КОНТРАСТИВНА СТИЛІСТИКА АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ ТА УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ МОВ
КОНТРАСТИВНА СТИЛІСТИКА АНГЛІЙСЬКОЇ ТА УКРАЇНСЬКОЇ МОВ
для студентів базового напрямку “Філологія”
спеціальності “Прикладна лінгвістика” освітньо-кваліфікаційного рівня «Бакалавр»
на засіданні кафедри
Протокол №13 від 27.05.2010
Львів – 2010
Романишин Н.І. Контрастивна стилістика англійської та української мов:Конспект лекцій для студентів базового напрямку “Філологія” спеціальності “Прикладна лінгвістика” освітньо-кваліфікаційного рівня «Бакалавр». – Львів, Видавництво Національного університету «Львівська політехніка», 2010. - 144 с.
Висвітлено основні положення стилістики та контрастивної стилістики англійської та української мов. Розглянуто основні категорії та поняття стилістики, здійснено порівняльний аналіз стилістичних ресурсів англійської та української мов на фонетичному, морфологічному, лексичному та синтаксичному рівнях, розкрито суть основних стилістичних прийомів та тропів в обох аналізованих мовах.
Відповідальний за випуск: Карамишева І.Д.
Рецензенти: Федорчук М.М.,канд. філол. наук
Бордюк Л.В.канд. філол. наук
Lecture No 1. General notes on style and stylistics
1.Stylistics as a brunch of linguistics, its object, subject matter and main tasks of investigations ……………………………………………………..………………5
2.The main categories of stylistics………………………………………………… 8
3.Expressive means and stylistic devices……………………………………….. 19
4.Methods of stylistic analysis …………………………………………………. 20
Lecture No 2. Contrastive analysis of phonetic and graphical expressive means and stylistic devices in English and Ukrainian
1. General notes ......................................................................................................22
2.Phonetic means of stylistics ............................................................................... 23
3. Rhyme .................................................................................................................27
4. Rhythm ................................................................................................................29
5. Graphical expressive means and stylistic devices ..............................................33
Lecture No 3. Stylistic resources of English and Ukrainian Grammar
1. Stylistic resources of English and Ukrainian Word-building …………………35
2. Morphological Expressive means and stylistic devices ………………………39
3. The Noun ……………………………………………………………………..39
4. The Article. Stylistic functions of English articles ……………………………47
5. The Adjective. Degrees of comparison of adjectives as stylistic device ……..49
6. The pronoun. Stylistic functions of pronoun …………………………………51
7. The Verb……………………………………………………………………….54
Lecture No 4. Lexical Stylistics
1. Word and its meaning from stylistic point of view …………………………..57
2. Stylistic classification of English and Ukrainian vocabulary………………….61
3. Special literary vocabulary ……………………………………………………62
4. Special colloquial vocabulary…………………………………………………75
5. Stylistically coloured word and context ………………………………………80
Lecture No 5. Stylistic Semasiology. Lexico-semantic and lexico-syntactic expressive means and stylistic devices
1.Lexico-semantic expressive means and stylistic devices………………………..83
1.2. Figures of substitution ……………………………………………………85
1.2.1. Figures of quality……………………………………………………86
1.2.2. Figures of quantity………………………………………………….102
2. Lexico-syntactic expressive means and stylistic devices. Figures of combination
2.1. Figures of identity………………………………………………………..104
2.2. Figures of contrast…………………………………………………….107
2.3. Figures of inequality ……………………………………….111
Lecture No 6. Stylistic syntax
1. General considerations ……………………………………………..116
2. Syntactic expressive means and stylistic devices …………………..119
2.1. Syntactic stylistic devices based on
the reduction of sentence model ……………………………….120
2.2. Syntactic stylistic devices based on
the extension of sentence model ……………………………….125
2.3. Syntactic stylistic devices based on
the change of word order………………………………………...133
2.4. Syntactic stylistic devices based on
special types of formal and semantic correlation
of syntactic constructions within a text………………..……….135
2.5. Syntactic stylistic devices based on
the transposition of sentence meaning……………………………139
List of recomended literature……………………………………. 143
Lecture No 1. General notes on style and stylistics
The main categories of stylistics
The notion of style
The term “style” originated from the Greek “stylos” that meant a short stick used for writing on wax tablets. Now the word style is used in so many senses that it has become the breeding ground for ambiguity. The Oxford dictionary registered about thirty meanings of this word. The usage of this word by different sciences – aesthetics, linguistics, philosophy, art, history of culture only favours the development of its polysemy.
Ancient and medieval rhetoric understood style as a perfection of speech, as clarity, propriety, beauty of expression, as a manner of a speaker to use language for a certain purpose. Later on the definition of style was developed by different scholars and writers. Among the most widely employed notions of this term that reigned almost up to the beginning of XX-th century were the following:
- style as a deviation from a recognized norm of the standard language.
