Do you know the meanings of the words that indicate the various studies? Which of the definitions most nearly describe each of the following subfield of history?


Archaeology a the study of culture in the past.
Archontology b the study of prehistoric and historic human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data.
Art History c the study of international relations in the past.
Economic History d the study of the future: researches the medium to long-term future of societies and of the physical world.
Maritime History e the study of warfare and wars in history and what is sometimes considered to be a sub-branch of military history, Naval History.
Psychohistory f the study of politics in the past.
Chronology g the study of societies in the past.
Big History h the study of economies in the past.
Cultural History i the study of changes in art and social context of art.
Diplomatic History g the study of ideas in the context of the cultures that produced them.
Social History k science of localizing historical events in time.
Political History l the study of the psychological motivations of historical events.
World History m the study of ancient texts.
Historiography of Science n the study of history on a large scale across long time frames (since the Big Bang and up to the future) through a multi-disciplinary approach.
Military History o the study of history from a global perspective.
Palaeography p the study of the structure and development of science.
Intellectual History q the study of historical offices and important positions in state, international, political, religious and other organizations and societies.
History painting r the study of maritime transport and all the connected subjects.
Futurology s painters of historical motifs and particularly the great events.



IV. Study the given below lexical units and provide their Ukrainian variants:

to incorporate methodologies from both fields of study  
  to be limited merely  
  to separate into categories  
  to preserve physically  
  to date to the development of writing  
  to encompass the results  
  significant overlap  
  the creation of new scientific fields  
  the rise of academic professionalism  
  interpretive problems and potentials  


V. Interpret the following in English:

humanities and social sciences;

to be a bridge between sciences;

to divide into manageable pieces for study;

to provide new information;

strict barriers;

to give light on the past;

mainstream historians;

to generate problems


VI. Find English equivalents for the following:



/ ;









VII. Give synonyms to the underlined words:

to inquire;

to attempt to answer;

to be limited merely;

to separate into three categories;

to emphasize the importance;

since writing emerged;

to encompass subfields and ancillary fields;

significant overlap;

to concern oneself with;

the creation of new scientific fields;

to coin;

to generate different interpretive problems and potentials

VIII. Look through the text and write out the key historical terms.


IX. Answer the following questions:

1. How can the discipline of history be seen?

2. With what meaning did the term history enter the English language?

3. What have traditionally historians attempted to do?

4. What categories can the sources of historical knowledge be separated into?

5. What has led to the term history?

6. What subfields does history encompass?

7. Why do scholars divide human past into manageable pieces for study?

8. Why was a new term prehistory coined?

9. What is the difference between history and prehistory?


X. Make up a plan of the text in the form of statements.

XI. Give the summary of the text.

XII. Render the text close to its original variant.

XIII. Make a written translation of the text:


Protohistory refers to a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing, but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings. For example, in Europe, the Celts and the Germanic tribes may be considered to have been protohistoric when they began appearing in Greek and Roman texts.

Protohistoric may also refer to the transition period between the advent of literacy in a society and the writings of the first historians. The preservation of oral traditions may complicate matters as these can provide a secondary historical source for even earlier events. Colonial sites involving a literate group and a non-literate group are also studied as protohistoric situations.

In The Oxford Illustrated History of Prehistoric Europe an article by Timothy Taylor says,

"Because of the existence in some but not all societies of historical writing during the first millennium BC, the period has often been termed 'protohistoric' instead of prehistoric. Of course, the understanding of the past gained through archaeology is broadly different in nature to understanding derived from historical texts. Having both sorts of evidence is a boon and a challenge."

In the abstract of a later paper on "slavery in the first millennium Aegean, Carpatho-Balkan and Pontic regions" , Taylor, who is primarily an archaeologist, says,

"I have taken the rather unusual step of trusting what the classical authors tell us they knew."

As with prehistory, determining when a culture may be considered prehistoric or protohistoric is sometimes difficult for the archaeologist. Data vary considerably from culture to culture, region to region, and even from one system of reckoning dates to another.

In its simplest form, protohistory follows the same chronology as prehistory, based on the technological advancement of a particular people with regard to metallurgy:

The Copper Age or Chalcolithic

The Bronze Age

The Iron Age

The best known protohistoric civilizations and ethnic groups are those for whom the term was originally coined: the European barbarian tribes. Many of these peoples of course also experienced periods of prehistory and history.



Unit III

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø the entire course of human events ;

Ø to direct events 䳿;

Ø the redemption of humanity

Ø a process of inevitable progress ;

Ø a thoroughly logical social order ;

Ø to doom

Ø overwhelming evidence / ;

Ø accuracy /;

Ø an authentic account ;

Ø thorough scholarship ;

Ø the bias against smb.


II. Read and translate the text:




Since ancient times, scholars have developed theories of history that attempt to explain the entire course of human events through some general principles. For example, the ancient Greeks regarded history as a cycle of events that repeated itself endlessly. In contrast, the traditional Christian theory considers history as series of events with a beginning and an end. According to this theory, God directs human events toward the final goal of the redemption of humanity. This theory dominated nearly all the history written in Europe during the Middle Ages.

In modern times, scholars have proposed many other theories. During the late 1700s and 1800s, philosophers developed the concept of history as a process of inevitable progress. They believed this progress would eventually lead to a thoroughly logical social order based on a scientific understanding of human events.

The German historian Oswald Spengler argued in his book The Decline of the West (1918-1922) that civilizations, like organisms, go through a cycle of birth, development, and death. Arnold Toynbee, a British historian, also presented a cyclical theory in his 12-volume work, A Study of History (1934-1961). However, Toynbee disagreed with Spengler that modern Western civilization is already doomed.

Nearly all theories of history assume that it has meaning and purpose, but there is no overwhelming evidence to support this concept. In fact, many scholars today question whether history has any meaning other than that which people read into it. As a result, most modern philosophers have turned away from such theories. Instead, they examine such issues as the nature of history as a field of knowledge and the method of explanation used by historians.

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