²ʲв
:
³
ʳ
'
˳
˳
ϳ
'
㳿
Գ
Գ
Գ
Գ


X. Divide the text into logical parts and make up an outline of the text.

XI. Review the text.

 

XII. Read the text to yourself and write the annotation.

 

An archivistis a professional who assesses, collects, organizes, preserves, maintains control over, and provides access to information determined to have long-term value. Determining what records have enduring value is not always easy.

Archivists are guided in their work by a code of ethics. Alongside their work behind the scenes arranging and caring for collections, archivists assist users in interpreting collections and answering inquiries. This reference work can be just part of an archivist's job in a smaller organization, or consist of most of their occupation in a larger archive where specific roles (such as processing archivist and reference archivist) may be delineated.

Archivists work for a variety of organizations, including government agencies, local authorities, museums, hospitals, historical societies, businesses, charities, corporations, colleges and universities, and any institution whose records may potentially be valuable to researchers, exhibitors, genealogists, or others. Alternatively, they could also work on the collections of a large family or even of an individual. Applicants for archives jobs usually outnumber positions available.

Archivists are often educators as well; it is not unusual for an archivist employed at a university or college to lecture in a subject related to their collection. Archivists employed at cultural institutions or for local government frequently design educational or outreach programs to further the ability of archive users to understand and access information in their collections. This might include such varied activities as exhibitions, promotional events or even media coverage.

Because of the varied nature of the job and organisations and work environment, archivists need to have a wide range of skills:

Those who work in reference and access-oriented positions need to be good with people, so that they are able to help them with their research.

An ability to apply some basic knowledge of conservation is needed to help extend the useful life of cultural artifacts. Many different types of media (such as photographs, acidic papers, and unstable copy processes) can deteriorate if not stored and maintained properly.

Although many archival collections are comprised of paper records, increasingly archivists must confront the new challenges posed by the preservation of electronic records, so they need to be forward-looking and technologically proficient.

Because of the amount of sorting and listing, they need to be very logical and organised and be able to pay attention to detail.

When cataloguing records, or when assisting users, archivists need to have some research skills.

 

XIII. Can you enumerate all the duties and abilities the archivists must have?

 

XIV. Summarize the contents of two texts in order to present academic discipline ARCHIVAL STUDY.

 

 

Unit XXII

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø to crystallize /;

Ø to establish a sharp opposition / ;

Ø a sense of polarity ;

Ø to make use of ;

Ø extant / ;

Ø to entrench ;

Ø to denigrate as static and corrupt /

Ø to fuel ;

Ø "inscrutable" //;

Ø "wily" /;

Ø to intertwine with / ;

Ø Subaltern Studies ;

Ø to rise in prevalence again ;

Ø to bring about /;

Ø to pose a threat to /

II. Read and translate the text:

ORIENTAL STUDIES

Oriental studies embrace Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, languages, and peoples and their histories; in recent years the term Asian studies has mostly replaced the older term. European study of the region had primarily religious origins, which has remained an important motivation until recent times. Linguistic knowledge preceded a wider study of cultures and history. The modern study found its origins in the sometimes naive fascination of the exotic East for Mediterranean and European writers and thinkers, captured in images by artists, that is embodied in a repeatedly-surfacing theme in the history of ideas in the West, called "Orientalism". In the last century, scholars from the region itself have participated on equal terms in the discipline, transforming it.

The Western world's original distinction between the "West" and the "East" was crystallized in the Greco-Persian Wars of the fifth century BC/BCE, when Athenian historians made a distinction between their "Athenian democracy" and that of the "Persian monarchy". An institutional distinction between East and West did not exist as a defined polarity before the Oriens- and Occidens-divided administration of the Roman Empire at the end of the third century AD/CE, and the division of the Empire into Latin and Greek-speaking portions. The classical world had intimate knowledge of their Ancient Persian neighbors (and usually enemies), but very imprecise knowledge of most of the world further East. However there was substantial direct Roman trade with India (unlike with China) in the Imperial period.

The rise of Islam and Muslim conquests in the seventh century established a sharp opposition, or even a sense of polarity, between medieval European Christendom and the medieval Islamic world. During the Middle Ages, Muslims were considered the "alien" enemies of Christendom. Popular medieval European knowledge of cultures farther to the East was poor, dependent on the wildly fictionalized travels and legends of P.John, although the equally famous, and much longer, account by Marco Polo was a good deal more accurate.

