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XI. Give the general idea of this text.

 

XII. Render the text using your plan.

XIII. Read the text to yourself and write the annotation:

From "Oriental Studies" to "Asian Studies"

 

Like the term Orient, Orientalism derives from the Latin word "oriens" "rising" and, equally likely, from the Greek word "he'oros" "the direction of the rising sun". "Orient" is the opposite of Occident. In terms of The Old World, Europe was considered The Occident (The West), and its farthest-known extreme The Orient (The East). Dating from the Roman Empire until the Middle Ages, what is now, in the West, considered "the Middle East" was then considered "the Orient". At that time, the flourishing cultures of the Far East were unknown; likewise Europe was unknown in the Far East. However, use of the various terms and senses derived from "Orient" has greatly declined in the twentieth century.

Oriental Studies has now been replaced by Asian Studies localized to specific regions, such as, Middle Eastern or Near Eastern Studies, South Asian studies, and East Asian Studies. This reflects the fact that the Orient is not a single, monolithic region but rather a broad area encompassing multiple civilizations. The generic concept of Oriental Studies, to its opponents, has lost any use it may have once had and is perceived as obstructing changes in departmental structures to reflect actual patterns of modern scholarship.

Opponents offer various political explanations for the change. By some, the term "Oriental" has come to be thought offensive to non-Westerners. Area studies that incorporate not only philological pursuits but identity politics may also account for the hesitation to use the term "Oriental".

Supporters of "Oriental Studies" counter that the term "Asian" is just as encompassing as "Oriental" and may well have originally had the same meaning, if it were derived from an Akkadian word for "East" (a more common derivation is from one or both of two Anatolian proper names.). Replacing one word with another is to confuse historically objectional opinions about the East with the concept of "the East" itself. The terms Oriental/Eastern and Occidental/Western are both inclusive concepts that usefully identify large-scale cultural differences. Such general concepts do not preclude or deny more specific ones.

XIV. Summarize the contents of two texts in order to present academic discipline ORIENTAL STUDY.

 

Unit XXIII

 

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø to commence from ;

Ø Rosetta Stone a large, ancient stone that was found in Egypt in 1799, which had the same piece of writing on it in three different writing systems: Greek letters, Egyptian letters, and ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, which made it possible to translate hieroglyphics for the first time;

Ø to proceed with academic rigour ;

Ø the disdain /;

Ø occultism mysterious practices and powers involving magic and spirits;

Ø extraterrestrial relating to things and creatures that people think may exist on another planet (outside the Earth);

Ø the "New Age" relating to spiritual beliefs, types of medicine, and ways of living that are not traditional Western ones;

Ø to call into question ;

Ø to agree on the outline ;

Ø the factor of uncertainty ;

Ø wear and tear /;

Ø potent and enduring symbol ;

Ø the precise influence

 

II. Read and translate the text:

 

EGYPTOLOGY

Egyptologyis the study of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archaeology. A practitioner of the discipline is an Egyptologist, though Egyptology is not exclusive to such practitioners.

Egyptology investigates the range of Ancient Egyptian cultures (language, literature, history, religion, art, economics, and ethics) from the 5th millennium BC up to the end of Pagan religion in the 4th century AD. Some of the first historical accounts of Egypt was given by Herodotus, Strabo and the largely lost work of Manetho, an Egyptian priest in the 3rd century BC.

The first known attempts at deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs were made by Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya in the 9th century AD, who were able to at least partly understand what was written. Abdul Latif al-Baghdadi in the 13th century wrote detailed descriptions on ancient Egyptian monuments.

European exploration and travel writings of ancient Egypt commenced from the 13th century onward, with only occasional detours into a more scientific approach, notably by John Greaves, Claude Sicard, Frederic Louis Norden and Richard Pococke. With Napoleon's scholars recording of Egypt's flora, fauna and history, published as Description de l'Egypte, the study of many aspects of ancient Egypt became more scientifically oriented. The British took over Egypt from the French and gained the Rosetta Stone. Modern Egyptology is generally perceived as beginning around 1822.

Jean François Champollion and Ippolito Rosellini were some of the first Egyptologists of wide acclaim. The German Karl Richard Lepsius was an early participant in the investigations of Egypt; mapping, excavating, and recording several sites. Champollion announced his general decipherment of the system of Egyptian hieroglyphics for the first time, employing the Rosetta Stone as his primary aid. The Stone's decipherment was a very important development of Egyptology. With subsequently ever-increasing knowledge of Egyptian writing and language, the study of Ancient Egyptian civilization was able to proceed with greater academic rigour and with all the added impetus that comprehension of the written sources was able to engender. Egyptology became more professional via work of William Matthew Flinders Petrie, among others. Petrie introduced techniques of field preservation, recording, and excavating. Howard Carter expedition brought much acclaim to the field of Egyptology. Around 1830, Rifa' al-Tahtawi was one of the first main works of Egyptian Egyptology. Egyptian Egyptology developed slowly compared to its Western scholars, primarily because Islamic identity (and the disdain of pre-Islamic antiquity by some Muslims) and Western imperialism (till decolonization in the 1920's). Islamic and modern Egyptian civilization has been influenced by the pre-Islamic Egyptian culture of which Egyptology is concerned with.

