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Read the text given below. Choose the most suitable heading from the list (AF) for each part (15). There is one heading you do not need to use.

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Examination Card #1

I. Reading

Read the text given below. Choose the most suitable heading from the list (AF) for each part (15). There is one heading you do not need to use.

A.A watery grave.

B.Running out of time.

C.Choking to death.

D.Nature can heal.

E.No trees no life.

F.We can do it!

We have spent thousands of years fighting for our survival. Yet now we have discovered that our planet is under threat and, to make matters worse, its all our fault.

(1) .....

The rainforests are dying, rare plant and animal species are disappearing, rivers and seas are being contaminated, crops are failing to grow, people are dying of hunger and the air is being polluted. Its time we woke up to these problems and started repairing the damage.

(2) .....

One of the major problems is the destruction of the rainforests in South America. They are home to half the worlds species and to millions of people. Moreover, the rainforests clean the air by absorbing carbon dioxide and giving out oxygen. The trees are being cut down for paper or to make room for cattle farms. As a result, birds and animals lose their homes and die. This destruction is also bringing about changes in the climate, air pollution, flooding, drought and famine. If we continue to burn and cut down the rainforests as we are doing now, the earth will never be the same again.

(3) .....

Another big problem is water pollution. Do you like swimming in the sea or drinking a cool glass of water on a hot day? These simple pleasures may soon become a thing of the past. Factories are polluting our rivers and lakes with dangerous chemicals. Oil tankers are releasing thick, black oil into our oceans.

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Tons and tons of industrial and domestic waste are poured into our seas. Consequently, sea life is threatened with extinction.

(4) .....

Air pollution is another important issue. The cars and factories in and around our cities are giving off dangerous fumes. In the past few years, more and more people than ever before have developed allergies and breathing problems. If we dont do something now, our cities will become impossible to live in.

(5) .....

Fortunately, it is not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to prepare the way for a better, cleaner and safer future. We can plant trees and adopt animals. We can create parks for endangered species. We can put pressure on those in power to take action. Together we can save our planet. All we need to do is open our eyes and act immediately.

         

II. Writing

Fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the verb (past simple and past continuous).

1. Claudia (learn) ............ ............ to be a chef when she (win) ............ a national recipe contest.

2. Jake (enjoy) ............ ............ the old car show so much, he (do, not, remember) ............ ............ ............ that he had an appointment.

3. The band members (play) ............ ............ a concert when Adriennes clarinet (squeak) ............ . She (feel) ............ embarrassed.

4. The Apollo 13 astronauts (prepare) ............ ............ to land on the Moon when they (discover) ............ a problem with the spaceship.

5. Caroline (try) ............ ............ to find a job in Portland when she (hear) ............ about a great opportunity in Orlando.

6. You (sail) ............ ............ near Barbados when your ship (strike) ............ a sand bar; you (do, not, like) ........... ........... ........... waiting for help to come.

Examination Card #1


You are going to spend three days with your friends in London. Youve just received an email from your English friend asking you about the time of your arrival and the places youd like to visit. Write an email of 5060 words including the following points:

arrival details and the name of the airport;

a chosen programme.


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Examination Card #2

I. Reading

Read the text given below. For questions (14), choose the best answers (A, B, C, D).

What was the main purpose of the Girl Scouts?

 A to give girls the chance to get involved in their community and the outdoors.

 Bto give girls opportunities to do performances in the theatre.

C to give girls a chance to improve their language ability.

D to help girls with business and education.

Where did Robert Baden-Powell live?

 ASavannah BEngland CGeorgia DAmerica

Examination Card #2


For questions 16, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

The most frustrating part of being a tour guide is guiding people who dont understand what they have got themselves into. After so many years at this (1) ....., I have realised that people travel to different places without taking their interests into account. For instance, if you need to go to a museum at home, what makes you think you will (2)..... one in another country and not be (3) .....? I lead wildlife tours and some people turn (4) ..... not to be interested in wildlife and constantly complain about walking in the woods! Well, what can you say? Its amazing how many people (5) ..... or dont read the literature at all and (6) ..... for something completely different.

