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1-2 - .

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2002

 

Contents

 

1. The science of phonetics.   2. Intonation. The main components of intonation.   3. Functions of intonation.   4. Anatomy of intonation patterns. Types of heads, pre-heads, tails.   5. Basic intonation patterns.   6. Assimilation.   7. Elision.   8. Aspiration. Palatalisation. Linking r.   9. Reduction.   10. Intonation in simple sentences:   a) intonation of statements;   b) intonation of general questions;   c) intonation of special questions;   d) intonation of alternative questions;   e) intonation of disjunctive questions;   d) intonation of imperatives;   e) intonation of exclamations;   f) intonation of adverbial phrases;   g) intonation of enumeration.   11.Intonation of adjections.   12. Intonation of compound and complex sentences.   13. The structure of the phonetic analysis of a sentence.                                

 

 

The science of phonetics.

Phonetics is the science of speech sounds, their production (articulation) and the signs used to represent them (transcription).

The English language consists of 26 letters and 44 sounds, with 6 vowel letters but 20 vowel sounds.

In any language people speak using their organs of speech. The scheme of the sound production is as follows: lungs → wind-pipe → vocal cords → pharynx → uvula → soft palate → hard palate → teeth ridge → lower and upper teeth → tongue (tip, blade, front, back) → lips.

The organs of speech are divided into active (moveable): the vocal cords, the tongue, the lips, the soft palate; and passive: the teeth, the teeth ridge, the hard palate.

Studying the phonetic structure of a language we deal with phonemes. A phoneme is the smallest language unit which exists in the speech of all people belonging to the same language community in the form of speech sounds and may bring about a change of meaning. Sounds are what we actually pronounce, phonemes are abstract, sounds are concrete. The phoneme is realized in speech in the material form of speech sounds of different type. Various speech realizations of the phoneme are called its allophones. The difference between the allophones of the same phoneme is due to their position in various phonetic contexts (i.e. in the word breadth the sound [d] is dental under the influence of the interdental [θ] , in the word dry the sound [d] is post-alveolar under the influence of the post-alveolar [r]).

The classification of the English phonemes:

a) Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction and have no noise component.

b) Consonants have noise producing obstruction in their articulation.

The classification of the English vowels:

a) according to the stability of articulation:

- monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging [e];

- diphthongs are vowels in the pronunciation of which the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within one syllable [ei]. It consists of the nucleus (strong and distinct) and the glide (weak). There are no diphthongs in Russian;

- diphthongoids are vowels the articulation of which is slightly changing but the difference between the starting point and the end is not so distinct ([i:, u:]).

b) according to the tongue position the vowels may be:

- when the tongue moves forward and backward front [i:, e, æ], front-retracted [i], central [^, ə:, ə], back [a:, o, o:, u:], back-advanced [u];

- when the tongue moves up and down close [i:, i, u, u:], mid [e, ^, ə:, ə], open [æ, a:, o, o:];

c) according to the lip position:

- unrounded vowels (the lips are neutral),

- rounded vowels (the lips are drawn together so that the opening between them is more or less rounded) [u, u:, o, o:];

d) according to the vowel length all the monophthongs are divided into long [i:, u:, a:, o:, ə:] and short [I, e, o, u, ^, ə].

 

The classification of the English consonants:

a) according to the degree of noise:

- noise consonants (voiced [b, d, g, v, ð, z, 3, d3] and voiceless [p, t, k, f, θ, s, ò, tò]),

- sonorants [m, n, h, w, l, r, j];

b) according to the manner of articulation:

- occlusive, or plosive (in their production the air stream meets a complete obstruction in the mouth) [b, p, d, t, k, g, m, n, h];

- constrictive, or fricative ( the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction, so the air passage is constricted) [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, h, ò, 3, w, r, l, j];

- affricates (the air stream meets a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air escapes from the mouth with some friction) [d3, tò];

c) according to the place of articulation:

- labial (bilabial [p, b, m, w] and labio-dental [f, v]);

- lingual(forelingual interdental [ð, θ], dental [-], alveolar [t, d, s, z, n, l], post-alveolar [r], palato-alveolar [ò,3, d3, tò]; mediolingual [j], backlingual [k, g, h]);

- glottal [h].

 

 

Functions of Intonation.

