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VI. – Match the historical terms listed up in column A with the definitions provided in column B.

A B
raid a member of an irregular usually politically motivated armed force that combats stronger regular forces, such as the army or police;
guerrilla a sudden surprise attack;
insurgency a fight between large armed forces; military or naval engagement;
battle the act or an instance of conquering or the state of having been conquered;
revolt a rebellion or uprising against authority;
terrorism systematic use of violence and intimidation to achieve some goal;
maneuver the act, process, or an instance of waging war;
warfare a tactic or movement of one or a number of military or naval units;
conquests an action fought between two military forces;
combat the act or an instance of rebelling against a government in power or the civil authorities

– Exemplify the use of lexis listed up in Activity A in the topical statements conveying the key ideas of the text. The examples of your own are plus.

 

VII. Look through the text and write out the key historical terms.

 

VIII. – Find the following adjectives and nouns from the text:

A B
військовий; тактика;
бойовий; маневр;
технічний; завоювання;
досконалий; війна;
традиційний; доказ;
збережений; стандарт;
внутрішній; зіткнення;
легіонерський; нововведення;
безпосередній; суперечка;

– Match the lexis in columns A and B.

– Use the expressions in your own sentences.

 

IX. Finish up the statements:

v Military history is composed of …

v Military activity has been a …

v The essential tactics, strategy, and goals of military operations have been …

v By the study of history, the military seeks to …

v Conventional warfare involves …

v "Unconventional" refers to …

v The introduction of agriculture brought …

v The first archaeological record of a prehistoric battle is …

v Weapons and armor were …

v Notable militaries in the ancient world included …

v The result of a decisive battle at Carrhae was …

X. Give the extensive answers:

1. What is military history composed of?

2. Military activity has been a constant process over thousands of years, hasn’t it?

3. How does the military seek to not repeat past mistakes?

4. Is there the number of ways to categorize warfare? Describe them.

5. What brought differences between farm workers' societies and hunter-gatherer groups?

6. Is much of what we know of ancient history the history of militaries? Why?

7. Why did writing tend to record military events?

8. For what reasons military history comprises a large part of ancient history?

9. What did notable militaries in the ancient world include?

10. How many Punic Wars were there in history? What do you know about them?

XI. Present the general idea of the text.

XII. Review the text.

 

 

Unit XXXV

I. Look through the words and expressions and learn them:

Ø stirrup – стремено;

Ø copying the steppe nomads – повторюючи степових кочівників;

Ø to supplant – виживати/витісняти;

Ø due to political fragmentation of powerful regional military governors – завдяки політичному подрібненню владних місцевих військових правителів;

Ø gunpowder weapons – порохова зброя;

Ø arquebus – аркебуза;

Ø the creation of professional standing armies – створення професійних армій;

Ø the feudal levies and mercenaries – феодальні рекрути та наймані воякі;

Ø shifting alliance – непостійний/мінливий союз;

Ø to abandon a complete reliance on – відмовлятися від повної залежності від;

Ø conscription – система військової повинності;

Ø available for combat – придатний до бою/здатний воювати;

Ø steeped in tradition – вкорінений/поринутий у традицію;

Ø rivalling the scientific accomplishments – конкуруючий науковим досягненням;

Ø to spark – спалахнути;

Ø outflanking attempt – хитра спроба;

Ø trench warfare – окопна війна

II. Read and translate the text:

Part II

MILITARY HISTORY

Medieval warfareWhen stirrups came into use some time during the dark age militaries were forever changed. This invention coupled with technological, cultural, and social developments had forced a dramatic transformation in the character of warfare from antiquity, changing military tactics and the role of cavalry and artillery. Similar patterns of warfare existed in other parts of the world. In China around the fifth century armies moved from massed infantry to cavalry based forces, copying the steppe nomads. The Middle East and North Africa used similar technologies than Europe. In Japan the Medieval warfare period is considered by many to have stretched into the nineteenth century. In Africa along the Sahel and Sudan states like the Kingdom of Sennar and Fulani Empire employed Medieval tactics and weapons well after they had been supplanted in Europe.

In the Medieval period, feudalism was firmly implanted, and there existed many landlords in Europe. Landlords often owned castles to protect their territory.

