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POLITICAL SYSTEM OF GREAT BRITAIN. PARLIAMENT. POLITICAL PARTIES. POLITICAL SYSTEM OF THE USA. THE US CONSTITUTION. ELECTIONS.

I. Transcribe and memorise the following words:

Monarch, to interpret, constituency, a majority, peer, hereditary, legislation

II. Read, translate and retell the following text:

The political system of Great Britain

Great Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch Queen Elizabeth II as head of the state.

The political system of Great Britain has three branches: Parliament, which makes laws, the government, which executes laws i.e. puts them into effect, and the law courts, which interpret laws. Although the Queen is officially head of all three branches, she has little direct power.

There is no written constitution in Great Britain. The main principles of British legislation are expressed in other documents, like "Magna Charta", "Habeas Corpus Act", "Bill of Rights", the Parliamentary Act which decided the position of the House of Lords, the Judicature Act, etc. The British legislation does not provide written guarantees or individual political rights.

Parliament in Great Britain exists since 1265 and is the eldest in the world. It has two parts: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 constituencies. They are known as MPs or Members of Parliament. The Prime Minister, or leader of the Government, is also an MP and usually the leader of the political party with a majority in the House of Commons.

The Prime Minister is advised by the cabinet of about twenty other ministers. The Cabinet includes the ministers in charge of major government departments or ministries. Members of the House of Lords (peers) are not elected. About 70 percent of them are hereditary peers because their fathers were peers before them. The other 30 percent are life peers whose titles are not passed on to their children. They are officially appointed by the Queen, on the advice of the Government, for various services to the nation.

Word list

1. to execute

2. court

3. House of Lords

4. House of Commons

5. to be in charge

6. peer ,

 

III. Read the text and mark these statements T (true) or F(false) according to the text

1. The head of Great Britain is Queen (King).

2. Legislative branch executes laws.

3. Executive branch interprets laws

4. The Queen has little direct power.

5. The Constitution of Great Britain is the eldest in Europe

6. The British legislation provides individual political rights.

7. Government consists of two Houses.

8. Prime Minister is the leader of Government.

9. The fathers of peers were peers before them.

10.Life peers are officially appointed by the Queen.

11. The Prime Minister is advised by the voters.

 

IV. Fill in the blanks with the given words

1. The political system of Great Britain has three branches:..,.,.. 2. The main principles of British .are expressed in various documents. 3. The British legislation does not provide individual. rights 4. British Parliament has two parts : .., .. 5. Members of the House of Commons are known as ... 6. The Prime Minister is advised by the ... 7. Peers are not .. to the House of Lords. 8. Life peers are officially appointed by the ... on the advice of the .. the cabinet legislation MPs Queen political judicial the House of Lords legislative Government elected executive     the House of Commons

Britain's hereditary monarchy is the oldest institution of government,dating back to at least the 9-th century. The present Queen -Elizabeth II - succeeded to the throne in 1952. Although she has a largely ceremonial and politically impartial role as head of state, she serves as a personal symbol of national unity. The Queen isalso head of the Commonwealth and presides over the Church of England.

Britain is a parliamentary democracy, with a constitutional monarch.The House of Commons and the House of Lords with the monarch make up Parliament.Parliament is the legislature and the supreme authority. Parliament passes laws, approves taxation and debates the major issues of the day.

The executive consists of the Cabinet of Ministers.The prime Minister heads the Government and appoints ministers, about 20 of whom are in the policy-making Cabinet.

There are two main political partiesin Great Britain: the Labour Party and the Conservative Party.

The administration of justice in Britain is independent of both Parliament and the Government. The judiciary determines common law and interprets statute.Every citizen has the right to equal treatment before the law. Less serious cases are tried by lay magistrates in magistrates'courts and county courts. People accused of more serious crimes are tried in open court by a judge and jury in Crown Court.The House of Lords is the final court of appeal. A person who needs legal advice or representation in court may get help with the costs out of public funds.

Definitions of the courts

Magistrates' Court- a court held before two or more justices of the peace or a stipendiary magistrate to deal with minor crimes, certain civil actions, and preliminary hearings.

Crown Court- (in England and Wales) local court in which serious criminal cases are tried.