This definition of style arose under the influence of formalism – a trend in 1920s European literature. The representatives of this trend maintained the idea that language sometimes imposes intolerable constraints on the freedom of thought. Hence all kinds of innovations were introduced into the language of poetry and prose that in most cases not only disagree from the norms but actually depart from them in principle;
- style as embellishment on language; language can easily dispense with
style because style likened to the trimming on dress only hinders understanding;
- style as technique of expression, the ability to write clearly, correctly
and in a manner calculated to interest the reader. The followers of this particular point of view presumed that style could be taught as standardized form of language;
- style as literary form.
So what is linguistically relevant definition of style? The treatment of style by modern linguistics and literary studies is based on the assumption that style is an integral significance of any expression, its functional and semantic property. Style is a socially recognized and functionally determined unity of methods of choice, usage and arrangement of language means within a certain sphere of national language, the unity of methods which correlates with other similar ways of expression that serve for other purposes and perform other functions in language social practice of a certain nation. The very nature of style lies in the creative aspect of human verbal activity because it is hardly ever possible to produce an utterance devoid of any stylistic characteristics. On the one hand style is social and historic category. It is being created by native speakers in accordance with the aim of communication. On the other hand – style is a reflection of an individual verbal experience. Consequently the abstract tern “style” being complex and heterogeneous has been regarded depending on what particular aspect of style is dealt with.
Individual style is a unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic devices peculiar to a certain writer which makes that writer’s works or even utterances easily recognizable. The term individual style is applied in that sphere of linguistics and literary studies that deals with the peculiarities of a writer’s individual manner of using language means to achieve a desirable effect.
Each highly developed language is streamed into several functional styles. Functional style is a system of coordinated, interrelated and interconditioned language means intended to fulfill a specific function of communication and aiming at a definite effect. The problem of functional styles classification is the most disputable among the style theoreticians. The rather widely recognized classification (accepted for both English and Ukrainian) singles out the following functional styles:
· official style (офіційно-діловий стиль) – represented in all kinds of official documents;
· scientific style (науковий стиль) – found in articles, monographs and other scientific and academic publications ;
· publicistic style (публіцистичний стиль) – covering such genres as essays, feature article, public speeches, etc;
· newspaper style (газетний стиль) – observed in the majority of information materials printed in newspapers;
· belles-lettres style (художній стиль) – embracing numerous and versatile genres of imaginative writings;
· colloquial style (розмовний стиль) – realized in all kinds of everyday communicative situations.
Each of the enumerated style is exercised in two forms – written and oral: an article and a lecture are examples of the two forms of the scientific style; news broadcast on the radio and TV or newspaper information materials – of the newspaper style; an essay or public speech – of the puiblicistic style.
It is only the first three styles that are invariably recognized in all stylistic treatises. As for the newspaper style, it is often regarded as a part of the publicistic domain and is not always treated individually. But the biggest controversy is flaming around the colloquial style. According to V.A.Kukharenko the latter is a special type – colloquial type of language, a separate language subsystem opposed to the literary type. Literary type of the language is characterized by the intentional approach of the speaker towards the choice of language means suitable for a particular communicative situation and the official, formal, preplanned nature of the latter. The colloquial type of the language, on the contrary, is characterized by the unofficiality, spontaneity, informality of the communicative situation. The colloquial speech is shaped by the immediacy, unpremeditativeness of expression. The both above mentioned tendencies to treat the colloquial speech as an individual language subsystem with its independent set of language units and rules of their connection and to regard it as a separate style coexist in modern linguistics.
The notion of norm
Norm is the invariant of the phonemic, lexical and syntactical pattern circulating in language in action at a certain period of time. It is a set of language rules which are considered to be the most standard and correct. It is practically impossible to work out universal language norms because each functional style has its own regularities. The sentence I ain’t got any news from nowbody should be treated as nongrammatical from the point of view of the literary grammar though it is in full accordance with the special colloquial grammar rules. The possibility of variations within the boundaries of traditionally stable, culturally and historically acknowledged norm resulted in its heterogeneity. Thus the notion of norm can be differentiated into:
- language norm
- literary norm
- norm of a certain style
- stylistic norm
Language norm includes all language elements and rules of their organization that have communicative value for native speakers irrespective of the functional style. Elements that are obsolete or non-understandable for a number of speakers exist outside the language norm.
Literary norm is the most correct, elaborated, cultivated variant of language norm that serves as an example of the written and oral communication. Literary norm takes socially high position that general language norm and is implemented into social usage though educational institutions, mess media and art. It has obligatory character and regulative function.
Norm of a style, compared with the language and literary norm is a narrower notion and is restricted to a certain functional style or to a written or oral form of communication. For example, such Ukrainian structures as порушити клопотання, порядок денний, це дає підстави вважати, відповідальний директор and привіт, бувай, лікарка, спортсменка are absolutely acceptable from the point of view of language norm but inappropriate from the point of view of a specific sphere of application: the usage of the word combinations of the first group is possible within the domain of official and scientific styles; the usage of the word combinations of the second group is restricted to colloquial style only.
