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III. Look through the text and write out the key historical terms.

IV. Find English equivalents of those expressions in the text:

¨ 䳿 ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨ ;

¨

 

V.Give Ukrainian equivalents of those expressions in the text:

- to look for common patterns;

- accelerated globalization;

- to herald the advent;

- to create the infrastructure for lasting, accurately transmitted memories;

- to give rise to permanent settled communities;

- to centre about life-sustaining bodies of water;

- to revolutionize communication;

- to usher in modern times;

- to grasp history as a whole;

- to provide perspective of time scales

 

VI. Give synonyms to the underlined words:

two major focal points;

to draw people of the world together;

at a handful of universities;

programs in World History have proliferated;

to comprise epochs in evolution of humankind;

in the wake of the Agricultural Revolution;

to foster a growing diversity of trades;

to coalesce into ever larger units;

all time scales

 

VII. Interpret the following in English:

thematic approach;

the diversity of the human experience;

globalization;

diffusion and growth of knowledge;

scattered habitations;

the process of coalescence;

rivalries and conflicts between adjacent communities;

to help end the Middle Ages;

to spark into existence;

the alteration and adaptations in the human experience;

a multi-disciplinary approach;

to leave out the vast majority of history

 

VIII. Find in the text a word or phrase that means:

Ø a gradual process by whih new things are added and smth gradually changes or gets bigger;

Ø a very large and important development or improvement;

Ø an important change in which the usual way of thinking or doing smth is replaced by another way of thinking or doing;

Ø a country which has very great economic, military and political strength;

Ø the period of time in Europe between 14th and 17th centuries, when art, literature, philosophy and scientific ideas became very important and a lot of new art was produced;

Ø the period in the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe and the USA when machines were invented and the first factories were established;

Ø the period of time during which you expect or agree that something will happen or be done;

Ø the scientific study of climate;

Ø a theory that suggests that the universe was created as a result of a massive explosion

 

IX. Agree or disagree with the following statements:

v World History examines history from a global perspective; it seeks out common patterns that emerge across all cultures.

v Emerging in the early 20 century World History focuses on narratives of individuals, and on national and ethnic perspectives.

v World historians use a thematic approach, with two major focal points: integration (how patterns of world history reveal the diversity of the human experience) and difference (how processes of world history have drawn people of the world together).

v The history of the world is human history from the first appearance of Homo sapiens to the present.

v Prehistory began with the invention of writing.

v The invention of modern printing, employing movable type ushered in the European Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution.

v Big History is a discrete field of historical study that arose in the late 1980's.

v The first book in Big History was published in 1996 by Fred Spier entitled, The Structure of Big History: From the Big Bang until Today, which explores history from the first micro-seconds of the Big Bang, to the creation of the solar system, to the origins of life on earth, the evolution of humans, the agricultural revolution, modernity, and the 20th century.

 

X. Questions to be answered:

1. What kind of discipline is World History?

2. How does it differ from most history writings of the 19th and 20th centuries?

3. What are two major points of World History thematic approach?

4. Is human history marked by revolutions or discoveries?

5. What was the basis for diffusion and growth of knowledge?

6. When had writing been made necessary?

7. What signaled the beginning and end of every epoch? Give examples.

8. What does Big History arise from?

9. What fields of knowledge are connected with Big History? Which discipline is closer to it?

 

XI. Explain the difference between:

World History and Big History;

Big History and History of the World.

XII. Present the general idea of the text.

XIII. Speak on the major points of the text.

 

XIV.Write en essay on the topic The outline of Ukrainian history.