Scholarly work was initially very largely linguistic in nature, with primarily a religious focus on understanding both Biblical Hebrew and other languages with early Christian literature, but also from a wish to understand Greek and Arabic works on medicine, philosophy and science. This effort existed sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, and the "Renaissance of the 12th century" witnessed a particular growth in translations of Arabic texts into Latin. The earliest translation of the Qur'an into Latin was completed in 1143, although little use was made of it until it was printed in 1543, after which it was translated into other European languages.

There was vague but increasing knowledge of the complex civilizations extant in China and India, from which luxury goods (notably cotton and silk textiles as well as ceramics) were imported. Although the Crusades produced relatively little in the way of scholarly interchange, the eruption of the Mongol Empire has strategic implications for both the Crusader kingdoms and Europe itself, and led to extended diplomatic contacts. As European exploration and colonization occurred, the distinction between illiterate peoples (i.e. in sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas) and the literate cultures of the East became entrenched.

University Oriental studies became systematic during the Renaissance, with the linguistic and religious aspects continuing to dominate. There was also a political dimension, as translations for diplomatic purposes were needed, even before the West engaged actively with the East. Distinguished scholars had traveled to the East and wrote also on the modern history and society of Eastern peoples. In France, it was initiated a training programme for young linguists with the diplomatic service. Study of the Far East was pioneered by missionaries, especially Jesuits, and missionary motives were to remain important, at least in linguistic studies.

In the eighteenth century, Enlightenment thinkers characterized aspects of the pagan East as superior to the Christian West. Edward Gibbon, praised the relative religious tolerance of the Islamic East as opposed to the intolerant Christian West, and many, including Diderot and Voltaire, the high social status of scholarship in Mandarin China.

With a great increase in knowledge of Asia among Western specialists, increasing political and economic involvement in the region, and in particular the realization of the existence of close relations between Indian and European languages, there emerged more complex intellectual connections between the early history of Eastern and Western cultures. Some of these developments occurred in the context of FrancoBritish rivalry for control of India. Liberal economists denigrated Eastern civilizations as static and corrupt. Oriental despotism was generally regarded in Europe as a major factor in the relative failure of progress of Eastern societies. The study of Islam was central to the field since the majority of people living in the geographical area termed 'the Orient' were Muslims. Interest in understanding Islam was partly fuelled by economic considerations of growing trade in the Mediterranean region and the changing cultural and intellectual climate of the time.

The first serious European studies of Buddhism and Hinduism were conducted by scholars E.Burnouf and M.Müller. In that time, the academic study of Islam also developed, and, by the mid-nineteenth century, Oriental Studies was a well-established academic discipline in most European countries, especially those with imperial interests in the region. Yet, while scholastic study expanded, so did racist attitudes and stereotypes of "inscrutable", "wily" Orientals. Scholarship often was intertwined with prejudicial racism and religious presumption, to which the new biological sciences tended to contribute until the middle of the following century.

The participation in academic studies by scholars from the newly-independent nations of the region itself inevitably changed the nature of studies considerably, with the emergence of post-colonial studies and Subaltern Studies. The influence of Orientalism in scholarship on the Middle East was seen to have re-emerged and risen in prevalence again after the end of the Cold War. It is contended that this was partly a response to "a lacuna" in identity politics in international relations generally, and within the "West" particularly, which was brought about by the absence of Soviet communism as a global adversary. The post-Cold War era has been marked by discussions of Islamist terrorism framing views on the extent to which the culture of the Middle East region and Islam, its predominant religion, poses a threat to that of the West. The essence of this debate reflects a presupposition, for which Orientalism has been criticized that the "Orient" is defined by Islam. Such considerations as these were seen to have occurred in the wider context of the way in which many Western scholars responded to international politics in the post-Cold War world; and they were arguably heightened following the terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001.