           

 

Examination Card #2


You have read the letter in the Internet blog in which the person from an Englishspeaking country is looking for a pen friend. Write a short letter (5060 words) to this person including the following information:

Give your name, age and nationality.

Say what you like doing and why you are writing.

Ask the person to write you about the same things.


 

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Examination Card #3

I. Reading

Read the text given below. For questions (14), choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

MY BRILLIANT BRAIN

Geniuses amaze us, impress us, and make us all a little jealous. How do they differ from an average person? Scientists are working hard to figure out that answer. Tune in to the National Geographic Channel to find out about the discoveries theyre making in the series My Brilliant Brain.

When Marc Yu was only two years old, he began to play the piano. After a year, he started learning pieces by Beethoven. Now hes a world-renowned concert pianist at the age of eight. He learns newer and more difficult pieces with ease and can identify any note he hears. He seems to be specially designed for music. In Born Genius, National Geographic looks at the science behind child prodigies to explain why some children seem to be born without limits.

Genius didnt come naturally to Tommy McHugh. His extraordinary abilities came only after he nearly died from bleeding in his brain. After recovering, McHughs head was filled with new thoughts and pictures. So, he began to express them in the form of poetry and art. Now, hes a seemingly unstoppable creative machine. Sufferers of autism and brain injury have shown that great mental ability can sometimes come from damage or disease. Accidental Genius explores this puzzling relationship.

Can normal people be trained to be geniuses? Susan Polger has shown no signs of extraordinary intelligence. Yet, during her childhood, she studied thousands of chess patterns and learned to recognize them immediately. As a result, she was able to beat skilled adult players by the age of 10 and can now play up to five games at the same time without even seeing the boards. Make Me a Genius examines what it takes to turn an ordinary brain into that of a genius.

If becoming a genius were easy, wed all be one. Yet, there is much more to super intelligence than simply being born lucky. Learn more about amazing brains this month on National Geographics My Brilliant Brain.

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A Theres no such thing as a true genius.

B People can only be born as geniuses.

C Scientists completely understand the brain.

DThere are many factors in being a genius.

2. An example of a child prodigy is ..... .

Aa person who can do complex math at a young age.

B a kid who works really hard to do well at school.

C a student who practises an instrument a lot.

D a child who is eager to learn new things.

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3. Toni and David (name) .......... .......... .......... .......... the baby Melinda.

4. Everyone is hungry. I (get) .......... .......... some doughnuts for breakfast.

5. Peter, (fix).......... you .......... the chair tomorrow?

6. Eduardo (marry) .......... .......... .......... .......... Carmen in June.

Examination Card #4

I. Reading

Read the text given below. For questions (16), choose from the places mentioned in the tour (AD) as in the example. The places may be chosen more than once.

The Pacific Paradise Tour took us to California, on the west coast of the United States, and to the Hawaiian islands in the Pacific Ocean. With beautiful countryside, exciting cities and fantastic beaches, this holiday had everything.

The first place we stopped at was San Francisco, in northern California. This city is famous for its cable cars and it certainly needs them because San Francisco is extremely hilly and has some very steep roads! By the sea, next to the fishing boats, there are the fish restaurants. Here we enjoyed watching the street actors and musicians as we ate delicious fresh fish. One thing well never forget is the Golden Gate Bridge, which is very big and beautiful.

The next city on the tour was Los Angeles. This city is very exciting and has some very famous attractions. The nearby beaches are long and sandy and the mountains outside the city are high and dry. We visited the beach where they were filming Baywatch. We also went to Disneyland where we saw E.T. and shook hands with Mickey Mouse. After that they took us to Hollywood to see the houses of the stars who have made a lot of films and a lot of money!

The last place we visited in California was San Diego, a city with sun, sand, sea and all kinds of watersports. We went to the San Diego Zoo which is one of the worlds largest zoos. We also visited Mexico, which is only a short drive away from San Diego.

Finally, we went to Hawaii. Its paradise! We sat on golden beaches with green palm trees and watched amazing red sunsets. We also saw colourful fish at Sea Life Park and went snorkelling in Hanauma Bay. In the evenings we enjoyed the lively clubs, bars and ice-cream parlours. Best of all, we ate fantastic Hawaiian food while watching Hawaiian people performing traditional Polynesian dances.