The first approach.

1) The constitutive function: intonation forms sentences, which consist of intonation groups, characterized by a certain intonation pattern.

2) The distinctive function: intonation distinguishes communicative types of sentences, the speakers emotions and attitudes to the contents of the sentence, to the listener or to the topic of the conversation.

The second approach.

1) The sentence-forming (communicative) function: intonation, being a powerful means of human communication, indicates the communicative type of an utterance (a statement, a command, an exclamation).

2) The sentence-delimiting function: intonation delimits utterances and parts of utterances in the speech flow. The end of the sentence is recognized by a pause combined with a moving tone on the most important word of the sentence, the end of the non-final sense-group is recognized by a shorter pause.

3) The attitudinal function: intonation expresses the mood of the speaker, his attitude towards the situation and to the listener

 

 

Basic intonation patterns.

The great variety of possible patterns can be reduced to eight intonation contours based on eight main tones used in the nucleus. These tones when combined with different heads, tails and pre-heads give rise to a few significant variations of the intonation contours(IC).

IC-I based on Low Fall for the nucleus:

1. No Head

Falling Head + Low Fall - complete, final, definite, firm

High Level Head

Medium Level Head

2. Low Level Head + Low Fall - cool, calm, detached, reserved, disapproving

3. Stepping Head + Low Fall - categoric, weighty, serious, scolding

4. Sliding Head + Low Fall - concern, personal involvement

5. Scandent Head + Low Fall - self-satisfied, playful, joyful

l

IC-II based on High Fall for the nucleus:

1. No Head

Falling Head + High Fall - final, categoric, light, airy, brisk, interested

High Level Head

2. Rising Head + High Fall - protesting, irritated, disapproving

3. Stepping Head + High Fall - scolding, instructive, persuasive

4. Sliding Head + High Fall - intense emphatic variant

5. Scandent Head + High Fall - playful, self-satisfied, smug, awed, delighted

 

IC-III based on Low Rise for the nucleus:

  1. No head

Falling Head + Low Rise - non-categoric, encouraging further conversation

High Level Head

2. Low Level Head + Low Rise - guarded, critical, disapproving, wondering, resentful

3. Stepping Head + Low Rise - self-confident, disbelieving, reproachful, cold

 

IC-IV based on High Rise for the nucleus:

  1. No Head

Medium Level Head + High Rise - echoing, repeating, calling for the repetition

High Level Head

2. Rising Head + High Rise - unpleasant surprise, disapproving, threatening

 

IC-V based on Rise-Fall for the nucleus:

  1. No Head

Falling Head + Rise-Fall - impressed, awed, self-satisfied

High or Medium Level Head

2. stepping Head + Rise-Fall - censorious, antagonistic

 

IC-VI based on Fall-Rise for the nucleus:

1. No Head

Falling Head + Fall-Rise - contradicting, reproachful

2. High Level Head + High Fall-Rise - apologetic, appreciative, regretful, pleading

3. Low pre-head + Sliding Head + Fall-Rise - concerned, reproachful, hurt, regretful

We distinguish Fall-Rise undivided (when it occurs within one stressed syllable) and divided (when the fall occurs on one of the initial syllables of the intonation group and the rise on one of the final syllables; there may be stressed and unstressed words between the fall and the rise, but they are pronounced on a low pitch note).

 

IC-VII based on Rise-Fall-Rise has only occasional emphatic usage. It has the same attitude as in IC-VI, the emphasis being intensified.

 

IC-VIII based on Mid-Level in non-final intonation groups expresses non-finality, imply continuation. In final intonation groups it is rare.

The general shape of an intonation contour is in most cases clear enough from the pitches of the stressed syllables among which the nucleus is the most important one. The pitch of the unstressed syllables is important for the complete meaning of the utterance. It can express the attitudinal features or the emotional state of the speaker.

 

 

Assimilation.

By assimilation we understand a process of alteration of speech sounds as a result of which one of the sounds becomes fully or partially similar to the adjoining sound. Assimilation can affect the place of obstruction, the active organs of speech, the work of the vocal cords, the position of the lips, the position of the soft palate, the manner of the release of the plosive consonant.

Types of assimilation can be distinguished according to:

1. direction;

2. degree of completeness;

3. degree of stability.

Direction of assimilation.

