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Lexico-semantic expressive means and stylistic devices: figures of substitution

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. What two groups of figures of substitution are there?

2. Give the definition of hyperbole and the way of its expression by different parts of speech. Supply examples.

3. Give the definition of meiosis and the way of its expression by different parts of speech. Supply examples.

4. Give the definition of litotes and the way of its expression by different parts of speech. Supply examples.

5. Give the definition of metonymy and the way of its expression by different parts of speech. Supply examples.

6. What two main types of metonymy are there? Supply examples.

7. What varieties of metonymy are there?

8. Give the definition and speak about main types of synecdoche. Supply examples.

9. Give the definition and speak about the main types of periphrasis. Supply examples.

10. Give the definition and speak about the main types of euphemism. Supply examples.

11. Give the definition of metaphor and supply examples.

12. Speak about the classification of metaphors according to the pragmatic effect.

13. Speak about the classification of metaphors according to the degree of their stylistic potential.

14. Speak about the classification of metaphors according to their structure.

15. Give the definition and speak about the main types of epithet. Supply examples.

16. Give the definition and speak about the main types of epithet. Supply examples.

17. Give the definition and speak about the difference between antonomasia and allegory. Supply examples.

18. Give the definition and supply examples of personification.

19. Speak about irony and its main features. Supply examples.

 

:1, . 46-62; 2, . 164-186.

:1, . 74-93; 2, . 13-27; 35-36; 38-41; 3, . 139-148; 169-177; 246-248.

 

Practical assignments for seminar 5:

Assignment 1.

Decide if these statements are ironic or not.

So you've lost the books I lent you? Well, that's wonderful!

She gave us a two-hour lecture on how to make a cup of tea. It was really fascinating.

We can't select you for the play. It doesn't feature simpletons.

Yes, put the baby next to the fire. That will be the safest place.

Don't look at me in that way unless you want a thick ear!

It is a truth universally acknowledged that a man in possessions of a fortune must be in want of wife.

 

Assignment 2.

Indicate separately the cases of: a) hyperbole; b) meiosis; c) litotes:

1. English and American hands were as hen's teeth in this unhealthy place. (W. Foster). 2. He would give the world for her fair eyes. 3. Dear aunt, you frightened me out of my senses. (H. Fielding). 4. A smile crossed Nat's face from ear to ear. (H. Ciane). 5. An unfortunate man would be drowned in a tea-cup. 6. A watched pot never boils. 7. He said: I thought I'd come up and have a word with you, father. (A. Cronin). 8. I have not seen you for ages. 9. To write a novel is as simple for him as falling off a chair, I suppose. 10. You make noise enough to wake the dead. 11. We'll be back in three shakes of a dead lamb tail. (J. Conroy). 12. He seemed to me to be frightened all to pieces. (A. Doyle). 13. I don't speak empty words. 14. It hadn't been for nothing after all. 15. No man is indispensable. 16. These cabins aren't half bad. (H. Wells). 17. Nothing is impossible to a willing heart. 18. I've had such a lot of worry lately that I don't know whether I'm on my head or heels. (H. Lawson). 19. And the floors! They haven't seen water for ages. (J. Steele). 20. An old dog barks not in vain. 21. Well, that's not a bad idea, he said finally. (J. London). 22. He was a good-for-nothing fellow. 24. I wouldn't say It is beyond your purse to buy that book.

 

Assignment 3.

Supply the missing words from the list below. Define the types of metaphor: 1) dead / original; 2) nominative / cognitive / imaginative; 3) simple / sustained:

1. Then well an hour in the lounge. 2. Hunger stone walls. 3. When enters the door, love will fly out of the window. 4. His heart was with sympathetic tenderness. 5. In a little district west of Washington Square the streets ... and broken themselves into small strips called places.

a) poverty; b) kill; c) have run crazy; d) melting; e) breaks.

Assignment 4.

Define types (associated / unassociated; simple / compound / phrasal / clausal) and paraphrase the epithets in the context:

1. She gave him a penny-in-the-slot smile. (D. Bullett) 2. Does he really think that I will follow his hole-in-the-head advice? 3. Europes new dead-end generation has lost faith in the future. 4. She didnt like his gin-and-water voice. 5. The baculine method was a quite common mode of argument in those days.

 

Assignment 5.

State the kind of the periphrasis: a) logical; b) metonymic; c) metaphoric. Explain what is implied:
1. Learning is the eye of the mind. 2. I am desperately fond of her: she is the light of my eyes. 3. The woman was a walking corpse. 4. Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune. 5. He is an open book. 6. She is the skeleton in the family cupboard. 7. I know she has a sweet tooth still in her head. 8. He had a warm place in his heart for dogs. 9. I thought it wise to keep that sum for a rainy day. 10. Here in Montreal she was a fish out of water.