This holiday was fantastic. So when you have time, get on the first plane to the west coast of The United States and have the time of your life!

Examination Card #4


A San Francisco

B Los Angeles

C San Diego

DHawaii

0. The city is built on hills.

1. There is a famous theme park.

2. It is very close to another country.

3. The local food is delicious.

4. Entertainers perform as you eat.

5. You can see the homes of famous people.

6. You can see interesting creatures under the sea.

           

II. Writing

Examination Card #4


A Although  B However  C But  D Whereas

           

Youve received a letter from your English pen-friend in which he asks you what you would like to achieve after you leave school. Write him / her a reply letter (5060 words) answering his / her questions:

Is success important to you? Why? / Why not?

Does success mean the same as happiness? Why? / Why not?


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Examination Card #5

I. Reading

Read the text given below. For questions (14), choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

One of my favourite Thanksgiving dinners when I was growing up wasnt even turkey; it was pizza. We were supposed to go to my aunts house for dinner, but my sister and I woke with colds, so we couldnt go. This was before grocery stores were open 24 hours, so my mother had to feed us the only food we had in the house: a frozen pizza. She was upset, but for my sister and me, there was something gloriously naughty about not having turkey for Thanksgiving. Between coughing and sneezing, we enjoyed our rebellious pizza and couldnt wait to tell our friends about it.

At another Thanksgiving, I walked into the kitchen to help my mother serve the turkey and we both saw the possible disaster at the same time: the cat on the kitchen counter next to the turkey. I will never forget the sight of my mothers horrified face as we listened to the guests in the next room blissfully unaware of the turkeyless possibilities. There was a long pause as she weighed her options. My mother swore me to secrecy and we served the turkey. She never told anyone else why she threw half of it away. She told me that was just a precaution, because as she slowly explained, she didnt really think the cat had actually touched the turkey but she didnt want anyone to eat something that had cat breath on it. (Uh oh, you wont tell my relatives will you?)

Another favourite Thanksgiving of mine was the first one that my husband cooked when we were newlyweds. My husband had proudly decided that he would cook the turkey. He was excited about doing it until he realized that in order for us to eat at lunch time he would have to get up at 5:30 AM to put the turkey in. Mens need to carve turkeys always amuses me. Did you ever notice that men can lounge all day in front of the television doing nothing to help with dinner, but they spring to action when the turkey is set on the table. Suddenly the women who have been cutting, chopping and peeling for hours (sometimes days) cant be trusted to hold sharp objects. Only men can carve the sacred bird.

Every year on Thanksgiving, I consider cooking something different: maybe ham or roastbeef, but I cant quite bring myself to change the tradition. But I always make sure to have a frozen pizza just in case.

Examination Card #5


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5. My eldest sister is ....... holiday in the Crimea. She will be there ....... a week.

6. This book was published ....... August 1984.

Some parents dont think that schoolchildren should enter TV talent shows. Do you agree with them or not? What are the advantages and disadvantages of entering talent contests while still at school? Give reasons for your answer. Write 5060 words.


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Examination Card #8

I. Reading

Read the text given below. For questions (14), choose the best answers (A, B, C or D).

Nepal, a small, mountainous country tucked between India and China, may seem completely foreign to Americans. Cows walk down busy streets unharmed, 24 different languages are spoken, and people eat two meals of rice and lentils every day. Nepali holidays, many of which are related to the Hindu religion, can seem especially bizarre to Americans unfamiliar with this culture.

However, if we look beyond how others celebrate to consider the things they are celebrating, we find surprising similarities to American culture. The biggest holiday in Nepal is Dashain, a ten-day festival for the Hindu goddess Durga that takes place in September or October. According to Hindu beliefs, Durga defeated the evil demons of the world. To thank the goddess, people visit temples in her honour and sacrifice goats or sheep as offerings. Throughout the year, most Nepalis do not eat much meat because it is expensive, but Dashain is a time to enjoy meat every day. Children fly colourful, home made kites during Dashain. People also construct enormous bamboo swings on street corners and in parks. Every evening people gather at these swings and take turns swinging. Nepalis say that by swinging, people can relieve the earth of their weight. Dashain is a time for people to eat good food, relax, and enjoy themselves!

