VII. – Match the historical terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.
– Exemplify the use of the historical lexis listed up in column A and make the sentences of your own.
VIII. Look through the text and write out the key historical terms.
IX. Select endings for the given statements to develop the idea:
Ø Generally a chronicle is …
Ø The most important English chronicles are …
Ø Universal chroniclers of the Medieval West include …
Ø Universal chronicles are …
Ø A dead chronicle is …
Ø A live chronicle is …
Ø The universal chronicle differs from the ordinary chronicle in …
X. Check how well you remember the text:
1. What is chronicle?
2. How do scholars categorize the genre of chronicle?
3. What is the ultimate goal of historical writing?
4. What term often refers to a book written by a chronicler in the Middle Ages?
5. How does the universal chronicle differ from the ordinary chronicle?
6. What do the Universal chronicles of the Medieval West include?
7. What are the most important English chronicles?
8. What type of chronicles is considered to be the starting point of this tradition?
9. What is one of the quintessentially Christian forms of historical writing?
10. What are universal chronicles sometimes organized around?
XI. Make up a plan of the text in the form of statements.
XII. Give the general idea of the text.
XIII. Render the text close to its original variant.
I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:
Ø a meta-level analysis – теоретичний аналіз;
Ø resistant to a single encompassing meaning – стійкий до єдиного охоплюючого значення/поняття;
Ø methods of interpretation – методи тлумачення;
Ø to break down topically – класифікувати тематично/за тематикою;
Ø the study of the academic tools – вивчення наукових знарядь;
Ø in terms of authorship – на умовах авторства;
Ø authenticity or corruption of the text – автентичність/справжність або перекручення тексту
II. Read and translate the text:
Historiography has a number of related meanings. It can refer to the history of historical study, its methodology and practices (the history of history). It can also refer to a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "medieval history written during the 1960s"). Historiography can also be taken to mean historical theory or the study of historical writing and memory. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, worldview, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians.
Historiography is a term with multiple meanings that has changed with time, place and observer, and is thus resistant to a single encompassing meaning. Broadly speaking, historiography is related to the study of the writing of history, examining factors such as how the style of historical writing, methods of interpretation, and tools of investigation have changed over time, but it can also refer to a body of historical work.
Historiography is often broken down topically, such as "Historiography of Islam" or "Historiography of China". There are many approaches or genres of history, such as oral history and social history. Beginning in the 19th century with the rise of academic historians a corpus of literature related to historiography has come into existence, with classic works such as E. H. Carr's, What is History? and Hayden White's Metahistory.
There are two basic issues involved in historiography:
¨ First, the study of the development of histories is as an academic discipline over time, as well as its development in different cultures and epochs.
¨ Second, the study of the academic tools, methods and approaches that have been and are being used, including the historical method.
The term "historiography" can also be used to refer to a specific body of historical writing that was written during a specific time concerning a specific issue. For instance, "ancient historiography during the 1870s" would be taken to mean the methodological approaches and ideas about ancient history that were developed during that decade.
Conal Furay and Michael J. Salevouris define historiography as "the study of the way history has been and is written — the history of historical writing. When you study "historiography" you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians."
Some of the common questions of historiography are:
Reliability of the sources used, in terms of authorship, credibility of the author, and the authenticity or corruption of the text.
Historiographical tradition or framework. Every historian uses one (or more) historiographical traditions, some of which are Marxist, or Annales School ("total history"), political history, etc.
An issue engaged by critical historiography includes topics such as:
· What constitutes a historical "event"?
· In what modes does a historian write and produce statements of "truth" and "fact"?
· How does the medium (novel, textbook, film, theatre, comic) through which historical information is conveyed influence its meaning?
· What inherent epistemological problems does archive-based history possess?
· How do historians establish their own objectivity or come to terms with their own subjectivity?
· What is the relationship between historical theory and historical practice?
· What is the "goal" of history?
III. Give synonyms to the underlined words:
Ø analysis of descriptions of the past;
Ø method of presentation;
Ø methods of interpretation;
Ø encompassing meaning;
Ø multiple meanings;
Ø two basic issues involved in historiography;
Ø an academic discipline;
Ø historical information;
Ø methodological approaches;
Ø reliability of the sources;
Ø to constitute a historical event;
Ø to come into existence;
Ø related meanings
IV. Study the given below lexical units (provide the Ukrainian variant):
o related meanings;
o historical study;
o medieval historiography;
o methods of interpretation;
o tools of investigation;
o approaches or genres of history;
o historical method;
o academic discipline;
o method of presentation;
o critical historiography;
o historiographical traditions;
o to produce statement;
o to come to terms
V. Find English equivalents for the following:
§ приймати значення;
§ основні питання, що містяться в історіографії;
§ багаточисельні значення;
§ достовірність джерел;
§ метод викладення;
§ методологічний підхід;
§ невід’ємні проблеми;
§ передавати інформацію;
§ піти на поступки/примиритися
VI. Explain the expressions and sentences in other words:
¨ a body of historical work;
¨ methodology and practices;
¨ a meta-level analysis of descriptions;
¨ a corpus of literature;
¨ academic historians;
¨ reliability of the sources;
¨ authenticity or corruption of the text;
¨ "truth" and "fact";
¨ the medium;