Stylistic norm correlates with literary norm and exists within its boundaries.But it aims not only at the correctness of expression but also at its appropriateness in a certain communicative act and its perfection. The ability of a speaker to express his or her thoughts not only in accordance with the language or literary norm but in accordance with the stylistic norm is the highest stage in a good command of language and is a summit of linguistic culture. Stylistic norm incorporates those language means that possess certain expressive or emotional colouring and which traditionally belong to special types of speech: styles, substyles, genres or types of texts.
The notion of image
Image is a certain picture of objective reality, a verbal subjective description of a person, event, state, occurrence, a sight made by the speaker with the whole set of expressive means and stylistic devices. Images are created to produce an immediate impression to human sight, hearing, and sense of touch or taste. Within the sphere of stylistics and literary criticism the term image is applied to:
- character of a literary work;
- result of the human perception of the world;
- means of figurative description of the character, event, action, condition, circumstances.
The second and the third of above-mentioned definitions are relevant for linguistic stylistics. Image is a word or phrase that renders not only objective, logical but figurative, sensual, emotional, evaluative information and is capable of evoking fillings and emotions. Image is created on the basis of multifold connections and associations between different objects and notions. The more distant these notions are, the more unpredictable and unexpected their likeness is, the brighter is the image. We can describe a flower by contrasting and comparing it with another one. Such comparison does not create the image. But when we compare the flower with the sun we create the image. Let us support this statement with examples:
У нього очі наче волошки в житі. А над ними з-під драного картузика волосся – білявими житніми колосками. Це – Пилипко (А. Головко).
It was six o’clock on a winter’s evening. Thin dingy rain spat and drizzled past the lighted street lamps. The pavement shone long and yellow. In squeaking galoshes, with mackintosh collars up and bowlers and trilbies weepingyoungish men from offices bundled home against the thistly wind (D. Thomas. The followers).
Images are connected with person’s mood, with nature and weather, events and states; they may be static or dynamic. The boundaries and the structure of the image are various; it can be embodied in a single word or comprise a phrase, sentence or even the whole literary work. The image has a special structure within which the following constituents are distinguished:
1. the tenor ( an object or notion described);
2. the vehicle ( an object to which the first object is compared);
3. the ground ( the common trait of compared objects);
4. the technique of comparison (type of the trope);
5. the relations between the objects;
6. the lexical and grammatical means of expressing the image.
E.g. Something seemed to break in Winterborn’s head. He felt he was going mad, and sprang to his feet. The line of bullets smashed across his chest like a savage steel whip.
The tenor is ‘a burst of machine gun fire’, the vehicle is “a smash of a steel whip’, the ground is the similarity of two actions, both notions described are concrete nouns, the technique of comparison – the metaphor, lexico-syntactical way of expressing the image – syntactic structure ‘… like …’.
Each highly developed national language like English or Ukrainian has its system of elaborated imagery. This system is influenced by different social and historic factors, reflects the speaker’s outlook, esthetic, philosophic, political concepts that reign in a certain epoch or in a certain social environment.
Images can be descriptive or symbolic. Symbol is a specific type of image. It embodies the most significant and abstract ideas and notions such as peace, eternity, fidelity, victory, life, death, etc.
Imagery is the universal feature of the living language. Practically each word can be a bearer of imagery information:
E.g. And heaved and heaved still unrestingly heaved the black sea as if its vast tides were a conscience (G. Melwil).
Уже понурі оболоки
На марах сонце понесли
В глибоку падь глухої мли.
Тихо в долині.
Сірий вечір запорпав лапи в мох (В. Свідзинський).
Summing up everything that has been said about images and imagery it is important to bear in mind that these notions are the central ones both in stylistic analysis and within the domain of poetic language. Poetic language exists only owing to the existence of images; it is built up of images which are the potential ways of rendering the sense and the powerful means of perfecting the natural living language. To some extend this perfection can be viewed as a deviation from the norms of logic and nature. But these deviations always aim at finding a new, unpredictable mode of expression which in a long run becomes a new norm and favours an nontrivial view of the world. The function of image in this respect is to materialize feelings and experience that could not be verbalized in any other but figurative way.
This deviation creates so called semantic space which the reader should surmount by himself taking aesthetic delight on the way.
The notion of context
The basis of the theory of context constitutes the thesis that text is not a simple linear arrangement of words. Text is a highly organized structure the elements of which have value not only as separate entities but also in their interrelations with other elements both inside and outside the text. In general sense context can be defined as an environment of a linguistic unit that facilitates the realization of certain properties of this unit. Two types of context are generally differentiated: linguistic and extra linguistic, the latter being understood as a situation of communication. Situational context can be
1. Single: some utterances are meaningful only in one single context and meaningless in all the other, e.g.:
Pooh's found the North Pole, said Christopher Robin. Isn't that lovely… They stuck the pole in the ground and Christopher Robin tied a massage on to it: "North Pole discovered by Pooh"(A. Miln).
