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Survey of Asthma Control in Primary Care Practices

...

 

(1): Epidemiologic data show that poorly controlled asthma is a serious public health problem. The degree of implementation of the NAEPP Guidelines in primary care practice remains to be defined. The objective of this survey was to determine if introduction of an assessment tool into primary care practices along with a specially designed program to implement the Guidelines would improve diagnosis and therapy.

 

(2): The Asthma Care Network (ACN), a program designed to assist healthcare providers in the assessment and management of their patients with asthma, employs a team of specially trained Respiratory Care Associates (RCAs), 100 RNs and RTs, who visit primary care offices to inform staff about various components of the NAEPP Guidelines and assist in their implementation. .A total of 4901 primary care providers in 2876 sites were recruited as part of the ACN program. Data from more than 60,000 patient visits were collected and analyzed between March 2002 and January 2004. The program assessment tool surveyed asthma control and medication prescribing patterns. Outcome measures included degree of symptom control, limitation of activity, sleep disruption, use of rescue medication and utilization of urgent care services. These data were collected on an Office Visit Assessment Form (OVA) completed by both patient and physician. The RCAs provided information, education, device training in the use of inhalers and spacers, and a CE course for the staff discussing pathophysiology, assessment and management of asthma.

 

(3): A total of 60,248 OVA forms were completed. Among all patient including adults (older than 18 years of age) and children (<4-17 years of age), 74% (range 69% to 81%) reported symptoms consistent with lack of asthma control. Approximately 70% of the survey group had more than 2 markers of uncontrolled asthma. As a result of this assessment, controller medication use increased by over 30%, 52% of which was an ICS- containing medication.

 

(4): The information provided to the primary care health care providers resulted in a considerable increase in prescription of controller therapy, and in particular, increased use of ICS controller medication consistent with NAEPP guidelines.

By Kathleen C. Ellis

 

 

SAMPLE ANNOTATION

Assignment 4 Read the citation and annotation followed by it. Match figures with annotation building elements

(1) Trevor, C.O., Lansford, B. and Black, J.W., 2004, Employee turnover and job performance: monitoring the influences of salary growth and promotion, Journal of Armchair Psychology, vol 113, no.1, pp. 56-64.

(2) In this article Trevor et al. review the influences of pay and job opportunities in respect to job performance, turnover rates and employee motivation. (3) The authors use data gained through organisational surveys of blue-chip companies in Vancouver, Canada to try to identify the main causes of employee turnover and whether it is linked to salary growth. (4) Their research focuses on assessing a range of pay structures such as pay for performance and organisational reward schemes. (5) The article is useful to my research topic, as Trevor et al. suggest that there are numerous reasons for employee turnover and variances in employee motivation and performance. (6) The main limitation of the article is that the survey sample was restricted to mid-level management, (7) thus the authors indicate that further, more extensive, research needs to be undertaken to develop a more in-depth understanding of employee turnover and job performance. (8) This article will not form the basis of my research; however it will be useful supplementary information for my research on pay structures.

Key: (1) Citation (2) Introduction (3) Aims & Research methods (4) Scope (5) Usefulness (to your research/ to a particular topic) (6) Limitations (7) Conclusions (8) Reflection (explain how this work illuminates your topic or how it will fit in with your research)

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Assignment 5 Indentifying the elements of a paragraph

 

A. Read the paragraph. Then label the formatting elements of the paragraph. Use the words in the box.

 

a. double spacing b. margin c. indent

 

 

1._____
Discussion as a stimulus to the mind

2.______
3. ______
Productive mental effort is often helped by intellectual intercourse. Discussing a problem with colleagues or with lay persons may be helpful in one or several ways. The other person may be able to contribute a useful suggestion. It is not often that he can help by directly indication a solution of the impasse problem, because he is unlikely to have such pertinent knowledge as has the scientist working on the problem, but with a different background of knowledge he may see the problem from a different aspect and suggest a new approach. Even a layman is sometimes able to make useful suggestions.

