VI. Look through the text and write out the key historical terms

VII. Find English equivalents for the following:




, ;









VIII. - Find the following adjectives and nouns from the text (column A and column B):


- Match the lexis in columns A and B.

- Use the expressions in the statements from the text (in your own sentences).


IX. Scan the gapped sentences and fill in the blanks:

v Chronology is the science of ____________________in time.

v A chronology may be either _____________________ or ______________________.

v Pope Boniface IV seems to have been the first who_______________________ between these two eras.

v Dionysius Exiguous was _____________________of that era, which is nowadays the most widespread ______________________on earth.

v Classification creates categories for___________________, and typology seeks to _________________ and _____________________changes that ______________________to be placed into sequences.

v Astronomers never proposed seriously _______________________our era with their _________________era.

v An _____________________just includes ____________________of event called a date.

v Known _____________________discovered at _______________________in sometimes quite distant sites helped extend the_______________________ of chronologies.

X. Answer the questions on the text:

1. What is chronology?

2. What kinds of chronology are there?

3. What do the terms "calendar" and "era" concern?

4. When was the AUC systematically used for the first time?

5. Did astronomers propose to replace our era with their astronomical one?

6. Name other subjects familiar to chronology.

7. Who was the first to recognize the connection between the AD and AUC?

8. What does the Dionysius Exiguous' Anno Domini era contain?

9. What did the late 19th century archaeologists find?

10. What helped to revise and refine the chronologies developed for specific cultural areas?

11. What does the study of the means of placing pottery and other cultural artefacts into some kind of order proceed in?

XI. Give the summary of the text.

XII. Render the text close to its original variant.

XIII. Make a written translation of the text. Entitle and retell it. Put all types of questions covering the plot of the text.

An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. It begins with some beginning event known as an epoch, epochal date, epochal event or epochal moment. When era is extended to a calendar system, it is known as a calendar era. In chronology, an era is the highest level for the organization of the measurement of time. A calendar era indicates a span of many years which are numbered beginning at a specific reference date (epoch), which often marks the origin of a political state, dynasty, ruler, the birth of a leader, or another significant historical or mythological event; it is generally called after its focus accordingly as in Victorian era.

A calendar is a system of organizing days for a socially, religious, commercially, or administratively useful purpose. This organization is done by giving names to periods of time - typically days, weeks, months and years. The name given to each day is known as a date. Many civilizations and societies have devised a calendar, usually derived from other calendars on which they model their systems, suited to their particular needs.

The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC. It has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months, and a leap day is added to February every four years. The Julian calendar remained in use into the 20th century in some countries as a national calendar, but it has generally been replaced by the modern Gregorian calendar. It is still used by the Berber people of North Africa and by many national Orthodox churches. Orthodox Churches no longer using the Julian calendar typically use the Revised Julian calendar rather than the Gregorian calendar. The notation "Old Style" (OS) is sometimes used to indicate a date in the Julian calendar, as opposed to "New Style" (NS), which either represents the Julian date with the start of the year as 1 January or a full mapping onto the Gregorian calendar.

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. It was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII, for whom it was named, on 24 February 1582. Years in the reformed calendar continue the numbering system of the Julian calendar, which are numbered from the traditional Incarnation year of Jesus, which has been labeled the "Anno Domini" (AD) era, and is sometimes labeled the "common era" (CE), otherwise known as "Christian Era". The changes made by Gregory also corrected the drift in the civil calendar which arose because the mean Julian calendar year was slightly too long, causing the vernal equinox, and consequently the date on which Easter was being celebrated, to slowly drift forward in relation to the civil calendar and the seasons.



Ø Additional task

a) Some sentences have been extracted from the text and given below. Decide where they suit the best. There is also an extra one.


Chronological subjects


For example, February would have 29 days in a leap year instead of the usual 28. Seasons and astronomical events do not repeat at an exact number of full days, so a calendar which had the same number of days in each year would over time drift with respect to the event it was supposed to track. By occasionally inserting (or intercalating) an additional day or month into the year, the drift can be corrected. A year which is not a leap year is called a common year.


The term may implicitly refer to calendar millennia; periods tied numerically to a particular dating system, specifically ones that begin at the starting (initial reference) point of the calendar in question (typically the year 1) or in later years which are whole number multiples of a thousand years after it. The term can also refer to an interval of time beginning on any date. Frequently in the latter case (and sometimes also in the former) it may have religious or theological implications.


He obtained it from an Easter table attributed to Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria for the years 437531. The latter was constructed around the year 440 by means of extrapolation from an Alexandrian Easter table constructed around the year 390 by Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria. The great historical importance of Dionysius' Easter table is twofold:

ü From this Easter table Bede's Easter cycle would ultimately be developed by means of which all future Julian calendar dates of Easter Sunday were determined;

ü With his Easter table Dionysius introduced in passing the Christian era which would be developed into a full system for dating historical events by Bede two centuries later.


In the course of the third century Easter tables (tables with which dates of Easter Sunday can be found) came in use. In the beginning of the third century computists of some churches, among which the church of Rome and the one of Alexandria, had gone to calculate their own periodic sequences of dates of Paschal full moon, to be able to determine their own dates of Easter Sunday. To be able to develop those early Easter tables, owing to the then incalculability of the Hebrew calendar, one had been forced to substitute the dates of the fourteenth day of Nisan, preparation day of the Jewish Passover, for dates of the Paschal full moon adapted to either (e.g. in the case of the church of Rome) the Julian calendar or (e.g. in the case of the church of Alexandria) the Egyptian calendar. Obviously (periodic) sequences of dates of the Paschal full moon and (incalculable) sequences of dates of the fourteenth day of Nisan, initially as few different as possible, could in no case entirely tally with each other. During four centuries the sequences of dates of the Paschal full moon plied by the different churches could show great differences, which was the main cause of the fact that the Easter tables propagated then by the different churches all too often differed strongly and did not lead to the same dates being eligible for the celebration of Easter Sunday.


It occurs because leap years occur every 4 years and there are 7 possible days to start a leap year, making a 28 year sequence. This cycle also occurs in the Gregorian calendar, but it is interrupted by years such as 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2100, which are divisible by four but which are not leap years. This interruption has the effect of skipping 16 years of the solar cycle between February 28 and March 1. Because the Gregorian cycle of 400 years has exactly 146,097 days, i.e. exactly 20,871 weeks, one can say that the Gregorian so-called solar cycle lasts 400 years. Calendar years are usually marked by Dominical letters indicating the first Sunday in a new year, thus the term solar cycle can also refer to a repeating sequence of Dominical letters. Unless a year is not a leap year due to Gregorian exceptions, a sequence of calendars is reused every 28-years. The name solar cycle comes from Sunday, the traditional first day of the week.


It was used to identify the Roman year by a few Roman historians. Modern historians use it much more frequently than the Romans themselves did; the dominant method of identifying Roman years was to name the two consuls who held office that year. Before the advent of the modern critical edition of historical Roman works, AUC was indiscriminately added to them by earlier editors, making it appear more widely used than it actually was. The regnal year of the emperor was also used to identify years, especially in the Byzantine Empire after Justinian required its use in 537.


1. Ab Urbe condita (related with Anno Urbis conditae: AUC or a.u.c.) is Latin for "from the founding of the City (Rome)", traditionally set in 753 BC.

A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing one or more extra days (or, in case of lunisolar calendars, an extra month) in order to keep the calendar year synchronized with the astronomical or seasonal year.

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