2. Typical: some utterances that may even violate the norms of the literary language can be meaningful only under certain conditions.
3. Social and historic.
Linguistic context is a set of conditions in which the meaning of language unit is unambiguously realized: e.g. the hand of the clock, a piece for four hands, a farm hand. The main function of the linguistic context is to eliminate the polysemy of the word. Sometimes the linguistic context causes the phenomenon of desemantisation (take offence, take charge, take medicine, take notice).
However in certain contexts the reverse process can be observed – so called hypersemantisation, the enrichment of the language unit meaning, so that the word acquires alongside with its direct meaning a transferred one. The context that extends the meaning of the language unit is called stylistic context.
We distinguish between stylistic micro context – a sentence or utterance. Stylistic macro context – super phrasal unity:
Once upon a time ago, about last Friday, Winnie the Pooh lived in a forest all by himself under the name of Sanders. What does "under the name mean?" asked Christopher Robin. "It means he has the name over the door in gold letters and lived under it".
Stylistic mega context that coincides with the whole literary work. The usage of one and the same word or phrase in the text in various speech situations changes and enriches its meaning. Thus the word gains the status of image or symbol of a certain idea. For example the Ukrainian word земля is polysemantic and is used in all functional styles. But within the domain of stylistic contexts of a great number of works of Ukrainian writers and poets it is transformed into a system of complex images: земля – Батьківщина, Україна, рідний край, домівка, поле, нива, лан, грунт і саме життя.
E.g. Он і Матвій свій чорний лан розорав, - широта, довжінь! Лан! Чотирнадцять десятин. М’язи, нерви, кров. Ні. Його нічого не болить. Це лиш проходить хребтом ціна землі – своєї, лудяної сонцем, литої потом і болючої, як і той хребет...(У. Самчук. Волинь).
The notion of stylistic context is closely connected with the effect of unexpectedness and anticlimax. An unpredicted language unit appearing within the stylistic context against reader’s expectations breaks the even flow of the text, attracts reader’s attention and becomes foregrounded.
E.g. No sun – no moon!
No morn – no noon –
No dawn – no dusk – no proper time of day –
No sky – no earthly view –
No distance looking blue –
No road- no street- no “t’other side the way”
No end to any Row
No indications where the Crescents go –
No top to any steeple
No recognition of familiar people!
No warmth- no cheerfulness, no healthful ease,
No comfortable feel in any member;
No shade, no shine, no butterflies, no bees,
No fruits, no flowers, no leaves, no birds.
November! (T. Good).
Босі, потріскані ноги,
В одній руці костур,
У другій руці кошик.
Прихилилась лицем до церковного муру
І наче завмерла.
Темна. Ні синього неба,
Ні свіжого листя не бачить.
Обнявши її прохолодним затінням,
Шепоче над нею розпашиста липа.
Спека. Південь гомонить, щебече, співає...
В саду над верхами дерев
Пронизливо прячуть ворони.
Солодко пахнуть акації білі.
Я знаю житло її бідне:
Довге, вузеньке подвір’я,
Зруйнований дім в глибині
І край нього мала ліпнянка.
Покрівля прогнила, прогнулися стіни,
Хутко повалиться зовсім...
Як пахнуть акації білі! (В. Свідзинський).
Stylistics is considered to be one of the most important branches of linguistics. Its significance in professional training of interpreters and students of applied linguistics is hard to overestimate. The theoretical aspect of contrastive stylistics is inevitably connected with the analysis of the literary texts. It helps to define and compare those textual elements that bear the greatest significance in expression of the artistic function in the original and translated texts. The course of stylistics provides the students with all necessary skills of comprehensive reading, favours the perfection of language practice, improves the ability of text interpreting and translating. The course of contrastive stylistics has for its object:
- to acquaint the students with the stylistic theory as a general system of scientific principles and practical methods which can be further applied in translation;
- to provide them with the knowledge about the peculiarities of stylistic systems of English and Ukrainian, the common tendencies of their development and their nationally specific features;
- to help the students develop the technique of stylistic analysis which is based on the deep penetration into the semantic and formal structure of the text of different functional styles;
- to improve their skills of text interpreting.
The stylistic approach to the utterance is not confined to its structure and sense. There is another thing to be taken into account which in a certain type of communication plays an important role. This is the way a word, a phrase or a sentence sounds. The sound of most words taken separately will have little or no aesthetic value. It is in combination with other words that a word may acquire a desired phonetic effect.
The theory of sound symbolism is based on the assumption that separate sounds due to their articulation and acoustic properties may awake certain ideas, perceptions, feelings, images, vague though they may be. According to the investigations conducted on the basis of the Russian language, native speakers tend to relate certain sounds with certain emotions, feelings, and perceptions and identify them as good, bad, quick, slow, beautiful, repelling, etc. E.g. «м» sound is soft and tender as in the words милый, мимоза, «г» - short and quick, «а» - good, strong, active, bright, «ф» - bad, dark, passive, weak. Proceeding from the scale of sound evaluations given by the speakers the computer program analyzed an acoustic form of a set of words irrespective of their meaning. In the result of this experiment the definite semantic characteristics were ascribed to them.
