bud, or blade, or bloom, may find, According as his humours lead, A meaning suited to his mind. (Tennyson)
His wife was a Wave; he waved at a Wac. The Wac was in front, but his wife was in black. Instead of a wave from the Wac, it is said, What he got was a whack from the Wave he had wed. (Tennyson)

 


4

 

Morphological stylistics

1. What does morphological stylistics deal with?

2. What is transposition?

3. Describe cases of transposition of nouns according to their types.

4. Describe cases of transposition of nouns according to the category of number.

5. Describe cases of transposition of nouns according to the category of case.

6. Speak about stylistic usage of the indefinite article.

7. Speak about stylistic usage of the definite article.

8. Describe cases of transposition of verbs according to the category of tense.

9. Describe stylistic effect achieved by different mood forms of the verb.

10. . Describe stylistic effect achieved by different voice forms of the verb.

11. Speak about the transposition of adjectives. Supply examples.

12. Speak about the stylistic effect achieved by transposition of pronouns according to the category of case

13. Speak about the stylistic effect achieved by transposition of pronouns according to the category of number.

14. Speak about the stylistic effect achieved by usage of pronoun one.

15. Speak about the stylistic effect achieved by usage of archaic pronouns.

 

:1, . 30-33; 2, . 70-92.

:1, . 139-159; 4, . 76-79

 

 

Practical assignments for seminar 4:

Assignment 1.

Find cases of transposition of nouns and comment on them:

1. They would put away the card-table and empty the ash-receivers with many Oh, I bag your pardon's and No, no I was in your way's.

2. Madge, what's 'necessitas', masculine or feminine? Why, feminine, of course. Why? Why, she was the mother of invention.

3. Who is your favorite classic novelist? Thackeray. Great Scott! Some think so; still I prefer Thackeray.

4. This is the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps. Its members are called Neurotics.

5. Yes, prattled the elderly lady, that is the Duke and Duchess; the couple behind them are the Mayor and the Mayoress, and those on the right are the Vicar and the-er-Vixen.

6. If I speak of a foot, and you show me your feet, and I give you a boot, would a pair be called beet? If one is a tooth and whole set are teeth, why shouldn't the plural of booth be called beeth?

7. The man I argued yesterday's explanation puzzled me greatly.

 

Assignment 2.

Analyse stylistic use of the articles:

1. A 'Drive Safe' sign: Its better to be late, Mr. Motorist, than to be the late, Mr. Motorist.

2. Advertisement: Lion tamer wants tamer lion.

3. I thought it was fine especially the Chopin.

4. I don't want to turn into a Teddy Bolan.

5. I will never go to a Sahara.

6. Sun: Friend not Foe.

7. Slowly but surely man is conquering Nature.

 

Assignment 3.

Determine transposition of pronouns:

1. Are they going to take thee away?

2. They arrived at the fifth inning. What's the score, Jim? she asked a fan. Nothing to nothing, was the reply. Oh, goodly! she exclaimed. We haven't missed a thing!

3. So your son is in college? How is he making it? To be exact, he isn't making it. I'm making it and he's spending it.

4. Chivalry is how you feel when you're cold.

5. Sign on the wall of a research laboratory: Consider the turtle He doesn't make any progress unless he sticks his neck out.

6. The masculine pronouns are he, his, him, but imagine the feminine she, shis and shim!

7. Correct this sentence: 'it was me that spilt the ink'. It wasn't me that spilt the ink.

Assignment 4.

Point out and explain cases of transposition of adjectives:

1. I want you to teach my son a foreign language. Certainly, madam, French, German, Russian, Italian, Spanish ? Which is the most foreign?

2. Landlady: I think you had better board elsewhere. Boarder: Yes, I often have. Landlady: Often had what? Boarder: Had better board elsewhere.

3. What are the comparative and superlative of bad, Berty? Bad worse dead.

4. Unmarried? Twice.

5. I don't like Sunday evenings: I feel so Mondayish.


5

Assignment 1.