When some articulatory features of the following sound are changed under the influence of the preceding sound, which remains unchanged, the assimilation is called progressive.

When the following sound influences the articulation of the preceding one the assimilation is called regressive.

When the adjacent sounds influence each other the assimilation is called reciprocal or double.

Degree of completeness.

Assimilation is called complete when two adjoining sound become alike or merge into one (cupboard). Assimilation is incomplete, when the likeness of the adjoining sounds is partial as the assimilated sound retains its major articulatory features (sweet).

Degree of stability.

We distinguish obligatory (historical) and non-obligatory (characteristic of fluent or careless speech) assimilation. Non-obligatory assimilation should be avoided by public speakers.

Non-obligatory assimilation.

Accidental or positional assimilations at word boundaries are made by English people in rapid colloquial speech. The alveolar consonants in word final position often assimilate to the place of articulation of the following word initial consonant: before p, b, m the consonant t changes into p, d changes into b, n changes into m. These cases need not be necessarily imitated by foreign learners of English.

 

 

Elision.

Elision means the dropping of a sound or sounds, either within a word or at a junction of words in rapid colloquial speech. Formal speech tends to retain the full form under the influence of spelling.

  1. A group of consonants may be reduced by an elision. We find an elision of t and d between two other consonants: friends [frenz], [frendz] is also possible.
  2. Pronouns with the initial h and the auxiliaries have, has, had lose h when they are unstressed within an utterance. [h] is pronounced in those words when they are initial in an utterance or when they are stressed.
  3. Clusters of two identical consonants: a double consonant at a word junction must not be reduced by elision (what time). The two consonants should be run together smoothly without a break.
  4. The elision of a consonant of a boundary cluster is regarded as a vulgarism (wonna, gonna, lemme, gimme).

In the following words the form reduced by elision is used in all kinds of speech:

Handbag, sandwich, handsome, grandchildren, grandparents, grandmother, landscape, landlord, grandfather, grandson, father and mother, brother and sister, here and there, bread and butter (in all these cases we observe the elision of [d]).

Notes:

  1. The reduction of some consonant clusters was established long ago. The initial w (write), k (know), g (gnaw) may be dropped.
  2. The final b is dropped in the cluster [mb]: climb.
  3. We say [ofn] in rapid colloquial speech and ['oftən] in careful, precise speech.
  4. The plosives [t] and [d] in the clusters [-st, -ft, -nd, ld, zd, etc.] in final position when followed by a word with an initial consonant are often reduced in rapid speech [la:s taim].

 

 

Aspiration.

[P, t, k] in initial position in a stressed syllable are accompanied by aspiration, i.e. a strong puff of breath in a voiceless interval after the explosion of [p, t, k] before a vowel. Aspiration is very strong before a strong long vowel or a diphthong; it is weaker before a short vowel. It is less noticeable before an unstressed vowel. If plosives are preceded by s there is hardly any aspiration at all.

Palatalization.

Palatalization is the process of softening of a consonant before front vowels, when the front part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate. It should be remembered that English consonants (except ) are not palatalized, but before front, close or mid-level vowels they are a bit clearer than before back vowels. To avoid Palatalization it should be kept in mind that the front part of the tongue should be raised only when the articulation of the consonant is accomplished.

The notion of dark and clear [l].

When pronounced before consonants and in final positions l is dark (in such cases the back part of the tongue is raised to the soft palate giving a dark to the sound).

When l occurs before vowels or the sonorant [j] it is clear (together with the tip of the tongue the front part of the tongue is raised to the hard palate).

Linking r.

When a word ending in [ ] is immediately followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the sound [r] is very often inserted at the end of it, joining it to the next word. When the ordinary spelling of the word ends in the letter r or re, the inserted r-sound is called a linking [r]. When there is no written r in spelling, the inserted r-sound is called an intrusive [r] (the idea [r] of it). Learners of English are generally not recommended to use intrusive [r], while the linking [r] is recognized as a typical feature of English Standard Pronunciation.

 

 

Reduction.

Reduction is a historical process of weakening, shortening and disappearance of vowel sounds in unstressed positions. The neutral sound represents the reduced form of almost any vowel in the unstressed position ([kəm'bain]), besides, the sounds [i] and [u] in the suffix ful are very frequent realizations of the unstressed positions (['bju:tiful]). There is also a tendency to retain the quality of the unstressed vowel sound (retreat, programme).