 

B. Answer the questions about the paragraph above. Give reasons for your answers.

 

1. Circle the topic sentence. Does the topic sentence help you understand what the paragraph will be about?

2. How many supporting sentences does the paragraph have? Underline them.

3. Do all the supporting sentences relate to the topic sentence?

4. Circle the concluding sentence. Does the concluding sentence make the paragraph feel finished?

 

Assignment 6 Reading a paragraph

 

Read the paragraph. Is it possible to foresee a discovery?

 

 

The role of chance in discovery Probably the majority of discoveries in biology and medicine have been come across unexpectedly, or at least had en element of chance in them, especially the most important and revolutionary ones. It is scarcely possible to foresee a discovery that breaks really new ground, because it is often not in accord with current beliefs. Frequently I have heard a colleague relating some new findings; say almost apologetically, "I came across it by accident". Although it is common knowledge that sometimes chance is a factor in the making of a discovery, the magnitude of its importance is seldom realized and the significance of its role is not fully appreciated or understood. A good maxim for the research man is "look out for the unexpected".  

 

 

Assignment 7 Analyzing the paragraph

A. Answer the questions about the paragraph above?

 

1. Underline the topic sentence. Is it first or second sentence?

___________________________

2. Is the first sentence indented?

___________________________

3. How many supporting sentences are there? Which are they?

___________________________

4. Circle the concluding sentence.

 

B. Respond to the paragraph by answering the following questions.

1. Did you know many discoveries in biology and medicine have been made unexpectedly?

_____________________________

2. What is a good maxim for the research man?

_______________________________

3. Is the role of change in scientific discovery great?

_______________________________

 

       
 
topic
 
controlling idea

 

 


Assignment 8 Identifying topics and controlling ideas

Circle the topic and underline the controlling idea in the topic sentences below.

1. In the field of observation, chance favors only the prepared mind.

2. My ability to speak English has changed my life in several important ways.

3. The process of passing the TOEFUL test has several steps.

4. My first presentation before the audience was a disaster.

5. The painting Starring Night, by Vincent Van Gogh is fascinating in many ways.

6. Rational behavior is essential to anyones mental health.

 

 

 


Assignment 9 Indentifying purpose in topic sentences

Indentify the purpose of the paragraph that follows logically from each topic sentence below.

 

1. Almost anyone can get a good grade if they follow these instructions.
a. express an opinion b. tells steps in a process c. narrate a story
2. There are three major causes of obesity in children.
a. compare two subjects b. explain causes/effects c. describe a topic
3. I believe that students should not own the credit cards.
a. tells steps in a process b. explain causes/effects c. express an opinion
4. Technicians are different from men of general culture in several significant ways.
a. compare two subjects b. describe a topic c. express an opinion
5. Education is to bring youth face to face with greatness of science.
a. tells steps in a process b. express an opinion c. describe a subjects

 

Assignment 10 Predicting paragraphs from controlling ideas

 

Circle the topic and underline the controlling idea of each topic sentence below. Then with partner, predict what the rest of the paragraph will discuss.

 

1. At the university an appreciation of science is difficult for students of the humanities.

Prediction: A narrative about students of the humanities and their understanding of science.

2. Cell phones should not be allowed in classrooms for several reasons.

Prediction:___________________________________________________

3. Training for a marathon is a complicated process.

Prediction:___________________________________________________

4. Taking the TOEFUL is a hardship for many students. Prediction:__________________________________________________

 

 

Assignment 11 Indentifying effective topic sentences

Read each pair of sentence. Write TS next to the topic sentence that is more effective. Be prepared to explain your choice.

 

1. TS a. An English-English dictionary is the best choice for English learners.
  b. Many English learners use dictionaries.
2.   a. The Internet has changed the way students do research for term papers.
  b. The Internet is changing students lives.
  a. A college degree is important.
  b. Having a college degree has many positive effects on a persons life.
4.   a. Philological background is important.
  b. Technicians often lack any coherent philological background.

