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. 2005

621.873 (031)

 

 

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. 5 28 2004 .

- . 5 27 2005 .

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, 6.091.900

.., .. : . , , 2005. - .

- 3-4 ( - 2004-2005 .. . 0782004 19.05. 2004 .)

 

..............................................................................................4

1. ........................5

1.1. ...........................................5

1.2. ..................................9

2. .................................10

2.1 1 .......................................................................11

2.2 2 .......................................................................13

2.3 3 .......................................................................14

2.4 4 ........................................................................16

1.

.........................................................................................18

2. ......................19

3. ................21

4. .................................66

5. ()

.................................................................................................67

6.

.......................................68

7.

..................................................................................69

8.

............................................................................................70

9.

.........................................................................................72

10. ........... 73

...................................................................................74

 

 

.

, , .

- , . , ' , ' , , , , , .

, , , , . . (.2), .

: (. 3) ( ) (. 8, 9, 10), . :

( - 4,
4, , 2, );

;

, ;

:

.

"̳ ", : ; ; ; F ; ; V /; ω /; σ τ ( /2).

 

 

1.

, . . 2.1 , , .

) (. 2.1, ), () ; (kn = 1,5); 4, ω4, h . 2.1. , () (1), (2), (3).

) (. 2.1, ), () . F , z, V, h .. 2.1. , (1), (2), (3).

) (. 2.1, ), () . ϳ

(kn = 1,5). F , z, V, h .. 2.1. (1), (2), (3).

 

 

. 2.1 , ( )

 

2.1 (. 2.1, , , )

F, 15,0 11,0 12,5 14,0 - 12,0 11,5 18,0 15,0 16,0
V, / 0,42 0,65 0,38 0,60 0,50 0,45 0,40 0,35 0,30 0,35
,
z
h´103, .
4, 2,0 1,5 2,2 1,8 2,5 1,9 2,1 2,3 2,0 2,6
w4, -1 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,8 2,4 2,1 2,0 2,9 2,6

2.

. . 2.2, , .

) (. 2.2, ), () . F , z, , V h . 2.2. , (1) , (2) (3).

) (. 2.2, ), () . 4, ω4 h .. 2.2. ϳ (kn = 1,5). , (1), (2) , (3) .

. 2.2 (

 

2.2 (. 2.2, , )

F, 12,5 1,0 15,0 11,0 14,5 16,0 14,0 14,5 15,0 18,0
V, / 0,45 0,65 0,40 0,60 0,50 0,55 0,30 0,35 0,80 0,70
,
z
h´103, .
4, 2,6 2,0 2,3 1,9 2,1 2,5 1,8 1,5 2,2 2,0
w4, -1 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,8 2,4 2,1 2,0 2,9 2,6

3.

- (. 2.3, , ) (. 2.3, ). . 2.3, , , .

) . 2.3, ), () . 4, ω4, h . 2.3. ϳ (kn = 1,2). , (1) , (2) , - (3).

) (. 2.3, ), () . 4, ω4, h . 2.3. , (1), (2) , (3) .

) (. 2.3 ), () . F , z, , V h . 2.3.

, (1), (2), (3).

.

, .

-.

 

 

. 2.3 - (, )

()

 

 

2.3 (. 2.3, , , )

4, 1,5 2,5 1,8 2,8 1,2 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,0 3,0
w4, -1 3,0 3,5 3,8 2,8 4,0 3,6 2,9 4,5 4,5 5,0
h´103, .
F, 14,0 15,0 14,5 14,0 14,5 16,0 12,5 12,0 15,0 13,5
V, / 0,42 0,55 0,45 0,35 0,60 0,50 0,45 0,60 0,70 0,65
,
z

 

4

- (. 2.4, ) . (.2.4, ). (. 2.4., ).

) (. 2.4, ), () . 4, ω4, h .. 2.4. ϳ (kn = 1,2).

, (1) - , (2) , (5).

) (. 2.4, ), () . 4, ω4 h . 2.4.

, (1), (2) (3).

, .

-.