Non-reduced unstressed vowels are often retained in:

1) compound words (blackboard);

2) borrowings from other languages (kolkhoz).

Reduction is closely connected with word stress, rhythm and sentence-stress. Stressed words are pronounced with greater energy of breath. Regular loss of sentence-stress of certain words is connected with partial or complete loss of their lexical significance. These words play the part of form-words in a sentence. So reduction is realized in unstressed syllables within words and in unstressed form-words, auxiliary and modal verbs, personal and possessive pronouns within intonation groups.

There are three types of reduction noticed in English:

  1. Quantitative, that is shortening of a long vowel in the unstressed position ([hi: -hi].
  2. Qualitative, that is obscuration of vowels towards [ə, i, u], affects both long and short vowels ([kæn-kən]).

Vowels in unstressed form-words in most cases undergo both qualitative and quantitative reduction ([tu:-tu-tə]).

  1. Elision of vowels in the unstressed position (Im [aim]).

 

Strong and weak forms.

 

Words Strong forms Weak, reduced forms
the ði: ðə + C; ði + V
a ei + C; æn + V ə + C; ən + V
at æt ət
from from frəm
of ov əv
to tu: tə + C; tu + V
into intu: intə + C; intu + V
for fo: + C; fo:r + V fə + C; fər + V
you ju: ju
he hi: hi, i
she ò i: ò i
we wi: wi˙, wi
me mi: mi˙, mi
her hə: + C; hə:r + V hə˙, hə, ə + C; hər, ər + V
his hiz iz
him him im
us ^s əs, s
them ðem ðəm, əm
your jo: + C; jo:r +V jo˙, jo, jə +C; jo˙, jo, jə +V
our auə +C; auər + V aə +C; aər + V
be bi: bi
been bi:n bin
am æm əm
are a: +C; a:r +V a˙, ə +C; a˙r, ər +V
is iz iz, z, s
was woz wəz
were wə: +C; wə:r +V wə +C; wər +V
have hæv həv, əv, v
has hæz həz, əz, z/s
had hæd həd, əd, d
can kæn kən, kn
could kud kəd, kd
must m^st məst, məs
will wil l
would wud wəd, əd, d
shall òæl òəl, l
should òud òəd, òd
do du: du˙, du, də
does d^z dəz
and ænd ənd, ən, n
that ðæt ðət
but b^t bət
than ðæn ðən, ðn
as æz əz
or o: +C; o:r +V o˙, o, ə +C; o˙r, or, ə +V
to tu: tə+C; tu +V
there ðeə ðə +C; ðər +V

Words which bear the major part of information are generally stressed and are called content (or notional) words (nouns adjectives, notional verbs, adverbs, numerals, interrogative and demonstrative pronouns (in the function of the subject of a sentence). The other words in a sentence are mostly form (or structural) words which link the content words and in this way help to form an utterance (articles, prepositions, conjunctions, particles, auxiliary and modal verbs, personal and possessive pronouns). They are normally unstressed in a sentence, their weak reduced forms are generally used in speech.

Strong and weak forms.

Prepositions have their strong forms though they might remain unstressed:

1) at the very end of an intonation group or phrase (What are you looking at?).

2) at the end of an intonation group or phrase when they are followed by the unstressed pronoun (I am not `talking to you).

Polysyllabic prepositions followed by a pronoun at the end of a phrase are stressed as rule (Have a look `under it).

Auxiliary and modal verbs have their strong forms:

1) at the end of an intonation group or phrase whether stressed or not (Mary has [hæz].);

2) at the beginning of general and alternative questions in careful colloquial style (Can [kæn] you get it by tomorrow?);

3) in contracted negative forms (I dont [dount] know the man.).

The following form-words should be remembered as having no weak forms: what, where, when, how, which, on, in, with, then.

The verb to have used as a content verb in the meaning of to possess has no weak forms.

The demonstrative pronoun that is never reduced, while the conjunction that is. Neither are reduced the absolute forms of possessive pronouns.

All the form words, auxiliary and modal verbs, personal and possessive pronouns are generally stressed and consequently have their strong forms in case they become the logical centres of phrases.

Intonation of adjections.