 

 

Unit XXVII

 

 

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø fraught with , ;

Ø the sentiment of hostility towards or mistrust of ;

Ø to speculate on /;

Ø occupational class ;

Ø expertise , ;

Ø to allow authority ;

Ø exegesis /;

Ø to distract from ;

Ø a prodigious quantity ;

Ø compatibility ;

Ø multidimensional phenomenon ;

Ø to call upon / ;

Ø social cohesion ;

Ø geo-political affairs ;

Ø to shift the focus

 

II. Read and translate the text:

 

INTELLECTUAL HISTORY

Intellectual history refers to the history of the people who create, discuss, write about and in other ways propagate ideas. The historical study of ideas has engaged not only western intellectual traditions, including, but not limited to, those in the far east, near east, mid-east and Africa.

Intellectual history is closely related to the history of philosophy and the history of ideas. Its central perspective suggests that ideas do not change in isolation from the people who create and use them and that one must study the culture, lives and environments of people to understand their notions and ideas. This is also fraught with the sentiment of hostility towards, or mistrust of, intellectuals and intellectual pursuits known as anti-intellectualism. This may be expressed in various ways, such as attacks on the merits of science, education, or literature.

Europe and the WestAn intellectual is one who tries to use his or her intellect to work, study, reflect, speculate on, or ask and answer questions with regard to a variety of different ideas. There are, broadly, three modern definitions at work in discussions about intellectuals. First, "intellectuals" as those deeply involved in ideas, books, the life of the mind. Second, "intellectuals" are recognizable occupational class consisting of lecturers, professors, lawyers, doctors, scientist, and etc. Third, cultural "intellectuals" are those of notable expertise in culture and the arts, expertise which allows them some cultural authority, and who then use that authority to speak in public on other matters.

The social/intellectual context in the writings of western European history includes:

¨ The Enlightenment Human rights, new science, democracy (scholarly sources; Kant, Wilhelm Dilthey).

¨ The Royal Society A secular creation of an intellectual world led by figures such as Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke, Joseph Addison, Bishop Sprat.

¨ The Encyclopaedists The creation of central repositories of knowledge available to all outside of academies, including mass market encyclopaedias and dictionaries: Diderot, Samuel Johnson, Voltaire.

¨ Romanticism Individual, subjective, imaginative, personal, visionary (scholarly sources Carlyle, Rousseau, Herder).

¨ Post-romanticism Reaction to naturalism, opposes external-only observations by adding internal observations (scholarly sources Comte, von Ranke).

¨ Modernism Rejects Christian academic scholarly tradition (scholarly sources Friedrich Nietzsche, Jacob Burckhardt, Ferdinand de Saussure, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung).

¨ Existentialism Pre- and post-WW2 rejection of Western norms and cultural values represented by Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Herbert Marcuse and engaged with the intellectual prominence of fascism and socialism in Europe during in the 1930s and 1940s, which they saw needed both repudiation and study, as a way to re-establish the individual against the values of a hostile and destructive series of communities creating alienation, isolation, and individual meaninglessness.

¨ Postmodernism Rejects Modernism, meta-narrative multiple perspectives, role of individual (scholarly sources Lyotard, Foucault, Barthes).

¨ Structuralism Many phenomena do not occur in isolation but in relation to each other (scholarly sources Geertz, Levi-Strauss).

¨ Poststructuralism Deconstruction, destabilizes the relationship between language and objects the language refers to (scholarly sources Lyotard, Derrida, Foucault).

Asia and the Far East Central to development of intellectual history has been the birth of scholarship in ancient China, the creation of Confucianism with its extensive exegesis of the texts of Confucius, and the active part of scholars in governments.

In ancient China literati referred to the government officials who formed the ruling class in China for over two thousand years. These scholar-bureaucrats were a status group of educated laymen, not ordained priests. They were not a hereditary group as their position depended on their knowledge of writing and literature. After 200 B.C. the system of selection of candidates was influenced by Confucianism and established its ethic among the literati. The Hundred Flowers Campaign in China was largely based on the government's wish for a mobilization of intellectuals; with very sour consequences later.

Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the early Chinese sage Confucius. Confucianism is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and religious thought which has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia up to the 21 st century.