The Islamic Arab Empire began rapidly expanding throughout the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia, expanded to the Iberian Peninsula in the west and the Indus Valley in the east. At the Battle of Tours, the Franks under Charles Martel stopped short a Muslim invasion. The Abassids defeated the Tang Chinese army at the Battle of Talas, but were later defeated by the Turks and the Mongols centuries later, until the Arab Empire eventually came to an end after the Battle of Baghdad in 1258.

In China, the Sui Dynasty had risen and conquered the Chen Dynasty of the south. They invaded Vietnam, fighting the troops of Champa, who had cavalry mounted on elephants. The Sui collapsed and was followed by the Tang Dynasty, who fought with various groups, and collapsed due to political fragmentation of powerful regional military governors. The innovative Song Dynasty followed next, inventing new weapons of war that employed the use of Greek Fire and gunpowder against enemies. The Mongols under Genghis Khan, Ogodei Khan, Mongke Khan, and finally Kublai Khan later invaded and eventually defeated the Chinese Song Dynasty by 1279. The Mongol Empire continued to expand throughout Asia and Eastern Europe, but following the death of Kublai Khan, it fell apart.

Gunpowder warfareAfter Gunpowder weapons were first developed in China, the technology later spread west to the Ottoman Empire, from where it spread to the Empire of Persia and the Empire of India. The arquebus was later adopted by European armies during the Italian Wars of the early 16th century. This all brought an end to the dominance of armored cavalry on the battlefield. The simultaneous decline of the feudal system — and the absorption of the medieval city-states into larger states — allowed the creation of professional standing armies to replace the feudal levies and mercenaries that had been the standard military component of the Middle Ages. The period spanning between the 1648 Peace of Westphalia and the 1789 French Revolution is also known as Princes' warfare as wars were mainly carried out by imperial or monarchics states, decided by cabinets and limited in scope and in their aims. They also involved quickly shifting alliances, and mainly used mercenaries.

Industrial warfareAs weapons—particularly small arms—became easier to use, countries began to abandon a complete reliance on professional soldiers in favor of conscription. Technological advances became increasingly important; while the armies of the previous period had usually had similar weapons, the industrial age saw encounters such as the Battle of Sadowa, in which possession of a more advanced technology played a decisive role in the outcome.

Conscription was employed in industrial warfare to increase the amount of soldiers that were available for combat. This was used by Napoleon Bonaparte in the Napoleonic Wars.

Total war was used in industrial warfare, the objective being to prevent the opposing nation to engage in war.

Modern warfareIn modern times, war has evolved from an activity steeped in tradition to a scientific enterprise where success is valued above methods. The notion of total war is the extreme of this trend. Militaries have developed technological advances rivalling the scientific accomplishments of any other field of study.

However, it should be noted that modern militaries benefit in the development of these technologies under the funding of the public, the leadership of national governments, and often in cooperation with large civilian groups. And as for "total war," it may be argued that it is not an exclusive practice of modern militaries, but in the tradition of genocidal conflict that marks even tribal warfare to this day. What distinguishes modern military organizations from those previous is not their willingness to prevail in conflict by any method, but rather the technological variety of tools and methods available to modern battlefield commanders, from submarines to satellites, from knives to nuclear warheads.

World War I was sparked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, leading to the mobilization of Austria and Serbia. The Germans joined the Austrians to form the Central powers; the French, British, and Russians formed the Allied powers. Following the Battle of the Marne and the outflanking attempt of both nations in the "Race to the Sea", trench warfare ensued, leaving the war in a great deadlock. Major operations by the Germans at the Battle of Verdun and by the British and the French at the Battle of the Somme were carried out, and new technology like tanks and chlorine gas were used. Following the USA's entrance into the war, the Germans and their allies were eventually defeated.

World War II ensued after Germany's invasion of Poland, forcing Britain and France to declare war. The Germans allied with Italy and Japan quickly defeated France and Belgium. A hasty evacuation occurred at Dunkirk to save the Allied army from complete disaster. The Germans then attacked Russia and marched to take over the Russian resources, but were thwarted. Meanwhile, Japan had launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, leading the United States to join the Allied powers. In Europe, the Allies opened three fronts: in the west, after securing Normandy; in the east, aiding Russia; and in the south, through Italy. Germany eventually surrendered, upon which the Allies turned and focused troops on Japan. The dropping of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to the surrender of Japan and the end of the Second World War.