Aside from eating and enjoying themselves, during Dashain people also receive blessings from their elders. Schools and offices shut down so people can travel to be with their families. Reuniting with family reminds people of the importance of kindness, respect, and forgiveness. People clean and decorate their homes for Dashain. It is also a time for shopping. Children and adults alike get new clothes for the occasion. People express appreciation for all that they have, while looking forward to good fortune and peace in the year to come.

During American holidays, people may not sacrifice goats or soar on bamboo swings, but they do often travel to be with family members and take time off work or school to relax. No matter how they celebrate, many people around the world spend their holidays honouring family, reflecting on their blessings, and hoping for good fortune in the future.

Examination Card #8


Examination Card #8


1. (You, be)............ ............ ............ to Africa before? I (hear)............ ............ it is beautiful there. I would like to go on a safari in Kenya.

2. The letter you sent me (not, arrive)............ ............ ............ yet. I (check)............ ............ my mailbox for it every day. I wonder where it could be.

Your English-speaking friend is interested in your hobby. Write him an email of 5060 words telling about your hobby. Include the following:

What are the most popular free time activities among Ukrainian teenagers?

What is your hobby and why do you like it?

What advice would you give to your friend who wanted to take it up?


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Examination Card #9

I. Reading

Read the text given below. For questions (14), choose the best answer (A, B or C).

As a teenager growing up in a small town in Oregon in the 1950s, I had no desire to finish high school. For one thing, my dad never finished. Also, my big ambition in life was to be a cartoonist, and I was, in fact, already selling some of my cartoons to small magazines. My hero, Walt Disney, had never finished high school, and I felt that if he could quit and succeed, so could I. But my mother would never hear of it, so, I continued to go.

In about my sophomore year I began to sell cartoons to a small magazine in Thousand Oaks, California. It was called Computer News and was a trade journal about the computers of that time. These were nothing like the laptops we know today ... they were huge Univac computers which filled an entire room. I knew nothing about them, but still somehow managed to come up with cartoons about them.

In my correspondence with the editor, Mr. Jackson Granholm, I mentioned my desire to quit high school and go into cartooning full time. He wrote back urging me to stay in school, spouting off all the reasons why school was important. To convince him I knew better, I told him about how Walt Disney had quit.

A few weeks later, I was standing at the mailbox, waiting to see if any magazines had bought any of the cartoons I had recently submitted. When the mail came I was quite surprised to see one letter addressed to me from Walt Disney studios.

It was from their personnel department, and I was sure it was a job offer. Not so. They told me that Mr. Jackson Granholm had contacted them on my behalf and explained my attitude about finishing high school. They advised me very strongly to stay in high school, pointing out that they never even considered applicants without a high school education and preferred some college.

It took the winds out of my sails, but I guess it taught me two things: I was no Walt Disney, and times had changed. I finished high school, and went on for two years of college. Years later I worked for Walt Disney studios, as well as a couple of other major film studios, plus I have been doing cartooning on a

Examination Card #9


freelance basis for years. To date I have been published in hundreds of publications, so I admit the college education was no deterrent at all.

Choose the correct answer.

1. She ............. him that she would be late.

A tells  B said  C told

2. He ran ............. the thieves, but they got away.

Aafter  B across  Caway

3. Excuse me, could you ............. me the way to the bank, please?

A tell  B told  Csay

4. I cant decide ............. which outfit to wear.

Afrom  B of  C on

5. They ............. to hit us if we didnt give them the money.

Aoffered  Bthreatened  C suggested

6. This is the man ............. car was stolen last week.

Awhich  B who  C whose

7. I ............. good morning to him, but he ignored me.

A say  B said  Ctold

Examination Card #9


8. My pen has run ............. ink, so I cant finish this letter.

Aaway  B into  C out of

               

You have been invited by your friend to spend the weekend in his grandfathers house in the village. Write a letter (5060 words) accepting this invitation. Include the following:

thank for the invitation and accept it;

ask about the region where the village is situated;

ask about the activities you are going to do.


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Examination Card #10

I. Reading

Examination Card #10


           

II. Writing

For questions 18, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best fits each gap.