E.g. Барабан – большой, грубый, активный, сильный, громкий
Лепет – хороший, маленький, нежный, слабый, тихий
Onomatopoeia is a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature. Combination of speech sounds of this type will inevitably be associated with whatever produces the natural sound.
Alliteration is a phonetic stylistic device which aims at imparting a melodic effect to the utterance. The essence of this device lies in the repetition of similar sounds, in particular, consonant sounds, in close succession, usually at the beginning of successive words:
The possessive instinct never stands still. Through florescence and feud, frosts and fires it follows the laws of progression. (J. Galsworthy);
Deep into the darkness peering, long I stood there wondering, fearing,
Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortals ever dared to dream before (E. A. Poe).
...До причалу гондола чалить.
Повні сонцем губи.
І згуби, і розгубленості (І. Драч).
Alliteration, like most phonetic expressive means, does not bear any lexical or other meaning unless we agree that a sound meaning exists as such. But even so we may not be able to specify clearly the character of this meaning, and the term will merely suggest that a certain amount of information is contained in the repetition of sounds, as is the case with the repetition of lexical units.
However, certain sounds, if repeated, may produce an effect that can be specified.
For example, the sound [m] is frequently used by Tennyson in the poem The Lotus Eaters to give a somnolent effect.
How sweet it were...
To lend our hearts and spirits wholly
To the music of mild-minded melancholy;
To muse and brood and live again in memory.
To intensify the idea of weeping and mourning the “в” sound is repeated in the following lines:
Виють собаки і віщують недолю, і небесні птиці літають над селом і віщують недолю. І реве худоба в ночі і віщує недолю (О. Довженко).
Therefore alliteration is generally regarded as a musical accompaniment of the author's idea, supporting it with some vague emotional atmosphere which each reader interprets for himself. Thus the repetition of the sound [d] in the lines quoted from Poe's poem "The Raven" prompts the feeling of anxiety, fear, horror, anguish or all these feelings simultaneously.
Alliteration is deeply rooted in the traditions of English and Ukrainian folklore. The laws of phonetic arrangement in Anglo-Saxon poetry differed greatly from those of present-day English poetry. In Old English poetry alliteration was one of the basic principles of verse and considered, alongside rhythm, to be its main characteristic. Each stressed meaningful word in a line had to begin with the same sound or combination of sounds.
The traditions of folklore are exceptionally stable and alliteration as a structural device of Old English poems and songs has shown remarkable continuity. It is frequently used as a well-tested means not only in verse but in emotive prose, in newspaper headlines, in the titles of books, in proverbs and sayings, advertising, etc., as, for example, in the following:
Tit for tat; blind as a bat, betwixt and between; it is neck or nothing; to rob Peter to pay Paul;
or in the titles of books: Sense and Sensibility" (Jane Austin); "Pride and Prejudice" (Jane Austin); "The School for Scandal" (Sheridan); "A Book of Phrase and Fable" (Brewer).
Ukrainian alliteration, according to D.Chyzhevsky, has much in common with the Celtic one. The most frequent sounds that create the effect of alliteration in Ukrainian are sonorant and plosive consonants. Alliteration moulds the emotive and imagery pattern of most Ukrainian songs and proverbs and is greatly favoured by modern authors.
Rhyme is the repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds or combinations of words.
Rhyming words are generally placed at a regular distance from each other. In verse they are usually placed at the end of the corresponding lines.
Identity and particularly similarity of sound combinations may be relative. For instance, we distinguish between full rhymes and incomplete rhymes. The full rhyme presupposes identity of the vowel sound and the following consonant sounds in a stressed syllable, as in might, right; needless, heedless. When there is identity of the stressed syllable, including the initial consonant of the second syllable (in polysyllabic words), we have exact or identical rhymes.
Incomplete rhymes present a greater variety. They can be divided into two main groups: vowel rhymes and consonant rhymes. In vowel rhymes the vowels of the syllables in corresponding words are identical, but the consonants may be different, as in flesh– press. Consonant rhymes, on the contrary, show concordance in consonants and disparity in vowels, as in worth–forth; treble–trouble; flung–long.
Modifications in rhyming sometimes go so far as to make one word rhyme with a combination of words; or two or even three words rhyme with a corresponding two or three words, as in upon her honour–won her; bottom–forgot'em–shot him. Such rhymes are called compound or broken. The peculiarity of rhymes of this type is that the combination of words is made to sound like one word. This device inevitably gives a colloquial and sometimes a humorous touch to the utterance.
Compound rhyme may be set against what is called eye-rhyme, where the letters and not sounds are identical, as in love–prove, flood– brood, have–grave. It follows therefore that whereas compound rhyme is perceived in reading aloud, eye-rhyme can only be perceived in the written verse.