 

Assignment 12 Indentifying effective topic sentences

 

Rewrite each topic sentence so it has both a topic and a controlling idea. Write the revised topic sentence in the left-hand column of the chart. The first one is done for you.

1. Topic Sentence: Scientific research is important.

 

Revised topic sentence: The publication of scientific research is the method of the greatest long-term importance. Topic: The publication of scientific research
Controlling idea: is the method of the greatest long-term importance.
This paragraph will be about: importance of the permanent record of scientific work. For example you may describe why students should send their papers to scientific journals.

 

2. Topic Sentence: We can see the gap between science and the humanities.

 

Revised topic sentence:   Topic:  
Controlling idea:  
This paragraph will be about:

 

3. Topic Sentence: Geniuses are incredible productive.

 

Revised topic sentence:   Topic:  
Controlling idea:  
This paragraph will be about:  

 

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Assignment 13 Reading a paragraph

Read the paragraph. What were the methods of teaching language to an ape?

 

Teaching language to an Ape   Over the past years several efforts have been made to teach a chimpanzee human language. In the early 1930's Winthrop and Luella Kellogg raised a female chimpanzee named Gua along with their infant son; at the age of 16 month Gua could understand about 100 words, but she never did try to speak them. In the 1940's Keith and Cathy Hayes raised a chimpanzee named Vicki in their home; she learned a large number of words and with some difficulty could mouth the words "mama", "papa" and "cup". More recently Allen and Beatrice Gardner have taught their chimpanzee Washoe to communicate in the American Sign Language with their fingers and hands. Why try to teach human language to an ape? Since 1966 in our laboratory at the University of California we have been teaching Sarah to read and write with variously shaped and coloured pieces of plastic, each representing a word; Sarah has a vocabulary of about 130 terms that she uses with a reliability of between 75 and 80 percent.

 

Assignment 14 Analyzing the paragraph for unity

 

Examine the organization of the paragraph by answering the questions below. Then compare your answers with a partner.

1. Underline the topic sentence. Is it the first or second sentence?

_________________________________________

2. Write the controlling idea from the topic sentence in your own words.

_________________________________________

3. One sentence in the paragraph is irrelevant. Draw a line through it.

4. Why is the sentence irrelevant? Write your explanation below.

__________________________________________

 

Assignment 15 Recognizing unity in supporting sentences

 

Read the following topic sentences. Put a check (√) next to each sentence below that supports the topic sentence.

 

1. There are several reasons why online courses are increasing in popularity.
a. Online courses are flexible in terms of time.
  b. Online courses have been available since the 1990s.
c. Online courses are more convenient for students who live far away from the campus.
2. Childhood diabetes has many possible causes.
  a. Obesity is a major cause of diabetes.
  b. Children who eat too much sugar can get diabetes.
  c. Children with diabetes need constant medical care.
3. The world of dinosaurs is very familiar to the general population.
  a. Scientists believe that the birds of today are descended from dinosaurs.
  b. Every year, new movies and TV shows about dinosaurs are produced.
  c. Children study dinosaurs and play with dinosaur toys from an early age.
4. Linguists are extremely skeptical of the experimentally demonstrated language abilities of the chimpanzee.
  a. Linguists tend to exaggerate the childs understanding of language.
  b. For chimpanzee the human language is just a particular communication system.
  c. It is our hope that scientific findings will dispel such prejudices.

 

Assignment 16 Editing for unity

 

Read the paragraph. Draw a line through the sentences that are irrelevant. The first one is done for you. Find two more.

 

CURIOSITY AS AN INCENTIVE TO THINKING   The curiosity of the scientist is usually directed toward seeking an understanding of things or relationships which he notices have no satisfactory explanation. In common with other animals we are born with an instinct of curiosity. Explanations usually consist in connecting new observations or ideas to accepted facts or ideas. An explanation may be a generalization which ties together a bundle of data into an orderly whole that can be connected up with current knowledge and beliefs. It provides the incentive for the young to discover the world in which they live. The student attracted to research is usually one who retains more curiosity than usual. People with no curiosity seldom get the stimulus.  

