What are the differences in meaning, if any between these statements?

1. Wear protective clothing.

2. Always wear protective clothing.

3. Protective clothing must be worn.


We can make safety rules in these ways:

1. Using an imperative. Wear protective clothing. Do not wear loose-fitting clothing.

2. Always/ never are used to emphasize that the rule holds in all cases. Always wear protective clothing. Never wear loose-fitting clothing.

3. We can use a modal verb for emphasis. Protective clothing must be worn. Protective clothing should be worn.


Step 6.

Study this list of unsafe environmental conditions (hazards). Write safety rules to limit these hazards using the methods given above.

For example:

inadequate lighting

Lighting must be adequate or lighting should be adequate.

1. Uneven floors

2. Unguarded machinery

3. Untidy workbenches

4. Untidy workplaces

5. Badly maintained machinery

6. Carelessly stored dangerous materials

7. Inadequate ventilation

8. Damaged tools and equipment

9. Machinery in poor condition

10. Equipment used improperly

11. Equipment operated by untrained personnel

12. Apprentices working without supervision.


Writing ways of linking ideas.


To make our writing effective, we have to make sure our readers can follow our ideas We learnt how to mark reasons, results, and contrasts in our writing.

What are the links between these ideas? What words can we use to mark the links?

1. The accident happened.

2. The operators carelessness.

3. The supervisor was not present.

Sentence 2 is a reason for sentence 1. Sentence 3 is an additional reason.

We can mark the links between them like this.

The accident happened because of the operators carelessness. In addition moreover, the supervisor was not present.

We use because of to introduce a reason, which is a noun or noun phrase.

We use in addition and moreover to introduce an additional reason.

What are links between these ideas? What words can we use to mark the links?

4. Suitable protection should be worn.

5. Safety helmets should be used where there is a danger of falling objects.

Sentence 5 is an example to illustrate sentence 4. We can mark this in this way :

Suitable protection should be worn. For example / For instance, safety helmets should be used where there is a danger of falling objects.


Step 7.

Show the links between these sets of ideas using appropriate linking words.

1 Many accidents happen. Workers carelessness.

2 Education can reduce accidents. It is important that all workers receive training in basic safety.

3 Eye injuries can be serious.

Goggles must be worn for grinding and cutting.

4 Safety, gloves provide protection for the hands. They prevent burns. They reduce the danger of cuts.

5 Safety shoes protect the feet against falling objects. They prevent the feet getting caught in machinery.

6 Respirators should be worn in dusty conditions. Dust can damage the lungs.

7. Safety gear lists for every danger. Each year people are injured. They refuse or forget to wear the right gear.






Step 1.

List some of the jobs in engineering. Combine your list with others in your group.

Step 2.

Work in groups of three. A, B, and C. Scan your section of this text A, B, or C. How many of the jobs in the combined list you made in Task 1 are mentioned in your section?




Professional engineers may work as:

Design engineers: They work as part of a team to create new products and extend the life of old products by updating them and finding new applications for them. Their aim is to build quality and reliability into the design and to introduce new components and materials to make the product cheaper, lighter, or stronger.

Installation engineers. They work on the customers premises to install equipment produced by their company.

Production engineers: They ensure that the production process is efficient, that materials are handled safely and correctly, and that faults that occur in production are corrected. The design and development departments consult with them to ensure that any innovations proposed are practicable and cost-effective.




Just below the professional engineers are the technician engineers. They require a detailed knowledge of a particular technology, electrical, mechanical, electronic, etc. They may lead teams of engineering technicians. Technician engineers and engineering technicians may work as:

Test / Laboratory technicians. They test samples of the materials and of the product to ensure quality is maintained.

Installation and service technicians. They ensure that equipment sold by the company is installed correctly and carry out preventative maintenance and essential repairs.

Production planning and control technicians: They produce the manufacturing instructions and organize the work of production so that it can be done as quickly, cheaply, and efficiently as possible.

Inspection technicians. They check and ensure that incoming and outgoing components and products meet specifications.

Debug technicians. They fault find, repair and test equipment and products down to component level.

Draughtsmen/women and designers. They produce the drawings and design documents from which the product is manufactured.




The next grade is craftsmen/women. Their work is highly skilled and practical. Craftsmen and women may work as:

Toolmakers: They make dies and molding tools which are used to punch and form metal components and produce plastic components such as car bumpers.

Fitters. They assemble components into larger products.

Maintenance fitters. They repair machinery.

Welders: They do specialized joining, fabricating, and repair work. Electricians They wire and install electrical equipment.

Operators require fewer skills. Many operator jobs consist mainly of minding a machine, especially now that more and more processes are auto- mated. However, some operators may have to check components produced by their machines to ensure they are accurate. They may require training in the use of instruments such as micrometers, venires, or simple go/no go gauges.