Assignment 2.

Indicate separately the cases of: a) hyperbole; b) meiosis; c) litotes:

1. English and American hands were as hen's teeth in this unhealthy place. (W. Foster). 2. He would give the world for her fair eyes. 3. Dear aunt, you frightened me out of my senses. (H. Fielding). 4. A smile crossed Nat's face from ear to ear. (H. Ciane). 5. An unfortunate man would be drowned in a tea-cup. 6. A watched pot never boils. 7. He said: I thought I'd come up and have a word with you, father. (A. Cronin). 8. I have not seen you for ages. 9. To write a novel is as simple for him as falling off a chair, I suppose. 10. You make noise enough to wake the dead. 11. We'll be back in three shakes of a dead lamb tail. (J. Conroy). 12. He seemed to me to be frightened all to pieces. (A. Doyle). 13. I don't speak empty words. 14. It hadn't been for nothing after all. 15. No man is indispensable. 16. These cabins aren't half bad. (H. Wells). 17. Nothing is impossible to a willing heart. 18. I've had such a lot of worry lately that I don't know whether I'm on my head or heels. (H. Lawson). 19. And the floors! They haven't seen water for ages. (J. Steele). 20. An old dog barks not in vain. 21. Well, that's not a bad idea, he said finally. (J. London). 22. He was a good-for-nothing fellow. 24. I wouldn't say It is beyond your purse to buy that book.

 

Assignment 3.

Supply the missing words from the list below. Define the types of metaphor: 1) dead / original; 2) nominative / cognitive / imaginative; 3) simple / sustained:

1. Then well an hour in the lounge. 2. Hunger stone walls. 3. When enters the door, love will fly out of the window. 4. His heart was with sympathetic tenderness. 5. In a little district west of Washington Square the streets ... and broken themselves into small strips called places.

a) poverty; b) kill; c) have run crazy; d) melting; e) breaks.

Assignment 4.

Define types (associated / unassociated; simple / compound / phrasal / clausal) and paraphrase the epithets in the context:

1. She gave him a penny-in-the-slot smile. (D. Bullett) 2. Does he really think that I will follow his hole-in-the-head advice? 3. Europes new dead-end generation has lost faith in the future. 4. She didnt like his gin-and-water voice. 5. The baculine method was a quite common mode of argument in those days.

 

Assignment 5.

State the kind of the periphrasis: a) logical; b) metonymic; c) metaphoric. Explain what is implied:
1. Learning is the eye of the mind. 2. I am desperately fond of her: she is the light of my eyes. 3. The woman was a walking corpse. 4. Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune. 5. He is an open book. 6. She is the skeleton in the family cupboard. 7. I know she has a sweet tooth still in her head. 8. He had a warm place in his heart for dogs. 9. I thought it wise to keep that sum for a rainy day. 10. Here in Montreal she was a fish out of water.

 

Assignment 6.

Match the periphrases with the notions they represent:

1) a gentlemen in brown; 2) a gentlemen in black; 3) a gentleman / knight of industry; 4) a gentleman of the robe; 5) the Father of Lights; 6) the Father of Rivers; 7) a daughter of Eve; 8) a son of Mars; 9) the king of birds; 10) the king of beasts.

a) Satan; b) a bug, bed-bug, clinch; c) God; d) a swindler; e) a lawyer, judge; f) a soldier military man; g) a woman; h) the Nile; i) lion; j) an eagle.


6

 

Assignment 1.

Paraphrase the following cases of simile, indicate positive or negative connotation:

1) like a squirrel in cage; 2) (as) light as a butterfly; 3) (as) fussy as a hen with one chick; 4) (as) gaunt as a grey-hound / as bone; 5) (as) gaudy as peacock; 6) (as) gentle as a lamb; 7) like a boiled rag; 8) like a fighting-cock; 9) like a fish out of water; 10) like a million dollars; 11) (as) firm / steady as a rock; 12) like swine; 13) (as) clear as mud; 14) (as) black as a thunder cloud; 15) (as) fleet as a deer.