High Court-(also High Court of Justice)- supreme court for civil cases.

The Court of Appealhears appeals from criminal cases beard in the Crown Courts.

V. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

hereditary monarchy, impartial role, supreme authority, equal, lay magistrates, political settlement, local administration, national unity, legal advice, common law, government, the House of Lords, court, community, judge.

VI. Write down as many nouns as possible with the following adjectives:

conditions

acceptablesettlementlegal impartial

suggestion

VII. Match the English and the Ukrainian equivalents:

1. accused person 1.
2. serious case 2.
3. to approve taxation 3.
4. legislature 4.
5. executive power 5.
6. head of government 6.
7. national distinctions 7.
8. major issues 8.
9. strong demands 9.
10. broad range of problems 10.
11. House of Commons 11.
12. Justice 12.

VIII. Choose the synonyms from the box:

to expand, to favour, recognition, to try, to accuse, to ensure, judge, authority, to comprise

to make up, to provide for, magistrate, to charge, to support, to judge, identifying, to surpass, power.

IX. Give the word-families of the following words and translate them:

accepted

acceptacceptableto judge to legislate

acceptance

X. Encircle the suffixes and translate the following words:

educational, acceptable, equipment, politically, administration, constitutional, settlement, development, personal, parliamentary, government, treatment, legislation.

XI. Group the following words and word-combinations into 3 logic groups:

Cabinet of Ministers, lay magistrates, approve taxation, policy-making, try, debate issues, judge, pass the law, government, court, House of Lords, legal advice, House of Commons, accuse, appoint, jury, the Prime Minister, Parliament, Crown Court.

Legislature Executive power Judiciary

XII. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The present Queen Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne in 1952.

2. The British Government is seeking the ways to ensure a political settlement acceptable to all sections of the community.

3. Many other languages are spoken by the ethnic minority communities.

4. The administration of justice in Britain is independent of both Parliament and the Government.

5. Less serious cases are tried by lay magistrates.

XIII. Complete the sentences:

1. English is the official language, although the Welsh language has... 2. The British Government is seeking to ensure... 3. Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a... 4. The executive consists of the... 5. Parliament is the legislature and... 1. political settlement in Northern Ireland 2. Cabinet of Ministers. 3. Constitutional monarch. 4. equal status in Wales 5. supreme authority

XIV. Insert prepositions:

1. Every citizen has the right... equal treatment... the law.

2. People accused... more serious crimes are tried... open court by a judge and jury.

3. Less serious cases are tried... lay magistrates.

4. The Queen serves... a personal symbol... national unity.

5. Northern Ireland has a long history... differences... the Protestant and Catholic sections of the community.

XV. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations:

, , , ', , , , , , , , , , , , , , .

XVI. Translate the words from the box and complete the following sentences:

, , , ,

1. The present Queen serves as a personal symbol of....

2. Britain is a parliamentary democracy with a....

3. The Labour party won the....

4. Less serious cases are tried by....

5. Parliament is the legislature and.....

XVII. Form the questions to match the following answers:

1. Great Britain is situated on two large islands.

2. London is the capital of Great Britain.

3. The most important are the Thames and the Severn.

4. The present Queen Elizabeth II succeeded to the throne in 1952.

5. There are two main political parties in Great Britain.

XVIII. Open the brackets and put the verbs into correct forms:

1. Administratively Great Britain (to divide) into 55 counties

2. More serious crimes (to try) in open court by a judge and jury.

3. The judiciary (to determine) common law and (to interpret) statute.

4. Many other languages (to speak) by the ethnic minority communities

5. Great Britain (to have) a broad range of industries.

6. The present Queen (to succeed) to the throne in 1952.

XIX. Answer the questions

1. Which three branches does the political system have?

2. Who are MPs? Who elects them?

3. Who is the leader of the Government?

4. Whom does the Cabinet include?

5. Are members of the House of Lords elected? Why?

6. What are the main political parties in Great Britain?

7. What is the Queen's role in government?

8. What does the executive consist of?

9. What does the legislature consist of?

10. What does the judiciary consist of?

XX. Translate into English:

- . , . - . , . ̳ . '- , 20 , .