The Cold War then emerged, reaching the peak at the Cuban Missile Crisis. Hostilities never actually occurred, though the US did engage against communist states in the Korean War and the Vietnam War.

III. Find English equivalents for the following:

· винаходи поєднані з технологічним розвитком;

· залишатися під контролем;

· примусити оголосити війну;

· призвести до мобілізації;

· різноманітність засобів та методів;

· замінити військовою повинністю;

· провідні технології;

· спалахнути внаслідок політичного вбивства;

· домінування важкої кавалерії;

· запобігти втягненню у війну;

· призвести до капітуляції;

· досягти апогею

IV. Give Ukrainian equivalents of those expressions in the text:

§ a dramatic transformation in the character of warfare;

§ the simultaneous decline of the feudal system;

§ to develop technological advances;

§ success is valued above methods;

§ the leadership of national governments;

§ to be carried out by imperial or monarchics states;

§ to leave the war in a great deadlock;

§ entrance into the war;

§ to launch a surprise attack;

§ to bring an end to the dominance;

§ to prevent the opposing nation to engage in war;

§ to save the Allied army from complete disaster;

§ to prevail in conflict by any method

 

V. Give synonyms to the underlined words:

¨ to launch a surprise attack;

¨ to spark by the assassination;

¨ to prevail in conflict;

¨ to evolve from an activity;

¨ to employ Medieval tactics;

¨ scientific accomplishments;

¨ simultaneous decline;

¨ possession of technology;

¨ advanced technology;

¨ in cooperation with;

¨ to engage in war

 

VI. Find in the text historical terms that mean:

Ø confrontation between the USA and USSR in October 1962;

Ø (1160-1227) ruler of the Mongol people in China who took over North India and sent his army as far as the Crimea; known esp. for his cruelty in battle;

Ø ports in South-West Japan, almost completely destroyed on August 6, 1945, by the atomic bombs to be used in warfare, dropped on Japan by the US;

Ø a state of political hostility and military tension between two countries or power blocs, involving propaganda, subversion, threats, economic sanctions, and other measures short of open warfare, esp. that between the American and Soviet blocs after World War II;

Ø a Byzantine weapon employed in naval warfare from 670 AD. It consisted of an unknown mixture that, when wetted, exploded and was projected, burning, from tubes;

Ø the series of wars fought between France, under Napoleon Bonaparte, and (principally) Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and Austria either alone or in alliances (1799-1815)

VII. – Find the following adjectives and nouns from the text:

A B
важкий технологія
провідний союз
військовий кавалерія
нестійкий досягнення
науковий розвиток
ядерний губернатор
технологічний занепад
одночасний боєголовка

– Match the lexis in columns A and B.

– Use the expressions in the statements in your own sentences.

VIII. Choose the facts from the text that may help you characterize:

v Inventions which forced a transformation in the character of warfare during the Middle Ages.

v The expansion of Muslin invasion throughout Asia and Eastern Europe.

v The period spanning between the 1648 Peace of Westphalia and the 1789 French Revolution.

v The industrial age of warfare.

v The influence of science and technology on modern military warfare.

v World War I.

v World War II and the surrender of Japan.

v Cold War.

IX. Complete the following statements to develop the idea:

¨ The invention of stirrups coupled with …

¨ The Middle East and North Africa used …

¨ The Islamic Arab Empire began …

¨ After Gunpowder weapons were first developed …

¨ Conscription was employed in …

¨ Total war was used in …

¨ World War I was sparked by …

¨ World War II ensued after …

¨ The acme of Cold War …

¨ The dropping of the atom bombs led to …

X. Answer the questions on the text:

1. What had forced a dramatic transformation in the character of warfare from antiquity?

2. What was firmly implanted in the Medieval period?

3. What happened after Gunpowder weapons were first developed?

4. Was conscription employed in industrial or medieval warfare?

5. What period is also known as Princes' warfare?

6. Modern warfare distinguishes from those previous by the increase amount of soldiers, doesn’t it?

7. What countries formed the Central powers and the Allied powers during the World War I?

8. What led the United States to join the Allied powers during the Second World War?

9. Why did the Cold War emerge?

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