 

Assignment 17 Developing unity

 

Write two or three supporting sentences for each of the following topic sentences. Then exchange papers with a partner and check your partners sentences for unity.

 

1. Joining an access course can provide many benefits.

____________________________________________________________

2. My first day at new university was full of surprises.

____________________________________________________________

3. Many people do not realize that making a presentation requires skill and planning.

____________________________________________________________

 
 

 


 

 

Assignment 18 Reading a paragraph and analyzing it for coherence

 

Write the paragraph. Examine the organization of the paragraph by answering the questions follow it. Then compare your answers with a partner.

 

 

THE SPLENDID ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE GREEKS   Although they took the first step in the creation of science by systematic observation and measurement, the Babylonians and Egyptians failed to take the second, which is abstraction and generalization. The latter was the splendid achievement of the Greeks. The Greeks made no revolutionary technological discoveries. Much of the manual work in their society was performed by slaves and this was responsible for a psychological bias which led them to exalt the theoretical at the expense of the practical. Their attitude was expressed by Aristotle. But as more arts were invented, and some were directed to the necessities of life, others to recreation, the inventors of the latter were naturally always regarded as wiser as the former, because their branches of knowledge did not aim at utility. An aristocratic attitude of this kind towards knowledge is conductive to the development of philosophy, but not of experimental science of technology, and the science of the Greeks grew up as part of their philosophy. They desired to understand the world rather than to control and change it.  

 

1. Underline the topic sentence. __________________________________

2. In what way does the Greek science differ from that of Babylonians and Egyptians? ________________________________________________

3. The writer uses spatial order as a pattern of coherence. Do the ideas move from more spatial to less spatial or less spatial to more spatial?

____________________________________________________________

 

Assignment 19 Reordering for coherence

 

Read the sentences from a narrative paragraph. Some of the sentences are out of order. Number the sentences from 1-10 to show logic time order. Then compare your answers with a partner.

  a. He then went to the University of Cambridge to study for a Ph.D.
  b. This fatal disease weakens all bodys muscles.
  c. His farther was specialist in tropical diseases.
  d. During this time doctors discovered that he had ALS, which is sometimes called Lou Gehrigs disease.
e. Stephen Hawking was born in 1942 in Oxford, England.
  f. When Hawking heard this, he became very depressed.
  g. He went to the University of Oxford and received a degree in physics.
  h. Most people with ALS live for five years.
  i. Stephen wanted to be a scientist too.
  j. The doctors thought Hawking would live for only two and a half more years.

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Assignment 20 Comparing a paragraph and an abstract

 

Read the paragraph and then an abstract. Which is more interesting?

 