Source: Adapted from S.Moss and A.S.watts. Careers in Engineering, 3rd edition.


Step 3

Combine answers with the others in your group. How many of the jobs listed in Task 1 are mentioned in the whole text?


Step 4

Who would be employed to:

1. Test completed motors from a production line?

2. Find out why a new electronics assembly does not work?

3. Produce a mold for car body part?

4. See that the correct test equipment is available on a production line?

5. Find a cheaper way of manufacturing a crankshaft?

6. Repair heating systems installed by their company?

7. See that a new product is safe to use?

8. Commission a turbine in a power station?


Reading Inferring from Samples.

In Step 5 below and in Step 7, you are asked to infer from a small sample of text information that is not clearly stated. Use the clues in the piles and knowledge you have gained from the text Jobs in engineering.


Step 5.

As a group, try to identify the jobs of the workers from their statements.

We perform standard chemical and physical tests on samples, usually as a result of complaint from inspectors on the production line. We are an important part of production. We have the authority to stop the line if we find something seriously wrong. Its interesting work, and were able to move around from test to test and chat. Sometimes, admittedly, the work gets a bit repetitive.

All machinists can be difficult. The older blokes especially dont like me telling them their work isnt good enough and instructing them to do it again. One or two of them seem to think the inspector is always out to get them. Im constantly having to clam things down.

We measure up the components to see that are the right size and shape, and we make any minor adjustments ourselves with hand tools or power tools. All along, parts will need adjusting slightly and you have to check things at each stage with measuring instruments and gauges. You have to get a feel for it clearances have to be just right. Otherwise thing wont fit together.

I find my job a very satisfying one. Its never easy to say exactly why one likes a job. I think the basic thing I get out of my profession at the moment is the creativity that is involved in design work. You start from square one with a plain sheet of paper. You draw a component. You design something and perhaps a few months later you can see the end product. And you get told whether or not your design works! I think its that aspect that I foremost satisfying.

I enjoy my job. I really like doing the same thing every day exactly the same job. You know what to look for and how things should be. You know how the machine or the machines runs when a machine is working properly and when there is something wrong which it. I really like the routine. I dont have dreams of becoming a supervisor or anything like that. Im just content running my machine.

My company makes desalination equipment. It takes the salt out of sea water so it can be used for drinking and irrigation. A lot of our customers are in the Middle East. I have to go there whenever new equipment is being set up to make sure its properly installed and everything is running OK. Source (quotations 1-5): T. May, people at work: at a light engineering plant.


Speaking practice.


Role play.

Step 6.

Work in pairs, A and B. Each of you has profiles of three workers in a light engineering plant, which supplies car electrical components such as starter motors, fuel pumps, and alternators.

Play the part of one of these workers and be prepared to answer questions from your partner about your work. Your partner must try to identify your job form your replies.

In turn, find out about your partner.

Do not give your partner your job title until he or she found out as much information as possible and has made a guess at your occupation. Try to find out:

1. Age.

2. Education.

3. Qualification.

4. Nature of work.

5. Who she/he is responsible to.

6. What she/he feels about her/his work.

Before you start, work out with your partner useful questions to obtain this information.


Step 7.

Read the workers talks about their jobs. Try to match each extract to one of these jobs.

1. Methods engineer.

2. System analyst.

3. Toolmaker.

4. Machine tool development fitter.

5. Foreman/women.

6. Applications engineer.


1. One of the reasons I enjoy my job is that its always changing. There is always something new in engineering and thats one of the things I like about it. In this factory, where weve got several different types of machining, we ca get to know a lot about a lot of different machines and thats what I enjoy most of all.

2. I really enjoy the job. I like working with my hands as I always have. And I really like seeing a finished product. I like taking care over making it and making it look nice.

3. As for the other side of my job the not so good side theres only one thing that gives me no pleasure and thats the inevitable need for the disciplining of others. Its always very difficult to say to someone, Thats enough! Youve got to go! But its necessary sometimes and it has got to be done. You cant shirk it, but I cant disguise the fact that its not something that I ever enjoy doing.

4. In my job you could be working all hours of the day or night. If a system is needed urgently, there is no question of knocking off at the usual time. You can find yourself working through the night.

5. At present were busy getting sample pumps ready for a customer so that we can do some endurance tests to see whether theyre capable of doing what the customer expects of them. From the test I do, I have to assess whether or not the pumps can go to the customer.

6. Basically, we look after the production of parts. We do the planning for every new component; how theyre going to be manufacturedwhat methods and what machines are going to be used to make them.

Were also responsible for specifying new equipment and new machines gauges, tooling, modifications to tooling and gauges, and we generally look after production. We have to make sure everything runs smoothly. There is there has to be a good liaison between a foreman and ourselves so that if he has a problem of some kind, he knows where he can come to get it salved. And when he does come hopefully we can usually sort it out for him.




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