Like tens of thousands of other people, I use public transport every day either to get to and from work or to go from one place to another. So I can (1) ...... myself as a frequent user of the transport system, and to be (2) ...... sometimes Id (3) ...... I wasnt.

I have to admit that there are times when it can be a very tiring and frustrating experience, (4) ...... because of the way the other passengers behave. Some push and shove to squeeze in while others try to make their way to the doors in order to get off. And there I am, in a confined (5) ...... with lots of frantic people around me, having difficulty breathing.

Isnt it (6) ...... the law to fill up buses with so many people? I believe that there should be (7) ...... laws as to how many passengers should be allowed on a bus. This may sound a little unrealistic, but I have been on buses in potentially dangerous situations, where people have fallen on each other because they didnt have anything to hold (8) ...... .

               

 

You have invited your English-speaking friend to spend Christmas holidays with you in Ukraine. Write an email of 5060 words including the following points:

Examination Card #10


weather in December and January;

Ukrainian Christmas traditions;

activities you are going to do.

 


 

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Examination Card #14

I. Reading

Examination Card #14


       

 

II. Writing

Examination Card #18

I. Reading

Read the text given below. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) to complete the sentences (15).

Wearing a bright yellow jumpsuit, white face paint, and a long-sleeved red and white shirt, he isnt a new fashion icon. His bright red hair, nose, and mouth make him natural in his position as the Chief Happiness Officer for the McDonalds Corporation. As the mascot for the company, Ronald McDonald is easily recognized by 96 percent of schoolchildren in the US. For the most part, this spokesclown is loved, and helps improve company recognition, which in turn, translates into increased profits.

Mascots have existed for thousands of years. Historically, they have been animals that men admired. Native American Indians carved mascots into their totem poles, hoping to attain a cheetahs speed or a bears strength. Even now, mascots are symbolic of the qualities we would like to possess.

For the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, China has chosen mascots known as the Five Friendlies. Each of the four animals (fish, panda, antelope, and swallow) represents a unique athletic ability and offers a special blessing from China to the world. At the center of the group stands Huanhuan the Olympic flame, representing passion for sport and the unity of all nations through the Olympic Games.

In sports, teams treasure their mascots and often view them as lucky charms. In business, mascots are used to attract attention and impact a customers perception about a company. Fast-food icon Ronald McDonald can attest to this fact.

Examination Card #18


D He helps to prepare delicious burgers.

Examination Card #18


4.By the time I arrived, the lesson ................................................... (already/start).

5.Im lost. I ..................................... (drive) around here for an hour.

6.They ............................ (stand) on the platform for an hour when the train came.

7.They ............................................ (show) a new comedy at the cinema this week.

8.Lilian ............................... (seldom/be)late for work.

9.The mechanic ............................................. (repair) my car at the moment.

10.My parents ................................. (just/move) to a beautiful house in the country.

Write a letter (5060 words) to your foreign friend who is planning to visit Ukraine in July. Tell him / her about:

the possibility to stay in your flat;

the places you recommend to visit;

the best places to do the shopping.


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Examination Card #23

I. Reading

Examination Card #23


terms of entertainment as well as job prospects. Thus, these people are willing to leave their hometown in search of a better life.

(4) .....

In Great Britain, some people from the poorer districts move to the richer districts for work. This movement however is not permanent. One such case is the seasonal migration of the Irish harvesters. These people move to England and Scotland during the corn and potato harvest seasons. They gather these crops as a means of supplementing their income.

(5) .....

The Eskimos of Canada also move from one place to another according to the changes in season. In spring, the Eskimos will move to places near lakes to hunt for wild ducks. During the summer, the ice in the river will have melted. These people will then move to places near the rivers to catch fish. When autumn approaches, the Eskimos will then move towards the dry tundra to hunt for the meat and skin of the caribou. In winter, the Eskimos will head south to the small town such as Eskimo Point and Churchill to sell their goods and buy the necessities that they require.

         

 

II. Writing

Examination Card #23


           

 

You are going to write a letter (5060 words) to your English pen-friend about your last holiday which you spent at the seaside with some of your classmates. The holiday was spoiled by several things. Write about them:

poor weather;

problems with accommodation, such as noise, dirty rooms and unfriendly staff;

arguments over what to do, such as sightseeing or sunbathing.