Utterances may contain words, phrases or clauses (whether at the beginning of a sentence, in the middle or at the end) which are only partially related to the main subject-matter and without which the utterances remain grammatically complete. These are so called adjections which fall into three classes.

  1. Parentheses.

a) Initial parenthetical words are of introductory nature. They are used in order to gain time while the speaker is framing out his main remark, or they may show the speakers attitude towards the subject-matter: supposition, certainty, satisfaction. Initial parentheses form a separate intonation group, the choice of the nuclear tone is determined by the degree of semantic independence and importance attached to the parenthesis

- Normal/ High pre-head + High Level Head + Low Rise;

- + Low Fall ( sounds weighty, attaching more importance to the utterance);

- + Fall-Rise (additional emphasis or contrast)

- Initial parentheses which are linked very closely with the main remark as a rule do not form a separate intonation group (I suppose , I hope , I think, Im afraid etc). They may be stressed or partially stressed forming the pre-head of the tune, or they may have a full stress on the important word which becomes part of the head (well, now, but, oh, certainly, of course, etc).

b) Final parentheses summarize or add some details to the main remark. They are generally pronounced as an unstressed or partially stressed tail of the preceding intonation group. Additional prominence is achieved when parenthetical words in the final position are said as a part of the nucleus of a Falling-rising tune (divided).

c) Parentheses in the middle of the utterance usually convey a side thought, which the speaker wishes to communicate at once without waiting until he has finished the utterance. Parentheses are commonly inserted between two intonation groups, these intonation groups remain unchanged while the parenthesis forms an intonation group of its own, and it is pronounced on a lower pitch and with a quicker tempo than the main remark. A parenthesis may join the first intonation group as a tail or a part of the nucleus.

  1. Direct Address.

a) Initial DA calls the listeners attention to the subject-matter or to the fact that the remark concerns him personally. It usually forms a separate intonation group which may take any of the kinetic tones:

- Low Fall (shows the speakers serious attitude to what he is going to say; used in addressing an audience at the beginning of a formal speech);

- Low Rise (at the beginning of an informal speech);

- Fall-Rise (in friendly informal conversations; sometimes though it may suggest a warning or a wish to single out the person named from a number of others).

b) Final and Medial DA does not serve to attract the listeners attention. It is added as an expression of politeness, affection or criticism. It is therefore unstressed or partially stressed and forms the tail of the tune. DA in the final position may be pronounced as a part of the nucleus of a Falling-Rising tune. In this case the utterance sounds warmer and the address becomes more prominent.

C. Intonation of Reporting Phrases and Reported Speech.

Reporting phrases, or authors words are used in conversational passages, in novels, and also in live conversations to a very small extent.

a) Initial RP generally form a separate intonation group.

- The Mid-Level (Static) tone is widely used on these phrases, when the stressed syllable of the most important word is pronounced on a steady (unmoving) pitch. Here a static tone is used as a nuclear tone. It shows that the intonation group is semantically incomplete and leads on to the more important part of the utterance.

- Low Rise is also commonly used on initial RP. It shows that the RP is semantically incomplete without the quoted speech.

- Fall-Rise (D) is used instead of a Low Rise when a RP contains a word contrasting in meaning to another word in the given context.

- High/Low Fall can be used on a RP when it is semantically and grammatically complete in itself. It is possible to use the Falling nuclear tone on a semantically incomplete RP only if it requires special emphasis.

b) Final RP form the tail of the tune of the quoted speech. Its pitch pattern therefore is determined by the nuclear tone of the quoted speech (a rising or low tail). The RP may form part of an expanded nucleus Fall-Rise (D). The important word of the RP carries the rise of the Falling-Rising tone. This intonation pattern is commonly used to express pattern.

Intonation of Reported Speech.

In RS the RP generally form the first (non-final) intonation group of an utterance and it may take nuclear tones Low Rise, Fall-Rise, high Fall, while the RS forms the following (final) intonation group. ARP may not form an intonation group and then the first word of it, important enough to take a full stress, becomes the head of the whole utterance, or otherwise it is pronounced as its pre-head (unstressed or partially stressed).

 

 

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1-2 - .