XXI. Speak about Great Britain using the following information:

Territory -242,432 sq. km

Population- 59 million people

Status- parliamentary monarchy

State language- English

Head of State- Queen

Legislature- Parliament

Executive- Cabinet of Ministers; Prime Minister

Judiciary- House of Lords, High Court, Crown Court, Court of Appeal

Capital- London

Currency- pound sterling

 

I. Transcribe and memorise the following words:

donkey, oligarchy, gain, a leap year, requirement, jury trails, amendment

II. Read, translate and retell the following text:

The political system of the USA

The United States of Americans a parliamentary republic. The government is divided into three branches: legislative (the US Congress), executive (the President and his Administration) and judicial (the US Supreme Court).

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Democratic (symbolized by a "donkey") and the Republican (its symbol is an "elephant") The US President is both head of state and government. He is elected for a four-year term. Presidential elections are held every leap year on first Tuesday after first Monday in November. The President is assisted by Secretaries who are the heads of the executive departments.

The Supreme Court consists of Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices who are appointed for life. It is supposed to decide whether a law of the Congress or an executive order of the President is constitutional or not.

The form of US government is based on the Constitution of September 17, 1787, adopted after the War of Independence. In December 1791, the Congress adopted ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights. The latter enumerated what the government controlled by the oligarchy was not going to be allowed to do, which was, of course, an important democratic gain for people.

The Congress of the United States is composed of two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states and the House represents the population according to its distribution among the states. All states have electoral requirements of the same nature. First of all they are residence requirements.

Through its power over the purse, the US Congress can control much that relates to foreign policy; also it is a governmental body that determines taxation.

Each of the fifty states of the USA has a constitution patterned after the federal Constitution, with its divisions of power: legislative, executive, and judicial.

The Presidency means not only a man: means an institution the "executive branch" of the government.

The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and the head of the judicial branch of US government. The federal and state courts have the power of "judicial review." Also there are about ninety district courts in different parts of the United States. American judicial practice is firmly committed to the idea of jury trails. The Constitution guarantees them for both criminal and civil cases.

III. Mark these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the text. Find the part of the text that gives the correct information:

1. The law-making body of the USA government is called the Congress.

2. The Congress consists of two chambers.

3. The US President is the head of its military forces.

4. There is an equal number of Senators representing each state in The USA.

5. Presidential elections in the USA are held every five years.

6. The elected President can't serve as long as he wins elections.

7. Besides others the executive branch includes the Library of Congress.

8. The President of the U SA nominates nine justices of the Supreme Court.

9. The president's Cabinet has no power of its own.

10. The President is the chief executive of the USA.

IV. What the given words could mean, choose the appropriate definition:

Office

a) room used as a place for business;

b) buildings of a government department;

c) public position of authority

Task

a) use or practice of powers, duties or rights;

b) activity for physical, mental or spiritual training

Seat

a) something for sitting on

b) a place where something is located or based;

c) a parliamentary constituency;

d) membership on a legislative authority

State

a) the condition of a person or thong with respect to circumstances;

b) a nation or a government, a country;

c) a part of the USA

Justice

a) a judge of the Supreme Court;

b) the administration of what is just according to law;

c) rightfulness or lawfulness

Term

a) the time or period, usually fixed;

b) a word defining something in a particular field;

c) pl. conditions and stipulations;

d) pl. words expressed in a specified way

House

a) a building in which people live;

b) a legislative or deliberative body;

c) a building for any purpose

Rule

a) a principle or regulation governing conduct, procedure;

b) control or government;

c) the customary or normal condition, practice

V. Choose the right preposition in brackets according to the contents of the sentences (by, from, in, on, with, to, for, of, through).

