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VI. Explain the expressions in other words.

o first diggers;

o huge mounds in America;

o the great length of human prehistory became widely accepted;

o sequences of cultural development;

o diving devices;

o archaeological sites;

o on an international scale;

o to seek to halt the illegal sale

VII. Look through the text and define the key historical terms of the text.

 

VIII. Say whether these statements correspond to the information of the text:

v The idea of studying the past through ancient objects has developed rapidly.

v The 1800's brought a more scientific approach to the study of the past using advances in geology and biology.

v In the late 1700's, archaeologists began to use techniques of excavation that made it possible to determine sequences of cultural development.

v European archaeologists of the late 1800's focused their studies on the ancient Asian and Eastern civilizations described by classical and Biblical authors.

v By the early 1900's, archaeologists were using stratigraphy and seriation to date their finds.

v Since the 1960's, the primary aim of archaeologists has been to origin general theories that explain the changes in human societies revealed by archaeological evidence.

v Contemporary archaeologists have also developed many new research techniques.

v On a local scale, archaeologists seek to halt the illegal sale of archaeological objects.

 

IX. Answer the questions on the text:

1. What was the beginning of archaeology?

2. Why caused discussions about the age of human race among European scholars?

3. In a few words describe the essence of Charles Darwin's theory. Do you support it?

4. What do you know about archaeological findings of the 1800's mentioned in the article? Make a short report about one of them.

5. In what way does the work of American archaeologists differ from that of European?

6. What new archaeological techniques appeared in the 1990's? Can you explain the essence of such methods as stratigraphy and seriation?

7. What changes did the 1900's bring into the science of archaeology?

8. What are the most acute tasks of contemporary archaeologists?

 

X. Make up a plan of the text in the form of statements.

 

XI. Give the general idea of this text.

 

XII. Render the text using additional information on the issue.

Ø Additional task

 

a) Read and translate the text:

Excavation

 

Archaeological excavation existed even when the field was still the domain of amateurs, and it remains the source of the majority of data recovered in most field projects. It can reveal several types of information usually not accessible to survey, such as stratigraphy, three-dimensional structure, and verifiably primary context.

Modern excavation techniques require that the precise locations of objects and features, known as their provenance or provenience, be recorded. This always involves determining their horizontal locations and sometimes vertical position as well. Similarly, their association, or relationship with nearby objects and features, needs to be recorded for later analysis. This allows the archaeologist to deduce what artifacts and features were likely used together and which may be from different phases of activity. For example, excavation of a site reveals its stratigraphy; if a site was occupied by a succession of distinct cultures, artifacts from more recent cultures will lie above those from more ancient cultures.

Excavation is the most expensive phase of archaeological research. Also, as a destructive process, it carries ethical concerns. As a result, very few sites are excavated in their entirety. Sampling is even more important in excavation than in survey. It is common for large mechanical equipment, such as backhoes , to be used in excavation, especially to remove the topsoil (overburden), though this method is increasingly used with great caution. Following this rather dramatic step, the exposed area is usually hand-cleaned with trowels or hoes to ensure that all features are apparent.

The next task is to form a site plan and then use it to help decide the method of excavation. Features dug into the natural subsoil are normally excavated in portions in order to produce a visible archaeological section for recording. A feature, for example a pit or a ditch, consists of two parts: The cut and the fill. The cut describes the edge of the feature, where the feature meets the natural soil. It is the features boundary. The fill is, understandably, what the feature is filled with, and will often appear quite distinct from the natural soil. The cut and fill are given consecutive numbers for recording purposes. Scaled plans and sections of individual features are all drawn on site, black and white and color photographs of them are taken, and recording sheets are filled in describing the context of each. All this information serves as a permanent record of the archaeology and is used in describing and interpreting the site.

Once artifacts and structures have been excavated, or collected from surface surveys, it is necessary to properly study them, to gain as much data as possible. This process is known as post-excavation analysis, and is normally the most time-consuming part of the archaeological investigation. It is not uncommon for the final excavation reports on major sites to take years to be published.

At its most basic, the artifacts found are cleaned, catalogued and compared to published collections, in order to classify them typologically and to identify other sites with similar artifact assemblages. However, a much more comprehensive range of analytical techniques are available through archaeological science, meaning that artifacts can be dated and their compositions examined. The bones, plants and pollen collected from a site can all be analyzed (using the techniques of zooarchaeology, paleoethnobotany, and palynology), while any texts can usually be deciphered.

These techniques frequently provide information that would not otherwise be known and therefore contribute greatly to the understanding of a site.

b) Look through these words and expressions and make sure you can provide Ukrainian equivalents:

a) sites 1.
b) provenance 2.
c) recent cultures 3.
d) backhoe 4.
e) trowel 5.
f) for recording purposes 6.
g) scaled plan 7.
h) more comprehensive 8.

 

c) Give synonyms to the underlined words in these expressions:

¨ to deduce;

¨ to gain as much data as possible;

¨ archaeological investigation;

¨ it is not uncommon;

¨ artifact assemblages;

¨ frequently

d) Explain the expressions in other words:

domain of amateurs

verifiably primary context

a succession of distinct cultures

mechanical equipment

topsoil

features are apparent

consecutive numbers

the most time-consuming part

 

e) Find English equivalents for the following:

() ;

();

;

;

ᒺ, ;

;

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;

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();

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

f) Check how well you remember the text:

1. What kind of archaeological information can be provided by excavation?

2. What are the necessary items for making an archaeological record? Why are these data important?

3. How can you characterize the process of excavation?

4. What kind of ethical concerns the process of excavation may involve?

5. Why such mechanical equipment as backhoes is used with great caution?

6. Why is it necessary to form a site plan? What are the steps of this procedure?

7. What can you say about post-excavation analysis? Have you ever participated in such kind of archaeological activity?

8. Why do you think archaeologists try to identify site with similar artifact assemblages?

9. What subfields of historical science can help interpret archaeological data?

 

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