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Examination Card #26

I. Reading

Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C, D) for the sentences (14).

I mean what I say: science in education, not education in science. Education in science means the systematic teaching of science so as to train for careers in science. Scientific men are exceedingly useful members of a community, as are engineers, bakers, blacksmiths, artists, and bankers. But we cant all be bakers, and we cant all be painters of watercolors. It takes all sorts to make a world. A community entirely composed of scientific men would fail to feed itself, clothe itself, house itself, and keep itself supplied with amusing light literature. Education in science produces specialists, and specialists, though useful and valuable persons in their fields, are no more the staple of a civilized community than lawyers or ballet dancers.

What the world at large really needs is due recognition of the true value of science in education.

We dont all want to be made into first class anatomists or surgeons. But we do all want a competent general knowledge of anatomy at large, and especially of human anatomy; of physiology at large, and especially of human physiology. We dont all want to be analytical chemists, but we do all want to know enough about oxygen and carbon to understand the most common phenomena of combustion, chemical combination, and animal or vegetable life. We dont all want to be zoologists and botanists, but we do all want to know enough about plants and animals to walk through life intelligently, and to understand the meaning of the things that surround us. We want a general acquaintance with the results rather than with the methods of science.

The mass of scientific opinion has always gone the other way; but then scientific opinion means only the opinion of men of science. Scientists appreciate the education needed to make men specialists more than the education needed to fit them for the general purposes and emergencies of life. We dont want authorities on the nuances of interstellar gasses, but well informed citizens. What common sense really demands, then, is education in all the sciences: a knowledge of what is known rather than knowledge of each successive step by which men came to know it.

Examination Card #26


Choose the correct answer.

Examination Card #26


1. Can I go to the park? You cant go ............. you have done your homework.

A while  B until  C after

2. I depend ............. public transport to get to work. You ought to save up and buy a car.

A on  B to  C in

3. Did you enjoy your stay in the hotel? Yes. They were ............. friendly people that we felt very welcome.

A such a  B so  C such

Examination Card #30

I. Reading

Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C, D) for the sentences (14). The Orinoco Crocodile

The Orinoco crocodile, the largest predator in South America, has been designated by the Swiss-based World Conservation Union as one of the 12 most endangered species in the world. In the 1930s, these crocodiles were hunted so extensively for their valuable skins that in the late 1980s, less than 700 crocodiles remained in the Orinoco river system of Venezuela and Colombia.

To preserve this species, several Venezuelans have decided to act quickly. They have taken the initiative to set up breeding centres and to date, there are four privately-run breeding centers in the country. As a result, many young crocodiles have been hatched and in the early 1990s as many as 1000 young crocodiles have been released in the Hams of savanna region of Venezuela. The Environment Ministry of Venezuela is happy to report that these crocodiles have reached maturity and are now beginning to reproduce naturally.

Baby crocodiles bred in captivity often flourish and grow well because they are kept safe from their natural predators which include the snake, the fox, the hawk, and man. After a year and having grown about a metre long, the young crocodiles are released into the wild.

Adult males can grow longer than a luxury car (five meters) and weigh heavier than a healthy cow (380 kg). Despite their size, they can run very fast over short distances and moving them about in the centre can prove to be very hazardous. The crocodile is an aggressive creature and it has been observed that the bigger they grow, the fiercer they become.

The local experts do not know how successful these schemes are because there is no follow-up research on the survival and reproduction rates of the released crocodiles. Scarcity of financial resources and the difficult terrain of Venezuela have been cited as reasons for the lack of follow-up.

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D They are widely hunted by man.

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Your friend takes care of the environment very much. He / she doesnt want to spoil the environment during his / her holiday. Explain to him / her that he / she can choose eco-friendly holiday and what the eco-tourism is. Write about the following:

Eco-tourism doesnt cause environmental damage as building of new hotels, sports centres, new roads do.

Eco-tourism aims to help the locals who live in the area.


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Examination Card #31

I. Reading

Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C or D) for the sentences (14).

Many of the serious health concerns in modern America can be linked to poor diet. People who regularly consume foods high in sodium, sugar, and saturated fats not only increase their chances of obesity, but also increase their risks of developing heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and several types of cancer.