 

Assignment 2.

Out of the following expressions determine those, which represent: 1) oxymoron; 2) antithesis. Point out other stylistic devices:

1. A little body often harbours a great soul. 2. Sprinting towards the elevator he left amazed at his own cowardly courage. 3. Little pigeons can carry great messages. 4. To know everything is to know nothing. 5. The play was awfully funny. 6. She pleased his eyes and plagued his heart. 7. The pleasures of the mighty are the tears of the poor. 8. A friend to all is friend to none. 9. A joke never gains an enemy but often loses a friend. 10. The garage was full of nothing. 11. The furthest way about is the nearest way home. 12. False friends are worse than open enemies. 13. He is so full of himself that he is quite empty. 14. There's a change coming, Eric. Any blind man can see that. 15. Old Jolyon seemed master of perennial youth. 16. The fool does think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool. 17. Good words cost nothing and are worth much. 18. Better a lean peace than a fat victory. 19. Cheapest is the dearest. 20. Better a glorious death than a shameful life. 21. The newly planted trees wouldn't stand the gentle violence of the wind. 22. The speaking silence grew oppressive.23. The picture was horribly beautiful. 24. Don't use big words. They mean so little.

 

Assignment 3.

Choose from the a-e list the appropriate for pun words, missing in the sentences. Point out the key words of pun:

1. Are the tires on the car? No, two of them are left.

2. Son, are you pursuing your studies faithfully? Yes, indeed, father. I'm always

3. If you were in Africa and saw a lion coming, what steps would you take?

4. Is it a board school you go to, my dear? No, sir. I believe it is

5. Papa, what kind of a robber is ? A what? It says here that two pages held up the bride's train.

a) brick; b) behind; c) a page; d) the longest; e) all right.

 

Assignment 4.

Find cases of paradox in these statements:

1. A mixture of sound and silence pervades the shady part of the wood. 2. Shes got her knickers in a twist over this issue. 3. A libel may be all the more a libel, for being true. 4. A paradox is simply that which contradicts popular opinion or which in too many cases is a false opinion. 5. The dullness of the book is increased in proportion to the density, and it becomes ten times more tedious by its compression. 6. He has a powerful weakness for drink.


7

Stylistic syntax: syntactic expressive means and stylistic devices (EM and SD)

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. Syntactic EM and SD based on reduction of the initial sentence model:, ,

a) Speak about ellipsis, its features, and functions. Supply examples.

b) Speak about nominative sentences, their types and functions. Supply examples.

c) Speak about aposiopesis and its features. Supply examples.

d) Speak about asyndeton and its features. Supply examples.

2. Syntactic EM and SD based on extension of the initial sentence model:

a) Speak about repetition, its types and functions. Supply examples.

b) Speak about enumeration, its features, and functions. Supply examples.

c) Speak about tautology, its types and functions. Supply examples.

d) Speak about polysyndeton and its functions. Supply examples.

3. Syntactic EM and SD based on interaction of syntactic structures in context: parallel constructions, their features and functions. Supply examples.

4. Syntactic EM and SD based on change of word-order:

a) Speak about inversion and its types. Supply examples.

b) Speak about detachment, its types and functions. Supply examples.

5. Syntactic EM and SD based on transposition of meaning and connection of constituent parts:

a) Speak about rhetoric questions and their functions.

b) Speak about parceling, its features and functions. Supply examples.

 

:1, . 73-83; 2, . 137-162.

:1, . 160-198; 2, . 66-94; 3, . 191-246, 4, c. 79-89.

Practical assignments for seminar 7:

Practical Assignment

Assignment 1. Pick out tautology in the following sentences:

1. Pain, even slight pain, tends to isolate. Pain, such as he had to suffer, cuts the last links with society. (S. Chaplin).