Many eye-rhymes are the result of historical changes in the vowel sounds in certain positions. The continuity of English verse manifests itself also in retention of some pairs of what once rhymed words. But on the analogy of these pairs, new eye-rhymes have been coined and the model now functions alongside ear-rhymes.
According to the way the rhymes are arranged within the stanza, certain models have crystallized, for instance:
1. couplets-when the last words of two successive lines are rhymed. This is commonly marked aa.
2. triple rhymes-aaa
4. framing or ring rhymes-abba
There is still another variety of rhyme which is called internal rhyme. The rhyming words are placed not at the ends of the lines but within the line, as in:
I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers (Shelley).
Once upon a midnight dreary while I pondered weak and weary (Poe).
Internal rhyme breaks the line into two distinct parts, at the same time more strongly consolidating the ideas expressed in these two parts.
The function of rhyme is not restricted only to euphonic organization of the verse. In some cases it can be semantically charged especially when the rhyme is combined with alliteration, assonance and when the rhyming elements “link” the end if the preceding and the beginning of the following line as in the poem below:
The sunlight on the garden
The sunlight on the garden
Hardens and grows cold,
We cannot cage the minute
Within its nets of gold,
When all is told
We cannot beg for pardon.
Our freedom as free lances
Advances towards its end;
The earth compels, upon it
Sonnets and bids descend;
And soon my friend,
We shall have no time for dances.
The sky was good for flying
Defying the church bells
And every evil iron
Siren and what it tells:
The earth compels,
We are dying, Egypt dying.
And not expecting pardon,
Hardened in heart anew,
But glad to have sat under
Thunder and rain with you,
And grateful too
For sunlight on the garden(L. Macniece).
Rhythm is a flow, movement, procedure, etc., characterized by basically regular recurrence of elements or features, as beat, or accent, in alternation with opposite or different elements or features. Rhythm has a great significance not only for the music and poetry but for prose as well. The rhythm of prose is based predominantly on the repetition of images or themes, repetition and specific arrangement of the large text elements, parallel constructions, and use of sentences with homogeneous members, etc.
Rhythm is not a mere addition to verse or emotive prose but has its meaning. Rhythm intensifies the emotions. It also specifies emotions. The rhythm can imitate motion or behaviours, it shapes the motion of the thought, it contributes to the general sense of the text.
Rhythm and rhyme are immediately distinguished features of poetic substyle. In verse they both have assumed their compositional patterns. The most observable and widely recognized compositional patterns of rhythm making up classical verse are based on:
1. alteration of stressed and unstressed syllables;
2. an equal number of syllables in a line;
3. a natural pause at the end of each line, the line being more or less complete semantic unit;
4. identity of stanza pattern;
5. established patterns of rhyming.
The term prosody refers to the study of versification. Most prosody begins with an analysis of metre. Metre (or meter) is derived from the Greek word for "measure." The metre is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in verse. While there may be some variation or substitution, the number of syllables, and the number of stressed/unstressed syllables remains relatively consistent from line to line.
The most common metres include:
A metrical unit of a line is called a foot. A foot consists of one stressed syllable and one or more unstressed syllables. Each type of foot is denoted by a specific term (line breaks are indicated by "/"):
Meter is usually described as either the dominant foot (which foot is used most often to the strongest effect in a work), or the dominant number of feet per line. Generally, though, critics combine the dominant foot and number of feet to describe meter. That is where common terms like iambic pentameter and trochaic tetrameter gain their critical meaning.
Classical verse is called syllabo-tonic – it is characterized by a set number of syllables and certain distribution of stresses. The shortest unit of each metre is called a foot. If we make a careful study of almost any poem, we will find what are called irregularities or modification of its natural metrical pattern, which are: a pyrrhic foot, rhythmical inversion, spondee. These modifications when they occur inevitably influence the semantic structure of a poem. Spondee is always used to add emphasis. Two successive syllables both under heavy stress produce a kind of clash; the juncture between syllables becomes wider making each of them conspicuous. A pyrrhic on the contrary smoothes and quickens the pace of rhythm.
Another departure from the norms of classical verse is enjambment or the run-on line. Enjambment is a transfer of a part of a syntagma from one line to the following one:
While boyish blood is mantling, who can ‘scape
The fascination of the magic gaze? (G. Bayron)
Verse remains classical when it retains its metrical scheme. There are, however, types of verse which are not classical.
Free verse – a combination of various metrical feet in a line. It is characterized by the absence of equiliniarity, stanzas are of varying length, rhyme however is generally retained.
Accented verse – a verse where only a number of stresses is taken into consideration. The number of syllables is not constituent; the lines have neither pattern of metrical feet, nor fixed length. There is no notion of stanza and there is no thyme.