Another avenue of intellectualism in Asia has been Buddhism. According to the Buddhist scriptures, in his lifetime, the Buddha had not answered several philosophical questions. On issues like whether the world is eternal or non-eternal, finite or infinite, unity or separation of the body and the self, complete in existence of a person after nirvana and then death etc, the Buddha had remained silent. The scriptures explain that such questions distract from practical activity for realizing enlightenment.

Buddhist missionaries often faced philosophical questions from other religions whose answers they themselves did not know. For those, who have attachment to intellectualism, Buddhist scholars produced a prodigious quantity of intellectual theories, philosophies and worldview concepts.

Africa and the Middle EastIn the Near East, Islam and modernity encompass the relation and compatibility between the phenomenon of modernity, its related concepts and ideas, and the religion of Islam. In order to understand the relation between Islam and modernity, one point should be made in the beginning. Both Islam and modernity are not simple and unified entities. They are abstract quantities which could not be reduced into simple categories. The history of Islam, like that of other religions, is a history of different interpretations and approaches to Islam. Modernity is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon rather than a unified and coherent phenomenon. It has historically had different schools of thoughts moving in many directions.

Ali al-Masudi, a well known Arab intellectual in history, known as the "Herodotus of the Arabs", was the first Arab to combine history and scientific geography in a large-scale work, The Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, a world history. Ibn Khaldūn was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist. He is regarded as a forefather of demography, historiography, philosophy of history, and sociology, and is viewed as one of the forerunners of modern economics.

Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings. Throughout Iranian history and due to remarkable political and social changes a wide spectrum of schools of thoughts showed a variety of views on philosophical questions extending from Old Iranian and mainly Zoroastrianism-related traditions to schools appearing in the late pre-Islamic era. Iranian philosophy after Arab invasion of Persia, is characterized by different interactions with the Old Iranian philosophy, the Greek philosophy and with the development of Islamic philosophy.

Intellectual movements in Iran involve the Iranian experience of modernism, through which Iranian modernity and its associated art, science, literature, poetry, and political structures have been evolving since the 19 th century. Religious intellectualism in Iran developed gradually and subtly and involved numerous philosophers, sociologists, political scientists and cultural theorists.

The African Renaissance is a concept in which the African people and nations are called upon to solve the many problems troubling the African continent. It reached its height in the late 1990's but continues to be a key part of the post-apartheid intellectual agenda. The elements of this would eventually be seen to comprise the African Renaissance, social cohesion, democracy, economic rebuilding and growth and the establishing of Africa as a significant player in geo-political affairs.

With the rise of Afrocentrism, a recently developed academic, philosophical, and historical approach to the study of world history, the push away from Eurocentrism has led to the focus on the contributions of African people and their model of world civilization and history.

Afrocentrism aims to shift the focus from a perceived European-centered history to an African-centered history. More broadly, Afrocentrism is concerned with distinguishing the influence of European and Oriental peoples from African achievements.

 

III. Look through these words and expressions and provide their Ukrainian equivalents:

  intellectual pursuits  
the merits of science, education, or literature  
  central repositories of knowledge  
  intellectual prominence  
  external-only observations  
  ordained priests  
  avenue of intellectualism  
  to have attachment to intellectualism  
  to show a variety of views  
  a key part of the intellectual agenda  
a perceived European-centered history  

 

IV. Give synonyms to the underlined words:

to propagate ideas;

the sentiment of hostility or mistrust;

to speculate on questions with regard to a variety of different ideas;

ancient China literati;

extensiveexegesis;

sour consequences;

a prodigious quantity;

unifiedentities;

forerunners of modern economics;

to shift the focus

V. Give antonyms to the underlined words:

¨ visionary;

¨ the sentiment of hostility;

¨ external-only observations;

¨ to destabilize the relationship;

¨ educated laymen;

¨ tremendous influence;

¨ to distract from practical activity;

¨ to develop gradually and subtly;

¨ social cohesion

VI. Find English equivalents for the following:

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

 

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