 

Assignment 6.

Match the periphrases with the notions they represent:

1) a gentlemen in brown; 2) a gentlemen in black; 3) a gentleman / knight of industry; 4) a gentleman of the robe; 5) the Father of Lights; 6) the Father of Rivers; 7) a daughter of Eve; 8) a son of Mars; 9) the king of birds; 10) the king of beasts.

a) Satan; b) a bug, bed-bug, clinch; c) God; d) a swindler; e) a lawyer, judge; f) a soldier military man; g) a woman; h) the Nile; i) lion; j) an eagle.


6

 

Lexico-semantic expressive means and stylistic devices: figures of combination

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. General considerations. Speak about three groups of figures of combination.

2. Simile. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) assigned features;

c) main types.

3. Synonyms. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) assigned features;

c) functions.

4. Oxymoron. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) assigned features;

c) types.

5. Paradox. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) assigned features.

6. Antithesis. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) assigned features.

7. Climax. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) types.

8. Anticlimax. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) assigned features.

9. Zeugma. Speak about:

a) the definition;

b) assigned features.

10. Pun. Speak about:

c) the definition;

d) assigned features.

 

:1, . 63-72; 2, . 186-199.

:1, . 95-96, 130-131; 2, . 11-13, 28-29, 33-35, 37-38; 3, . 162-164, 167-169, 219-225, 148-153.

 


Practical assignments for seminar 6:

Assignment 1.

Paraphrase the following cases of simile, indicate positive or negative connotation:

1) like a squirrel in cage; 2) (as) light as a butterfly; 3) (as) fussy as a hen with one chick; 4) (as) gaunt as a grey-hound / as bone; 5) (as) gaudy as peacock; 6) (as) gentle as a lamb; 7) like a boiled rag; 8) like a fighting-cock; 9) like a fish out of water; 10) like a million dollars; 11) (as) firm / steady as a rock; 12) like swine; 13) (as) clear as mud; 14) (as) black as a thunder cloud; 15) (as) fleet as a deer.

 

Assignment 2.

Out of the following expressions determine those, which represent: 1) oxymoron; 2) antithesis. Point out other stylistic devices:

1. A little body often harbours a great soul. 2. Sprinting towards the elevator he left amazed at his own cowardly courage. 3. Little pigeons can carry great messages. 4. To know everything is to know nothing. 5. The play was awfully funny. 6. She pleased his eyes and plagued his heart. 7. The pleasures of the mighty are the tears of the poor. 8. A friend to all is friend to none. 9. A joke never gains an enemy but often loses a friend. 10. The garage was full of nothing. 11. The furthest way about is the nearest way home. 12. False friends are worse than open enemies. 13. He is so full of himself that he is quite empty. 14. There's a change coming, Eric. Any blind man can see that. 15. Old Jolyon seemed master of perennial youth. 16. The fool does think he is wise, but the wise man knows himself to be a fool. 17. Good words cost nothing and are worth much. 18. Better a lean peace than a fat victory. 19. Cheapest is the dearest. 20. Better a glorious death than a shameful life. 21. The newly planted trees wouldn't stand the gentle violence of the wind. 22. The speaking silence grew oppressive.23. The picture was horribly beautiful. 24. Don't use big words. They mean so little.

 

Assignment 3.

Choose from the a-e list the appropriate for pun words, missing in the sentences. Point out the key words of pun:

1. Are the tires on the car? No, two of them are left.

2. Son, are you pursuing your studies faithfully? Yes, indeed, father. I'm always

3. If you were in Africa and saw a lion coming, what steps would you take?

4. Is it a board school you go to, my dear? No, sir. I believe it is

5. Papa, what kind of a robber is ? A what? It says here that two pages held up the bride's train.

a) brick; b) behind; c) a page; d) the longest; e) all right.

 

Assignment 4.

Find cases of paradox in these statements:

1. A mixture of sound and silence pervades the shady part of the wood. 2. Shes got her knickers in a twist over this issue. 3. A libel may be all the more a libel, for being true. 4. A paradox is simply that which contradicts popular opinion or which in too many cases is a false opinion. 5. The dullness of the book is increased in proportion to the density, and it becomes ten times more tedious by its compression. 6. He has a powerful weakness for drink.