Paragraph Abstract
The Asthma Care Network (ACN), a program designed to assist healthcare providers in the assessment and management of their patients with asthma, employs a team of specially trained Respiratory Care Associates (RCAs), 100 RNs and RTs, who visit primary care offices to inform staff about various components of the NAEPP Guidelines and assist in their implementation. .A total of 4901 primary care providers in 2876 sites were recruited as part of the ACN program. Data from more than 60,000 patient visits were collected and analyzed between March 2002 and January 2004. The program assessment tool surveyed asthma control and medication prescribing patterns. Outcome measures included degree of symptom control, limitation of activity, sleep disruption, use of rescue medication and utilization of urgent care services. These data were collected on an Office Visit Assessment Form (OVA) completed by both patient and physician. The RCAs provided information, education, device training in the use of inhalers and spacers, and a CE course for the staff discussing pathophysiology, assessment and management of asthma.     Epidemiologic data show that poorly controlled asthma is a serious public health problem. The degree of implementation of the NAEPP Guidelines in primary care practice remains to be defined. The objective of this survey was to determine if introduction of an assessment tool into primary care practices along with a specially designed program to implement the Guidelines would improve diagnosis and therapy. The Asthma Care Network (ACN), a program designed to assist healthcare providers in the assessment and management of their patients with asthma, employs a team of specially trained Respiratory Care Associates (RCAs), 100 RNs and RTs, who visit primary care offices to inform staff about various components of the NAEPP Guidelines and assist in their implementation. .A total of 4901 primary care providers in 2876 sites were recruited as part of the ACN program. Data from more than 60,000 patient visits were collected and analyzed between March 2002 and January 2004. The program assessment tool surveyed asthma control and medication prescribing patterns. Outcome measures included degree of symptom control, limitation of activity, sleep disruption, use of rescue medication and utilization of urgent care services. These data were collected on an Office Visit Assessment Form (OVA) completed by both patient and physician. The RCAs provided information, education, device training in the use of inhalers and spacers, and a CE course for the staff discussing pathophysiology, assessment and management of asthma. A total of 60,248 OVA forms were completed. Among all patient including adults (older than 18 years of age) and children (<4-17 years of age), 74% (range 69% to 81%) reported symptoms consistent with lack of asthma control. Approximately 70% of the survey group had more than 2 markers of uncontrolled asthma. As a result of this assessment, controller medication use increased by over 30%, 52% of which was an ICS- containing medication. The information provided to the primary care health care providers resulted in a considerable increase in prescription of controller therapy, and in particular, increased use of ICS controller medication consistent with NAEPP guidelines.

 

 

Assignment 21 Analyzing the paragraph and the abstract

 

Answer the questions about the paragraph and the abstract on page 41-43.

 

1. What information is included in the abstract introduction that is not in the topic sentence of the paragraph? __________________________________

2. Write the topic and controlling idea of body paragraph 1 in your own words. _________________________________________________________

3. What new details have been added to body paragraph 1 in the abstract?

________________________________________________________________

4. Write the topic and controlling idea of body paragraph 2 in your own words. _________________________________________________________

5. What additional details have been added to body paragraph 2 in the abstract? ________________________________________________________

6. What information is included in the abstract conclusion that is not in the concluding sentence of the paragraph? _______________________________

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Assignment 22 Understanding thesis statement

 

Read the abstract. The thesis statement is missing. Choose the best thesis statement from the list following the abstract. Discuss your choice with a partner.

 

This study's objective was to determine the strangeness measurements for red, green, and blue quarks. _________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Results indicate that both red and green quarks had a strangeness that differed by less than 0.453 x 10-17 Zabes/m2 for all measurements. Blue quarks remained immeasurable, since their particle traces bent into 7-tuple space. This study's conclusions indicate that red and green quarks can be used interchangeably in all He stream applications, and further studies must be done to measure the strangeness of blue quarks.

 

a. The quark analysis is an important part of out investigation.

b. The Britt-Cushman method for quark analysis exploded a quark stream in a He gas cloud.

c. We used different methods for quark analysis.

 

 

Assignment 23 Writing an abstract

 

Choose an article connecting with your specialty. Write the abstract using all notes give in previous chapters.

Assignment 24 Revising and editing

 

PEER REVIEW. Exchange your abstract with your partner.

STUDENT A: Show your abstract to a partner. While your partner read your abstract you complete the Self-Assessment checklist given below.

 

SELF-ASSESSMENT
YES NO  
    Is the first line of the paragraph intended?
    Does each sentence start with a capital letter and end with a period or question mark?
    Do the subjects and verbs agree?
    Is each word spelled correctly? Check a dictionary if you are not sure.
    Do you spell or write numbers correctly?

 

 

STUDENT B: Read a partners paragraph. Answer these questions and discuss them with your partner.