) (. 2.4, ), () . 3, ω3 h .. 2.4. ϳ (kn = 1,3).

, (1), (2) (3).

, .

-.

 

 

. 2.4 '

 

 

2.4 (. 2.4, , , )

3 (4), 2,0 1,5 2,2 1,8 2,5 1,9 2,1 2,3 2,0 2,6
w3 (w4), -1 2,0 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,8 2,4 2,1 2,0 2,9 2,6
h´103, .

 

1

 

 

 

̲Ͳ ί ˲

 

..

 

 

004.000.000

 

 

________________________ _____________

 

: _________________________________________

:

= ______________________

ω = ___________________/

h = ___________________________________

璺 _________________________________________

 

 

_______ ___________

 

1.  
1.1 ̳ ( )  
1.2  
1.3  
1.4  
1.5  
2.  

 

___ ___ ____________________200 .

 

 
 


............................................................................................................................................ 3

1. ................................................................................... 4

2. .......................................................................................................... 5

3. ............................................................................................ 8

4. ........................................................................................ 22

5. ........................................................................................................... 27

6. . ...........30

7. ........................................... 40

8. ..................................................................................... 43

9. ...................................................... 44

10. . ............................................................... 46

...................................................................................... 47

1 ..................................................... 48

2 ............................................. 50

3 ........................................................................ 53

 

.

.

2.1. P (..) ,

= FV = 2,81,2 = 3,36 ,

F = 2,8

V = 1,2 /

䳿 ()

η = = 0,980,9940,930,982 = 0,84 ,

η = 0,98 . 2.2.[3]

η = 0,99 ( 3 1 ) . 2.2.[3]

η = 0,93 2.2.[3]

η = 0,98 . 1.1.[2]

2.3. P′ ,

P′ = = = 4

2.4. n′ , /

n′ = n uuu = 10043,552 = 2840 / ,

n = = = 100 / ,

z = 9 ;

p = 80 ;

u = 4 . 1.2.[2];

u = 3,55 . 1.2.[2];

u = 2 ([2], . 1.2).

.

P = P = 4 ;

N = n = 2880 /; ω = = = 301,59 -1 ;

T = = = 0,0133

 

.

P1 = P η η = 40,980,99 = 3,88

n1 = n = 2880 / ω1 = ω = 301,59 -1

T1 = = = 0,0129

 

.

P2 = P1 η η = 3,880,980,99 = 3,76 ;

n2 = = = 720 /; ω2 = = = 75,4 -1

T2 = = = 0,05 .

 

 

.

P3 = P2 η η = 3,760,980,99 = 3,65

n3 = = = 202,82 / ω3 = = = 21,24 -1

T3 = = = 0,172

 

.

P4 = ... = P3 η η = 3,650,930,99 = 3,36

n4 = = = 100 / ω4 = = = 10,47 -1

T4 = = = 0,321 .

 

 

 
 

.

D HB [σ]H [σ]F
S /2  
40 285,5 580,9
40 248,5 514,3

3.1.4. w ,

wKa (u + 1) = 43(4 + 1) = 77,73 ,

Ka = 43

Ψ = 0,25 , .2[4]

T2 , ͷ

K =1

 

. 2[4] w = 80 .

3.1.5. m,

m = = 0,89 ,

Km = 5,8

d2 , :

d2 = 2w = 280 = 128

b2 = Ψ w = 0,2580 =20

13.15.[3] b2 = 20

3 [4] m = 1

3.1.6. βmin

:

βmin = arcsin = arcsin = 10,08º

β = (816) F .

 

,

ij d1 = mz1/cosβ = 31,6 d2 = mz2/cosβ = 128,4
da1 = d1 + 2m = 33,6 da2 = d2 + 2m = 130,4
df1 = d1 2,4m = 29,2 df2 = d2 2,4m = 126
b1 = b2 + (2...4)=24 b2=Ψw = 20

 

3.1.13. w ,

w = (d1 + d2)/2 = (31,4 + 120,4)/2 = 80

.