7

Stylistic syntax: syntactic expressive means and stylistic devices (EM and SD)

Theoretical questions for discussion:

1. Syntactic EM and SD based on reduction of the initial sentence model:, ,

a) Speak about ellipsis, its features, and functions. Supply examples.

b) Speak about nominative sentences, their types and functions. Supply examples.

c) Speak about aposiopesis and its features. Supply examples.

d) Speak about asyndeton and its features. Supply examples.

2. Syntactic EM and SD based on extension of the initial sentence model:

a) Speak about repetition, its types and functions. Supply examples.

b) Speak about enumeration, its features, and functions. Supply examples.

c) Speak about tautology, its types and functions. Supply examples.

d) Speak about polysyndeton and its functions. Supply examples.

3. Syntactic EM and SD based on interaction of syntactic structures in context: parallel constructions, their features and functions. Supply examples.

4. Syntactic EM and SD based on change of word-order:

a) Speak about inversion and its types. Supply examples.

b) Speak about detachment, its types and functions. Supply examples.

5. Syntactic EM and SD based on transposition of meaning and connection of constituent parts:

a) Speak about rhetoric questions and their functions.

b) Speak about parceling, its features and functions. Supply examples.

 

:1, . 73-83; 2, . 137-162.

:1, . 160-198; 2, . 66-94; 3, . 191-246, 4, c. 79-89.

Practical assignments for seminar 7:

Practical Assignment

Assignment 1. Pick out tautology in the following sentences:

1. Pain, even slight pain, tends to isolate. Pain, such as he had to suffer, cuts the last links with society. (S. Chaplin).

2. The widow Douglas, she took me for her son. (M. Twain).

3. What's the matter? Nothing everything it's good news news well, Jean's much better.

4. And now my Arvie's gone. Whatever will I and my children do? Whatever will I do? Whatever will I do?.. (H. Lawson).

5. I can say no more, but blessings, blessings on all in the dear house I leave, prays. (W. Thackeray).

 

Assignment 2.Supply the missing words to indicate cases of repetition. Define the repetition types:

1. Avoid evil and it will you. 2. Live not to but eat to live. 3. A for everything and everything in its place. 4. The alarm swept from lip to , from group to , from street to . (M. Twain). 5. Nothing will come of . 6. What is lost is . 7. The worst has come to . 8. God defend me from my friends; from my enemies I can myself. 9. He's not fit to others that cannot command himself. 10. He that hatches matches catches. 11. If the mountain will not come to Mohammed, must go to . 12. to you is like talking to the wall. 13. It was a ghost of a train, a Flying Dutchman of , a nightmare of . (R. Davis). 14. Nothing come from . 15. That's a fine open mind you've got there! Open mind, my eye! We didn't come with . (M. Wilson). 16. Habit cures . 17. It's queer that you should be so different from Violet. is as hard as nails. (B. Shaw). 18. A crooked stick throws a shadow.

 

Assignment 3. Point out separately the cases of 1)elliptical sentences, 2) nominative sentences, 3) apokoinu constructions (asyndeton) :

1. Malay Camp. A row of streets crossing another row of streets. (P. Abrahams). 2. What did you divorce your husband for? Two hundred dollars a month. 3. Dont you think hes rather good-lookin? In a way. What kind of a way? Away off. 4. There was no door led into the kitchen. (Sh. Anderson). 5. The day passed on. Noon, afternoon, evening. Sunset. (J. Galsworthy). 6. He was the man killed the deer. (R. P. Warren).

 

Assignment 4. Determine stylistic and communicative functions of detachment; define the types of repetition in the following sentences:

1. You know what I mean. You look like a million dollars, I mean. (A. Saxton). 2. I have seen old Flint in the corner there, behind you; as plain as print, Ive seen him. (R. Stevenson). 3. Serious from my heart from my soul! returned Mr. Winkle, with great energy. (Ch. Dickens). 4. In a barrack, by Jove I wish anybody in a barrack would say what you do, cried out this uproused British lion. (W. Thackeray). 5. Now, although we were little and I certainly couldnt be dreaming of taking Fonny from her or anything like that, and although she didnt really love Fonny, only thought that she was supposed to because she had spasmed him into this world, already, Fonnys mother didnt like me. (J.Baldwin)

 

 


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:

1. .., .. . / . . , . . ³: , 2004. 240 .

2. .., .., .., . / . . , . . , . . . − . : , 1984. − 248 .

:

1. .. . / . . . , 1990. 293 .

2. .., .. . / . . , . . . , 1960. 200 .

3. Galperin I.R., Stylistics. / I. R. Galperin Moscow, 1981. 343 p.

4. Maltzev V.A. Essays on English stylistics. / V. A. Maltzev Minsk, 1984.


 

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