2. The widow Douglas, she took me for her son. (M. Twain).

3. What's the matter? Nothing everything it's good news news well, Jean's much better.

4. And now my Arvie's gone. Whatever will I and my children do? Whatever will I do? Whatever will I do?.. (H. Lawson).

5. I can say no more, but blessings, blessings on all in the dear house I leave, prays. (W. Thackeray).

 

Assignment 2.Supply the missing words to indicate cases of repetition. Define the repetition types:

1. Avoid evil and it will you. 2. Live not to but eat to live. 3. A for everything and everything in its place. 4. The alarm swept from lip to , from group to , from street to . (M. Twain). 5. Nothing will come of . 6. What is lost is . 7. The worst has come to . 8. God defend me from my friends; from my enemies I can myself. 9. He's not fit to others that cannot command himself. 10. He that hatches matches catches. 11. If the mountain will not come to Mohammed, must go to . 12. to you is like talking to the wall. 13. It was a ghost of a train, a Flying Dutchman of , a nightmare of . (R. Davis). 14. Nothing come from . 15. That's a fine open mind you've got there! Open mind, my eye! We didn't come with . (M. Wilson). 16. Habit cures . 17. It's queer that you should be so different from Violet. is as hard as nails. (B. Shaw). 18. A crooked stick throws a shadow.

 

Assignment 3. Point out separately the cases of 1)elliptical sentences, 2) nominative sentences, 3) apokoinu constructions (asyndeton) :

1. Malay Camp. A row of streets crossing another row of streets. (P. Abrahams). 2. What did you divorce your husband for? Two hundred dollars a month. 3. Dont you think hes rather good-lookin? In a way. What kind of a way? Away off. 4. There was no door led into the kitchen. (Sh. Anderson). 5. The day passed on. Noon, afternoon, evening. Sunset. (J. Galsworthy). 6. He was the man killed the deer. (R. P. Warren).

 

Assignment 4. Determine stylistic and communicative functions of detachment; define the types of repetition in the following sentences:

1. You know what I mean. You look like a million dollars, I mean. (A. Saxton). 2. I have seen old Flint in the corner there, behind you; as plain as print, Ive seen him. (R. Stevenson). 3. Serious from my heart from my soul! returned Mr. Winkle, with great energy. (Ch. Dickens). 4. In a barrack, by Jove I wish anybody in a barrack would say what you do, cried out this uproused British lion. (W. Thackeray). 5. Now, although we were little and I certainly couldnt be dreaming of taking Fonny from her or anything like that, and although she didnt really love Fonny, only thought that she was supposed to because she had spasmed him into this world, already, Fonnys mother didnt like me. (J.Baldwin)

 

 


˳

:

1. .., .. . / . . , . . ³: , 2004. 240 .

2. .., .., .., . / . . , . . , . . . − . : , 1984. − 248 .

:

1. .. . / . . . , 1990. 293 .

2. .., .. . / . . , . . . , 1960. 200 .

3. Galperin I.R., Stylistics. / I. R. Galperin Moscow, 1981. 343 p.

4. Maltzev V.A. Essays on English stylistics. / V. A. Maltzev Minsk, 1984.


 

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1

Style and stylistics.

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. The notion of stylistics as a branch of general linguistics. Types of stylistics and fields of investigation.

2. The connection of stylistics with other branches of linguistics.

3. The notions of norm, form, and text.

4. The notion of context. Types of context.

5. The notions of speech and writing.

6. The notion of expressive means.

7. The notion of stylistic devices.

8. The notion of image.

9. The notion of style.

 

 

:1, . 17-23; 2, . 235-266.

:1, . 243-288; 2, . 118-139; 3, . 249-318; 4, . 89-109.

 

Practical assignments for seminar 1:

 

Assignment 1. Context.

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