X. Render the text close to its original variant.

XI. Translate the following passage in written form; entitle it; put 5 questions (of different types):


The "father of history" has generally been acclaimed as Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BC 425 BC). However, it is his contemporary Thucydides (ca. 460 BC 400 BC) who is credited with having begun the scientific approach to history in his work the History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus and other historians, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention. In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly reoccurring.

Outside of Europe, there were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval China. The groundwork for professional historiography in East Asia was established by the Han Dynasty court historian known as Sima Qian (14590 BC), author of the Shiji (Records of the Grand Historian). For the quality of his written work, Sima Qian is known as the Father of Chinese Historiography. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his work as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature.

Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought at the beginning of the Medieval period. Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study.

In the preface to his book the Muqaddimah, historian and early sociologist Ibn Khaldun warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past.

Other historians of note who have advanced the historical methods of study include Leopold von Ranke, Lewis Bernstein Namier, Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, and Edward Gibbon. In the 20th century, historians focused less on nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or individuals, to more realistic chronologies. French historians introduced quantitative history, using broad data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources.

XII. Write an essay on the following topics:

1. The role of Greek historians in the development of historical theories.

2. The teachings of great Medieval thinkers and their role in the development of history.

3. Modern historians, their theories and teachings.



Unit IV



I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø integrity /;

Ø evidential value of contents ;

Ø credibility /;

Ø a few basic steps ;

Ø a variety of source materials ;

Ø evaluating sources

Ø to determine the reliability ;

Ø a likely sequence of events ;

Ø approach /;

Ø contemporaneous corroboration ;

Ø revisionism


II. Read and translate the text:



The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and than to write history.

Historical method basics

The following questions are used by historians in modern work.

1. When was the source, written or unwritten, produced (date)?

2. Where was it produced (localization)?

3. By whom was it produced (authorship)?

4. From what pre-existing material was it produced (analysis)?

5. In what original form was it produced (integrity)?

6. What is the evidential value of its contents (credibility)?

The first four are known as higher criticism; the fifth, lower criticism; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism.

Most historians follow a few basic steps in their work. First, they select for study an issue or person from some period of the past. Next, they try to read a variety of source materials everything written by or about the subject. Then they interpret the information obtained from these sources. Finally, they write a narrative history or a biography.

Choosing and evaluating sources. Historians use two main types of sources in their research, primary sources and secondary sources. Primary sources consist of documents and other records produced during the period being studied. They include books, diaries, letters, and government records. Motion pictures and tape recordings may serve as primary sources for events of the 1900's. Secondary sources are materials prepared later by people who studied the primary sources.

Historians choose documents that reveal most accurately the facts they wish to know. Therefore, they prefer primary sources to secondary ones, and confidential reports to public ones. Historians who study recent events use a special type of source. They go to participants in those events and record their oral testimony. Such oral history supplements documentary history.

The scarcity of sources is a great problem for historians, whose work sometimes resembles that of detectives. Many activities and thoughts of ordinary people, plus other useful data, were never recorded. Much that was written down has been lost or destroyed through the years. Also, historians often must rely on the writings of only a few people. Such writings are mere fragments on which to base a reconstruction of the past.

Historians analyze the documents with which they work to determine the reliability of these sources. They compare documents with other sources and also check for such flaws as errors in the order of events or variations in writing style. In addition, the historian must determine whether the author's account of events can be trusted.

Interpreting historical events. Basic historical facts are data generally accepted by all historians because the evidence for them seems unquestionable. However, historians often disagree about the meaning and significance of such facts. These experts try to be as unbiased as possible, but their own beliefs and prejudices influence their interpretation. For example, a historian's social, economic, and religious views help determine what he or she accepts as "normal" in another person. This judgment, in turn, determines what the historian accepts as reliable testimony or as a likely sequence of events. Such interpretation explains why historians who use the same data may disagree about events and their significance.

Some historians rely heavily on information from other social sciences to form their interpretations. For example, the study of history that uses theories and insights from psychology is called psychohistory. Similarly, some historians use statistical methods to interpret data from such sources as old censuses and account books. This approach is called cliometrics. As the last step in interpretation, a historian prepares a written account of events. The writing of history is part of a field called historiography. Some of the best historians use the techniques of the novelist and dramatist to entertain as well as inform.

Methods and tools

Contemporaneous corroboration: A method historians use to establish facts beyond their limited lifespan.

Prosopography: A methodological tool for the collection of all known information about individuals within a given period.

Historical revisionism: Traditionally been used in a completely neutral sense to describe the work or ideas of a historian who has revised a previously accepted view of a particular topic.


III. Study the given bellow lexical units and provide their Ukrainian variant:

the period being studied  
recent events  
to resemble  
to rely on  
generally accepted  
account book  
to entertain as well as to inform  


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