D HB [σ]H [σ]F
S /2  
40 285,5 580,9
40 248,5 514,3

3.2.4. w ,

wKa (u + 1) = 43(4 + 1) = 77,73 ,

Ka = 43

Ψ = 0,25 , .2[4]

T2 , ͷ

K =1

 

. 2[4] w = 80 .

3.2.5. m,

m = = 0,89 ,

Km = 5,8

d2 , :

d2 = 2w = 280 = 128

b2 = Ψ w = 0,2580 =20

13.15.[3] b2 = 20

3 [4] m = 1

3.2.6. βmin

:

βmin = arcsin = arcsin = 10,08º

β = (816) F .

 

,

ij d1 = mz1/cosβ = 31,6 d2 = mz2/cosβ = 128,4
da1 = d1 + 2m = 33,6 da2 = d2 + 2m = 130,4
df1 = d1 2,4m = 29,2 df2 = d2 2,4m = 126
b1 = b2 + (2...4)=24 b2=Ψw = 20

 

3.2.13. w ,

w = (d1 + d2)/2 = (31,4 + 120,4)/2 = 80

S£[S] ,

[S] = 8,3 , , . 5.9.[3]

S

S = = = 23 ,

F = 50 000 , , . 9.1.[5]

F0 ( ) ,

F0 = Kfqag = 62,60,789,81 = 119,4 ,

Kf = 6 ( )

q = 2,6 / 1 . 32[3]

a ,

g , /2

FV ,

FV = qV2 = 2,62,152 = 12 ,

V , /

.

4.16. F ,

F = kFt + 2F0 = 1,151700 + 2119,4 = 2200 ,

= 1,15 PF . 5.7.[3]

.

 

. 5.2.()

ij 13.15.[3]

ij d1 d1 = (0,81,2)d:

d1 = 0,8 d = 0,828 = 22,4 d1 = 22

l1 = 36 12080-66 . 10.8.[3]

d2 = d = d1 + 2t = 22 + 22 = 26 d2 = 25

l2 = 1,5 d2 = 1,525 = 37,5 l2 = 38

r t . 7.1.[3]

, , 305 . 27[3]. :

, ,
d D B r Cr C0r
22,5 11,4

 

 

. 5.2.() .

d3 = d2 + 3,2t = 25 + 3,22 = 31,4 d3 = 30

5.2.2. .

 

 

. 5.3.

 

d1 = = = 25 ,

= 2 , ,

[t] = 1020 /2 , , . , .

d2 = d4 = d = d1 + 2t = 25 + 22,2 = 29,4 d2 = 30

l2 = l4 = = 19

, , 306 . 27[3]. :

, ,
d D B r Cr C0r
29,1 14,6

d3 = d = d2 + 3,2r = 30 + 3,22 = 36,4 d3 = 36

d5 = d = d3 + 3f = 36 + 31,2 = 39,6 d5 = 40

.

. 5.4.

 

d1 = = = 35 , d1 = 36

= 3 ,

[t] = 20 /2 , ,

l1 = 58 12080-66 . 10.8.[3]

d2 = d4 = d = d1 + 2t = 36 + 22,5 = 41 d2 = 40

l2 = 1,5 d2 = 1,540 = 60 l2 = 60 l4 = = 23

, , 308  . 27[3]. :

, ,
d D B r Cr C0r
2,5 41,0 22,4

d3 = d = d2 + 3,2r = 40 + 3,22,5 = 48 d3 = 48

d5 = d = d3 + 3f = 48 + 31,6 = 52,8 d5 = 53

 

.

5.2.1. . 6.1.

Ft1 = Ft2 = = = 779

Fr1 = Fr2 = Ft2 = 779 = 289

Fa1 = Fa2 = Ft2 tg β = 779 tg11,11 = 153

= 30,5 b = 72,5 .

.

= 0 Fr1a Fa1 + RBY (a + b) = 0

RBY = = = 62,1

= 0 RAY (a + b) Fa1 Fr1b = 0

RAY = = = 226,9

= 0 Fr1 + RBY + RAY = 289 62,1

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