In the Modern era, the Supreme Council for Antiquities control excavation permits for Egyptologists to conduct their work. The field can now use geophysical methods and other applications of modern sensing techniques to further Egyptology. The Egyptian languages (such as Hieratics and Coptic) and the Egyptian writing systems are still of importance in Egyptology.

Egyptology has attracted various pseudoscientific theories of which most are widely discounted by many Egyptologists. This includes esoteric, or extraterrestrial, subjects which are considered pseudohistorical overall; few in Egyptology entertain views of the "New Age", ufology, occultism, "secret societies", or Atlantis ideas.

There are many open problems concerning Ancient Egypt, and some of them may never be solved. Egyptian archaeology is in a state of constant transition, with much of the terminology and chronology in dispute. The archaeological record is incomplete, with countless relics and artifacts missing or destroyed. New archaeological discoveries can call into question previous conclusions about Ancient Egypt. Furthermore, there are internal problems of overall cohesion of various dynasties and there are problems reconciling the Egyptian civilization with other concurrent civilizations.

Ancient Egypt appeared as a unified state no earlier than 3300 BC. It survived as an independent state until about 300 BC. Archaeological evidence suggests that a developed Egyptian society may have existed for much longer. The creation of a reliable Chronology of Ancient Egypt is a task fraught with problems. There is a "Conventional Egyptian chronology" that has a general consensus. While the overwhelming majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many of the details of a common chronology, disagreements either individually or in groups have resulted in a variety of dates offered for rulers and events. This variation begins with only a few years in the Late Period, gradually growing to a decade at the beginning of the New Kingdom, and eventually to as much as a century by the start of the Old Kingdom. The reader is advised to include this factor of uncertainty with any date offered either in encyclopedia or any history of Ancient Egypt.

Many Egyptian temples are still standing today. Some are in ruin from wear and tear, while others have been lost entirely. The Egyptian structures are among the largest man-made constructions ever conceived. They constitute one of the most potent and enduring symbols of Ancient Egyptian civilization.

Mummification of the dead was not always practiced in Egypt. Once the practice began, an individual was placed at his or her final resting place through a set of rituals and protocols. The Egyptian funeral was a complex ceremony including various monuments, prayers, and rituals undertaken in the deads' honor. The poor, who could not afford expensive tombs, were buried in shallow graves in the sand; because of the arid environment they were often naturally mummified.

The ancient Egyptians are featured in the Hebrew Scriptures, and played a prominent role in the early Hebrews' life, from Joseph's capture to the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt to later interaction with the Kingdom of Israel. There are several unanswered questions as to the precise influence each had on the other.

 

III. Find English equivalents of those expressions in the text:

;

;

;

;

㳿;

;

/ ;

;

IV. Look through these words and expressions and provide their Ukrainian equivalents:

to take over Egypt from French;

Egyptologists of wide acclaim;

ever-increasing knowledge;

to engender comprehension of the written sources;

techniques of field preservation, recording, and excavating;

applications of modern sensing techniques;

to be in a state of constant transition;

internal problems of overall cohesion;

to reconcile the Egyptian civilization with other concurrent civilizations;

to undertake in the deads' honor;

to have precise influence

 

V. Arrange the following words in pairs of antonyms:

onward admiration
primary to alienate
disdain dissension
to further backward
to reconcile to prevent
consensus weak
potent last
preservation to suppress
to engender destruction

 

VI. Arrange the following words in pairs of synonyms:

to decipher to initiate
to commence full of
to discount to decode
impetus coincident
fraught with deterioration
wear and tear to ignore
concurrent union
to feature stimulus
cohesion to outline

 

VII. Explain the following notions, which constitute the range of Ancient Egyptian cultures:

¨ flora;

¨ fauna;

¨ language;

¨ literature;

¨ religion;

¨ art;

¨ economics;

¨ ethics

VIII. Error correction. Define false statements and give their right versions:

v Egyptology is the separate field of ancient history and archaeology.

v Some of the first historical accounts of Egypt was given by Muslim historians.

v Scientific European exploration and travel writings of ancient Egypt commenced from the 13th century.

v Modern Egyptology is generally perceived as beginning with discovering Rosetta Stone.

v Rosetta Stone was used as primary aid in decipherment of the system of Egyptian hieroglyphics and provided ever-increasing knowledge of Egyptian writing and language.

v Egyptian Egyptology developed slowly because the disdain of pre-Islamic antiquity by some Muslims.

v In the Modern era excavations aren't controlled.

v Egyptologists study esoteric, or extraterrestrial, subjects and entertain views of the "New Age", ufology, occultism, "secret societies", or Atlantis ideas.

v The Egyptian languages and writing systems are still of importance in Egyptology.

v Countless relics and artifacts in Egyptian archaeology were missed and destroyed.

v The creation of a reliable Chronology of Ancient Egypt is in a state of constant transition.

v Mummification of the dead was always practiced in Egypt.

IX. Answer the fact-finding questions trying not to give a short answer:

1. What kind of study is Egyptology? What does it investigate?

2. Is study exclusive only to Egyptologists?

3. When did the study of Egypt become more scientifically oriented?

4. What is considered to be very important development of Egyptology? How did this event improve study?

5. Why did Egyptian Egyptology develop slowly?

6. What techniques were used and are using within the field?

7. There are a lot of unanswered questions concerning Egyptology, arent there? Enumerate them.

8. What symbols of Egypt can you mention?

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