In Ukrainian there is a great number of:
1) bookish suffixes and prefixes which are used predominantly in official and scientific styles (спрямованість, активація, профіцит, конструктор, геніальний, дисциплінарний, інтернаціоналізація, ультрарадикальний, редуплікація, історизм, національність, суспільство ). When these suffixes or prefixes are added to the stems of neutral or colloquial words newly created lexical units are always stylistically coloured: мудрація, поведенція, штукенція, бабенція, недоумкуватість, наплювізм, крутійство, хвостизм, бабизм;
2) suffixes of subjective evaluation –юх, - л, - ил, - о: упертюх, вайло, тріпло, бурмилo;
3) diminutive suffixes -ісіньк, - есеньк, - юсіньк, - еньк, -ичк: білесенький, теплесенький, малюсінький, старесенький, гостинчик, хлопчик. Being added to the different parts of speech these suffixes contribute to the creation of intimate, petting atmosphere of the utterance. They also are used to create words with ironic, satirical stylistic meanings and can impart negative evaluative connotation to the utterance: ідейка, днинка, копійчина, ремонтик, анекдотик, самогонник, пивасик;
4) suffixes with the meaning of “great number” or hyperbolic meaning which denote the highest degree of a certain quality or impart negative emotional connotations to the word: злодюга, морозище, вітрисько, босовило, хижачся, мишва, татарва.
5)archaic prefixes па-, пра-, уз- which are used to create bookish, solemn words: паморозь, правітер, праматір, уславлений;
6 ) synonymic affixation: глибина – глибінь; висота – височінь where the second component of each pair is more expressive and poetic.
Expressiveness on the level of word building in English is not so developed as in Ukrainian. But the question of stylistic potential of English word building means cannot be disregarded. Thus English suffix – ish that means a little degree of a certain quality being added to a noun imparts to it negative evaluative connotations: childish, doggish, honey-moonish, Dickenisish, Mark Twainish. Whereas suffixes –ian, -esque on the contrary embody positive connotations: Shakespearian, Dantesque, etc.The usage of suffixes -ard, -ster, -eer and -monger is the most frequent way of creating negative effect: drunkard, coward, oldster, profiteer, black-marketeer, panic-monger. Suffixes such as -kin, -let, -ling, -y, -ic are used in order to diminish the value of something: lamkin, chicklet, starlet, weakling, daddy, lassie.
Words created by means of affixation are always more expressive than their affixless equivalents: unbending – rigid, unerring – accurate, unmasked – revealed. Prefix un- being added to different verbal, nominal or adjectival stems not only embodies implicit negation but also serves as a powerful means to express the idea in a condensed, contracted way:
The wretch concentrated all in self
Living shall forfeit fair renown
And doubly dying, shall go down
To the vile dust from when it sprung
Unwept, unhonoured and unsung (W. Scott)
Compounding is another highly resourceful means of creating stylistic effect. The source of Ukrainian poetic compounds is folklore: жар-птиця, вовчик-братик, смуток-жаль, молити-просити, стежка-мережка, гуси-лебеді etc. Ukrainian words that are created by means of combining two word stems are considered more poetic and expressive than their one-stem loaned synonyms: пейзаж – краєвид, фонтан – водограй, біографія – життєпис, бібліотека – книгозбірня, космонавти – зореплавці.
In English the compounding aimed at stylistic effect is based on unnatural valency of the components: boy-friend-in-chief (on the analogy of “commander-in-chief”), on syntagmatic connection: Miss what’s-her-name, a dog–in-the-monger, on rhyming: helter-skelter, chit-chat, riff-raff, on substantivation of phrasal verbs: a pin-up, a pick-up, etc.
Each sphere of communication is characterized by the employment of words created according to certain word-building patterns. For example the Ukrainian folk discourse is the domain of the prolific usage of most of the above-mentioned word-building patterns, which mirrors the slightest subtleties of human emotions. Due to its rich expressive potential word-building when applied in belle-letters style is an indispensable tool to impact the reader, to evoke his/her aesthetic associations, to amplify the imagery structure of the text. Emotional and expressive word-building patterns are widely used in every day speech and have become the characteristic feature of colloquial style.
Grammatical phenomenon, morphological category or part of speech as an element of language system has no stylistic marking but it possesses certain stylistic potential. Any language unit being placed in an unusual syntactic environment, which changes its standardized grammatical characteristics or the rules of its combinability, can acquire stylistic significance. Thus grammatical transposition is the central notion of morphological stylistics as well as the basic principle on which a stylistic device on the morphological level can be created.
Special literary vocabulary
Terms are mostly and predominantly used in special works dealing with the notions of some branch of science. Therefore it may be said that they belong to the style of language of science where they fulfil their basic function, that of bearing exact reference to a given concept. This function of terms does not allow the development of polysemy and seldom do the terms have synonyms. Although the synonymy is uncharacteristic for this layer of vocabulary the cases of synonymic substitution are possible and even favourable for stylistic purposes especially in Ukrainian where the bulk of this layer consists of the loan words. Some loan terms in Ukrainian have their synonyms, e.g.: алфавіт – азбука – абетка, процент – відсоток, дует – двоспів etc. There is a tendency to use the loaned term in official style and in scientific works and to use its synonym in publicistic, newspaper, colloquial, belles-lettres styles. The following extract exemplifies how the usage of terms contributes to the realistic description of the laboratory where the main heroine works:
In front of her were the instruments which she had been taught to read…there was a logarithmic amplifier, with faces like speedometers, which would give a measure – she had picked up some jargon – of the “neutron flu”.