 

1. Does the abstract have clear topic sentence? A clear concluding sentence?

2. Does the abstract clearly state the ideas?

3. Put sun (☼) next to the examples support ideas.

4. Is their anything that is not clear? Put a question mark (?) in the margin next to it.

Assignment 25 Writing an annotation

 

A. Study an annotation from published work given below. Pay attention to the written topic sentence and controlling ideas.

 

  Fehrenbach, Heide. Cinema in democratizing Germany: reconstructing National identity after Hitler. North Carolina, 1995. 364 p bibl index afp ISBN 0-8078-2204-3, $49.95; ISBN 0-8078- 4512-4 pbk, $18.95. This book provides an extensive analysis of the political context and roles of film in Germany during the decade following WWII. It focuses primarily on the role of film culture in reconstructing a normalized German national identity and normalized gender roles. To her credit, Fehrenbach (Colgate Univ.) conceptualizes film culture not simply as a collection of film texts to be read, but also as a form that encompasses the institutions of criticism, festivals, censorship, and film economics. Fehrenbach also provides readings of films seldom discussed in English, e.g., Willi Forst's De Sunderin (The Sinner, 1950), and accounts of the German film club movement and the rise of the Berlin Film Festival as a Western ideological weapon in the Cold War. She attempts to combine historical exegesis with film theoretical inquiry, but at times the two strains are not well integrated and the reader has the feeling of bouncing back and forth between two modes. Nonetheless, the book is important as the only lengthy account in English of the period and will become a standard work to refer to in future discussions of the topic. Recommend for all academic libraries with a basic collection in German or American film history.

 

B. Now read the article below and write an annotation of it.

 

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

MOBILE ROBOTS   Mobile robots are widely applied in a range of applications from transportation, surveillance through to health care. In all these applications it is clearly important to be able to analyse and control the performance of the mobile robot and it is therefore surprising that formalised methods to achieve this are not readily available. This book introduces methods and procedures from statistics, dynamical systems theory, and system identification that can be applied to address these important problems. The core objective is to try to explain the interaction between the robot, the task and the environment in a transparent manner such that system characteristics can be analysed, controllers can be designed, and behaviours can be replicated in a systematic and structured manner. This aim of constructing a formalised approach for task-achieving mobile robots represents a refreshingly new approach to this complex set of problems. Dr Nehmzow has done an outstanding job of constructing and describing a unified framework, which clearly sets out the crucial issues for the development of a theory for mobile robots. Thanks to the careful organisation of the topics and a clear exposition, this book provides an excellent introduction to some new directions in this subject area. Dr Nehmzows book represents a major departure from the traditional treatment of mobile robots, and provides a refreshing new look at some long-standing problems. I am sure that this is just the beginning of an exciting new phase in this subject area. This book provides a very readable account of the concepts involved; it should have a broad appeal, and will I am sure provide a valuable reference for many years to come. S A Billings Sheffield, May 2009

 

 

C. Choose the book you have recently read and write an annotation.

 

˳:

1. : , , . [ . .. ͳ]. . : , 2003. 273 .

2. .., .., .. - : . / .. , .. , .. . : - . , 2001. 184 .

3. .. . . / .. . . : , 2008. 212 .

4. .. English for non-language students applying for masters degree. A new language a new world / .. . : , 2008. 112 .

5. .. / .. . : , 2004. 144 .

6. English for Specific Purposes (ESP) National Curriculum for Universities / [ .., .., .. .]. . : , 2005. 119 .

7. .. The Language of Science: Semantics. Pragmatics. Translation. . . . : ϳ. . K. : , 2009. 288 .

8. Procter M. Abstract. Writing Support [ ] / M. Procter // University of Toronto. Toronto : UOT, 2010. http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/abstract

9. Savage A., Mayer P. Effective Academic Writing 2: The short essay / A. Savage, P. Mayer. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2011. 176 p.

10. Scanlon J. Q Skills for Successful Reading and Writing: 5 Class CD / [Scanlon J., Brooks M., Graven M., Sherman K., Freire P. and others]. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2011. 180 p.

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