1. The two houses of Congress are responsible... enacting the nation's laws.

2. Why is the state flag of the USA referred... as stars and stripes?

3. How many justices does the Supreme Court consist...?

4. The State of Louisiana has a Roman civil form of law which derives from its days... a French colony?

5. What process can the President be removed... the office...?

6. The chairman of the House of Representatives, the Speaker is elected... the House.

7. All the High Court judges are nominated... life... the President.

8. What freedoms were provided... by the Bill of Rights?

9. The American President serves... ceremonial chief of the state.

10. What office can a person be appointed only... the consent of the Senate?

VI. Substitute the active vocabulary of the lesson for the italicized parts.

1. The preliminary version of the constitution was composed in 1787.

2. This law was implemented in 2001.

3. The American people were proud of the decision to put an end to slavery in their country.

4. No country has a right to interfere into the internal affairs of the other states.

5. The interpretation of the law meaning is performed by the Supreme Court of the USA.

6. Federal courts may declare laws violating the Constitution invalid.

7. The ambassador of the country has no absolute right for the ratification of any formal agreement reached by negotiations between two or more countries without consent of the President.

8. The US President is the head of the state and Commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

VII. The verbs below can all be used to form nouns. Find in the text the nouns which have related meanings and make up jour own sentences with them:

Example:To lead a leader (n.) e.g.

Who is the leader of the political party?

To amend, to negotiate, to vote, to ratify, to regulate, to vote, to ratify, to advise, to agree, to treat, to advise, to appoint, to legislate

VIII. Who's the Chief? Match a line A with a line B

A B
a) the House of Commons 1) the President
b) the House of Lords 2) the Speaker
c) the Great Britain and Northern 3) the Lord Chancellor
Ireland 4) the Prime Minister
d) the USA 5) the British Sovereign
e) Ukraine  
f) The British Commonwealth of Nations  
g) The UK government  

IX. Rewrite the following sentences as in the example:

A. Example: The men who work in the Procurator's Office are my colleagues.

The men working in the Procurator's Office are my colleagues.

1. The United States of America is a federal republic that consists of 50 states. 2. The head of state is the monarch who reigns. 3. Several amendments to the Bill of Rights were adopted that abolished slavery and provided for an income tax. 4. Congress has powers in domestic affairs which include the power to regulate commerce among states. 5. The federal court system in the USA which includes the Supreme Court, courts of appeal, district courts and special courts, is rather different from any other court system we have already studied. 6. The lawyer who is announcing the sentence is a judge. 7. The unknown man who is following us looks like a criminal.

B. Example:When she heard the strange noise, she turned around.

Hearing the strange noise she turned around.

1. When I looked through the report on the presidential budget I realized everything. 2. When the President said about the victims he thought about his own family. 3. When they recognized his voice on the cassette, they became suspicious. 4. When the stranger saw the congressman, he demanded to stop. 5. When I went out of the court, I remembered I was going to visit the Library of Congress.

6. When they pass a law they always think if it violates the US Constitution.

7. When I realized what had happened, I called the police.

 

C. Example:I read the article and made notes.

I read the article making notes.

1. The senator looked at me and smiled. 2. At the time of negotiations I spoke and trembled. 3. The judge told about his youth and showed old pictures with blood on them. 4. He turned over the pages of voting forms and counted the number of votes for his elector. 5. The President was making his speech and looked at the audience. 6. They looked through the presidential budget requests and made notes.

X. Translate the following sentences into Ukrainian.

1. People appeased the gods in ritualistic ceremonies ending in sacrifice or expulsion of the wrongdoer. 2. Numerous administrative agencies now make rules that deal with all kinds of activity, including licensing and protection of health. 3. Recently there have been continuous debates regarding the legitimacy of government intervention in matters of birth control. 4. In the 6th century a commission consolidated all sources of law including the opinions of great legal scholars. 5. All criminal trials in Britain are held before a judge and a jury consisting of 12 ordinary people. 6. Looking back over English legal history it is plain to see that the old local customs at and around the time of the Norman Conquest are the historical source of the common law. 7. When emerging from the Lords the Bill may be amended. 8. Being the most serious offences, these cases are always tried by federal court judges.

XI. Translate the following word combinations into English:

, ; , ; , ; , ; ; , ; , .

XII. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. , , , . 2. , , . 3. , , . 4. ' , . 5. ij , , . 6. ϳ , . 7. c , .

UNIT 9

INTERNATIONAL LAW

I. Read and memorize the following words:

Experience, concern, criteria, procedure, dispute, justiciable, impartial, variety, authority, violence, fraud, essentially, consensus, tribunal, Europe, North and South America, Asia, the United States, adjudication.

 

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