III. Find English equivalents of those expressions in the text:

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

 

IV. Look through these words and expressions and provide their Ukrainian equivalents:

to capture in images;

to participate on equal terms;

a defined polarity;

a repeatedly-surfacing theme;

the wildly fictionalized travels and legends;

to have strategic implications;

to lead to extended diplomatic contacts;

to initiate a training programme;

to characterize aspects of the pagan East as superior to the Christian West;

racist attitudes and stereotypes;

to emerge more complex intellectual connections;

the relative failure of progress

 

V. Give the synonyms to the underlined words:

o naive fascination;

o to crystallize;

o institutional distinction;

o to establish a sharp opposition;

o primarily a religious focus on understanding;

o a wish to understand;

o sporadically;

o vague knowledge;

o a political dimension;

o distinguished scholars;

o a great increase in knowledge;

o biological sciences tended to contribute;

o to bring about

 

VI. Give the antonyms to the underlined words:

a wider study of cultures and history;

imprecise knowledge;

substantialdirect trade;

to denigrate as static and corrupt;

the rise of Islam;

to establish a sharpopposition;

sporadically;

to praise the relative religious tolerance;

"inscrutable" and "wily";

a global adversary

 

VII. Explain the meaning of the following words and word combinations in your own words:

¨ to make a distinction;

¨ democracy;

¨ monarchy;

¨ substantial direct Roman trade with India;

¨ European Christendom;

¨ the "alien" enemies;

¨ extant civilizations;

¨ luxury goods;

¨ the eruption of the Mongol Empire;

¨ to pioneer;

¨ the high social status of scholarship;

¨ to denigrate;

¨ identity politics

VIII. Contradict the following statements:

v European study of the region had primarily philosophical origins, which has remained an important motivation until recent times.

v Asian studies is the history of ideas of the West.

v The classical world had imprecise knowledge of their Ancient Persian neighbors, but very intimate knowledge of most of the world further East.

v There was substantial direct Roman trade with China in the Imperial period.

v Popular medieval European knowledge of cultures farther to the East was intimate because of strictly accurate accounts of European traveler.

v Scholarly work was very largely scientific in nature, with a linguistic focus on understanding Greek and Arabic works on medicine, philosophy and science during Middle Ages.

v The Crusades were the first to produce good deal in the way of scholarly interchange.

v University Oriental studies became systematic during the Age of Enlightenment, with the political dimension continuing to dominate.

v Study of the Far East was pioneered by distinguished scientists.

v Diderot and Voltaire stressed the low social status of scholarship in Mandarin China.

v The rise of Islam was generally regarded in Europe as a major factor in the relative failure of progress of Eastern societies.

v In the mid-19th century scholastic study expanded into racist attitudes and stereotypes of "inscrutable", "wily" Orientals.

IX. Answer the fact-finding questions trying not to give a short answer, add some information to develop the idea:

1. What societies and cultures does Oriental studies embrace?

2. Where did modern Asian studies find its origins?

3. Are the scholars from the region participating in the discipline?

4. When did division of the Western world into the "West" and the "East" occur?

5. What established a sharp opposition between medieval Europe and Islamic world?

6. The Renaissance witnessed a growth in translations of Arabic texts, didn't it?

7. Was the earliest translation of the Qur'an into Latin completed in 1143 or in 1543?

8. What led to extended diplomatic relations between Europe and Asia?

9. How did Enlightenment thinkers characterize East?

10. Why did intellectual connections between Eastern and Western countries emerge?

11. When did Oriental studies become a well-established academic discipline in most European countries?

12. Who changed the nature of studies considerably?

X. Insert necessary words and expressions using those from the box:

Middle Eastern studies, (a)____________of Asian studies, is a name given to a number of (b)___________________associated with the study of the culture, politics, economy, and geography of the Middle East, an area that is generally interpreted to cover (c)__________________extending from North Africa in the west to the Chinese frontier and multiple other nations. It is considered as part of area studies taking (d)______________________ to the study of a region.

Although some academic programs combine Middle Eastern Studies with Islamic Studies, based on (e)________________ of Muslims in the region, others maintain these areas of study as (f)______________________.

In 1978 Edward Said, published his book Orientalism, in which he accused earlier scholars of a "subtle and persistent Eurocentric prejudice against Arabo-Islamic peoples and their culture", claiming (g)__________ amounted to a justification for imperialism. While other (h)________________ challenged Said's conclusions, the book soon became a standard text of (i)____________ and (j)________________.

 

the preponderance literary theory a subset the bias
a range of nations academic programs academics separate disciplines
an interdisciplinary approach cultural studies  

© 2013 wikipage.com.ua - wikipage.com.ua |