On the bench was pinned the sheet of graph paper and it was there that she was to plot the course of the experiment. As the heavy water was poured in, the neutron flux would rise: the point on the graph would lead down the spot where the pile had started to run where the chain reaction had begun… (Ch. Snow).
The use of terms in newspaper style, in publicistic and practically in all other existing styles of language may change their function. The function of terms, if encountered in other styles, is either to indicate the technical peculiarities of the subject dealt with, or to make some reference to the occupation of a character whose language would naturally contain special words and expressions. When a term occurs in the belles-lettres style, for instance, it may simultaneously actualize its direct and figurative meaning and may acquire a definite stylistic value:
"What a fool Rawdon Crawley has been," Clump replied, "to go and marry a governess. There was something about the girl too."
"Green eyes, fair skin, pretty figure, famous frontal development" Squill remarked. (W. M. Thackeray).
The combination 'frontal development' is terminological in character (used sometimes in anatomy). But being preceded by the word 'famous' used in the sense indicated by the Shorter Oxford Dictionary as "a strong expression of approval (chiefly colloquial); excellent, capital" the whole expression assumes a specific stylistic function due to the fact that 'frontal development' is used both in its terminological aspect and in its logical meaning 'the breast of a woman'.
The following lines of Lina Kostenko can also be cited as a bright example of the artistic employment of terms, where the words that belong to the domain of mathematics embody the image of intricate and complexity of individual’s life:
Плюс мінус життя.
Квадратний корінь із мрій романтика.
Два пишем, три помічаєм.
математика (Л. Костенко).
There is an interesting process going on in the development of any language. With the increase of general education and the expansion of technique to satisfy the ever-growing needs and desires of mankind, many words that were once terms have gradually lost their quality as terms and have passed into the common literary or even neutral vocabulary. This process may be called "de-terminization". Such words as 'radio', 'television' and the like have long been in common use and their terminological character is no longer evident. It is also interesting to know that in the Ukrainian language in certain times of its development the following words as писовня (орфографія), мовниця (граматика), складання (синтаксис), голосівка (голосний звук), шелестівка (приголосний звук), речівник (іменник), злучник (сполучник), звучня (фонетика), письмівка (курсив), копальня (шахта), прогонич (болт), квас (кислота), кисняк (оксид), первень (елемент), мірило (масштаб), стіжок (конус) were terms.
Poetic words form a rather insignificant layer of the special literary vocabulary. They are mostly archaic or very rarely used highly literary words which aim at producing an elevated effect, like e.g. Ukrainian words уста, ланіти, перст, браття, возлюбити, недруг, супокій etc.
In the epoch of classicism, for example, there was a tendency to create special poetic style in which “simple”, “rough” and plain words of the folk language were not allowed, whereas new lexical, morphological and syntactical norms were created. The following stanzas of S. Johnson which abounds in highly elevated metaphors, abstract nouns and adjectives with the strong evaluative component can be a vivid example of this style:
Friendship, peculiar boon of heaven,
The noble mind’s delight and pride,
To men and angels only given,
To all the lower world denied,
While love, unknowen among the blest,
Parent of thousand wild desires,
The savage and the human breast
Torments alike with raging fires
Nor shall thine ardours ceased to glow,
When souls to peaceful climes remove;
What rais’d our virtue here below,
Shall aid our happiness above.
At the beginning of XIX-th century the classical canons of poetic diction were rejected by some poets-romanticists (G.G. Byron, P.B. Shelley, J. Keats) who strived to enrich the language of poetry using dialectal, archaic elements, new expressive means taken from ancient literature or built on the basis of live, colloquial forms of native language.
In modern English poetic words are not freely built in contrast to neutral, colloquial and common literary words, or terms. There is, however, one means of creating new poetic words still recognized as productive even in present-day English, viz. the use of a contracted form of a word instead of the full one, e. g. drear instead of dreary, scant – scanty. Sometimes the reverse process leads to the birth of a poeticism, e. g. vasty – vast. These two conventional devices are called forth by the requirements of the metre of the poem, to add or remove a syllable, and are generally avoided by modern English poets.
Alongside with the specific word-building models in modern English there are a certain number of words which have constant poetic connotations and are marked in the dictionaries by a special stylistic label – poet.
In order to exemplify the usage of poetic vocabulary let us consider the humoristic poem of J. Updike in which the bigotry to the classical poetic canons is derided:
At verses she was not inept!
Her feet were neatly numbered.
She never cried, she softly wept,
She never slept, she slumbered.
She never ate and rarely dined
Her tongue found sweetmeats sour.