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2002

 

Contents

 

1. The science of phonetics.   2. Intonation. The main components of intonation.   3. Functions of intonation.   4. Anatomy of intonation patterns. Types of heads, pre-heads, tails.   5. Basic intonation patterns.   6. Assimilation.   7. Elision.   8. Aspiration. Palatalisation. Linking r.   9. Reduction.   10. Intonation in simple sentences:   a) intonation of statements;   b) intonation of general questions;   c) intonation of special questions;   d) intonation of alternative questions;   e) intonation of disjunctive questions;   d) intonation of imperatives;   e) intonation of exclamations;   f) intonation of adverbial phrases;   g) intonation of enumeration.   11.Intonation of adjections.   12. Intonation of compound and complex sentences.   13. The structure of the phonetic analysis of a sentence.                                

 

 

The science of phonetics.

Phonetics is the science of speech sounds, their production (articulation) and the signs used to represent them (transcription).

The English language consists of 26 letters and 44 sounds, with 6 vowel letters but 20 vowel sounds.

In any language people speak using their organs of speech. The scheme of the sound production is as follows: lungs → wind-pipe → vocal cords → pharynx → uvula → soft palate → hard palate → teeth ridge → lower and upper teeth → tongue (tip, blade, front, back) → lips.

The organs of speech are divided into active (moveable): the vocal cords, the tongue, the lips, the soft palate; and passive: the teeth, the teeth ridge, the hard palate.

Studying the phonetic structure of a language we deal with phonemes. A phoneme is the smallest language unit which exists in the speech of all people belonging to the same language community in the form of speech sounds and may bring about a change of meaning. Sounds are what we actually pronounce, phonemes are abstract, sounds are concrete. The phoneme is realized in speech in the material form of speech sounds of different type. Various speech realizations of the phoneme are called its allophones. The difference between the allophones of the same phoneme is due to their position in various phonetic contexts (i.e. in the word breadth the sound [d] is dental under the influence of the interdental [θ] , in the word dry the sound [d] is post-alveolar under the influence of the post-alveolar [r]).

The classification of the English phonemes:

a) Vowels are voiced sounds produced without any obstruction and have no noise component.

b) Consonants have noise producing obstruction in their articulation.

The classification of the English vowels:

a) according to the stability of articulation:

- monophthongs are vowels the articulation of which is almost unchanging [e];

- diphthongs are vowels in the pronunciation of which the organs of speech glide from one vowel position to another within one syllable [ei]. It consists of the nucleus (strong and distinct) and the glide (weak). There are no diphthongs in Russian;

- diphthongoids are vowels the articulation of which is slightly changing but the difference between the starting point and the end is not so distinct ([i:, u:]).

b) according to the tongue position the vowels may be:

- when the tongue moves forward and backward front [i:, e, æ], front-retracted [i], central [^, ə:, ə], back [a:, o, o:, u:], back-advanced [u];

- when the tongue moves up and down close [i:, i, u, u:], mid [e, ^, ə:, ə], open [æ, a:, o, o:];

c) according to the lip position:

- unrounded vowels (the lips are neutral),

- rounded vowels (the lips are drawn together so that the opening between them is more or less rounded) [u, u:, o, o:];

d) according to the vowel length all the monophthongs are divided into long [i:, u:, a:, o:, ə:] and short [I, e, o, u, ^, ə].

 

The classification of the English consonants:

a) according to the degree of noise:

- noise consonants (voiced [b, d, g, v, ð, z, 3, d3] and voiceless [p, t, k, f, θ, s, ò, tò]),

- sonorants [m, n, h, w, l, r, j];

b) according to the manner of articulation:

- occlusive, or plosive (in their production the air stream meets a complete obstruction in the mouth) [b, p, d, t, k, g, m, n, h];

- constrictive, or fricative ( the air stream meets an incomplete obstruction, so the air passage is constricted) [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, h, ò, 3, w, r, l, j];

- affricates (the air stream meets a complete obstruction which is slowly released and the air escapes from the mouth with some friction) [d3, tò];

c) according to the place of articulation:

- labial (bilabial [p, b, m, w] and labio-dental [f, v]);

- lingual(forelingual interdental [ð, θ], dental [-], alveolar [t, d, s, z, n, l], post-alveolar [r], palato-alveolar [ò,3, d3, tò]; mediolingual [j], backlingual [k, g, h]);

- glottal [h].

 

 

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