Although some people who regularly consume unhealthy foods do so knowingly, there is also a significant portion of the population that remains undereducated about proper nutrition. What is more, individuals who live in food desertsareas in low-income neighbourhoods that lack easy access to healthy, affordable foodmay not even have the opportunity to obtain nutritious food. Although there have been some recent government efforts to reduce the number of food deserts, more community-based efforts should be encouraged and supported.

Food deserts are located in high-poverty areas, such as scarsely populated rural areas or densely populated, low-income urban centers. Major food retailer chains tend to limit their store locations to wealthier urban or suburban neighbourhoods. This means that those who live in high-poverty areas often also live miles away from the fresh meat, dairy products, and products available at supermarkets. Residents of these areas who do not have cars are thus forced to travel long distances on public transportation to do their grocery shopping, or else they are limited to the food available at local convenience stores and petrol stations. These types of food retailers often only sell packaged, processed foods that offer little nutritional value.

Furthermore, fast food restaurants are disproportionately concentrated in low-income areas; recent estimates suggest that those living in the poorest areas of a city experience 2.5 times more exposure to fast food restaurants than the wealthiest inhabitants of the city. Because individuals who live in food deserts tend to get their meals from fast food restaurants or convenience stores, they often suffer from a variety of health issues. Research has found that individuals who live in low-income neighbourhoods are much more likely to develop problems with

Examination Card #31


obesity, diabetes, and hypertension than those who live in more affluent neighbourhoods.

A solution to the problem of food deserts seems obvious: more supermarkets should be built in low income neighbourhoods. The problem with this solution of course, is that it is difficult to lure supermarket chains into poor areas. Because poorer people have less money to spend on food, supermarket chains do not consider them to be attractive customers.

Community gardens, independent food stores, co-ops, and farmers markets are all examples of local initiatives that can substitute for or supplement the opening of a major chain supermarket. Despite the time, dedication, and funds required for community members to initiate such programs, these efforts can be incredibly beneficial, not only in providing people with access to healthier foods, but also in instilling a sense of community in the residents of these neighbourhoods.

Examination Card #31

       

 

 

II. Writing

Examination Card #33

I. Reading

Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C, D) for the sentences (14).

STONEHENGE DECODED

Stonehenge has been shrouded in mystery for more than 4,500 years. Now a British archaeologist may have found out some of its secrets.

There are some things that people call mysteries that are not really all that mysterious. Stonehenge, however, certainly deserves that description. Rumors of ancient magicians, strange druids, and the sun god Apollo surround it.

Located in the English countryside, Stonehenge is one of the oldest monuments in the world. It is instantly recognizable. It consists of a group of gigantic stones that stand upright on the ground in a circle. In some cases, pairs of the stones have another stone lying across them like a tabletop. At the sight of these strange stones, most people think two things first. One, how did people in prehistoric times manage to set up these enormous stones? And two, what was the purpose of this strange structure?

No one really knows. But Stonehenge Decoded, a new program on National Geographic Channel, takes a look at a groundbreaking theory on the origins of Stonehenge. British archaeologist Mike Parker Pearson leads a team that investigates Stonehenge, and comes up with some surprises.

Pearson and his crew find evidence of a 4,500-year-old settlement a few kilometers from Stonehenge. At the center of this settlement lie the remains of a second circle! After testing, it is found that the second circle was a near replica of the Stonehenge monument, but made of wood. Both circles stood at the same time.

So how were these circles connected? What was the meaning of having one in stone and one in wood? Pearson believes that Stonehenge was built for the ancestors of the people that created it. It may, he claims, have been a monument to house the spirits of the dead. The wooden monument may have represented the living, while the stone monument represented the dead. Another amazing discovery is that on the longest and shortest days of the year, the two monuments line up with the setting and rising sun. The effect is very dramatic.

 

Examination Card #33


1. Stonehenge is ..... .

A a series of circles  C a set of stones

B a huge stone  D a wooden monument

Examination Card #33


Your uncle is going to open a new restaurant. This new restaurant wants to offer customers a choice of healthy food. Give your uncle some advice about dishes (5060 words). Include the following information:

what dishes you would offer;

how healthy these foods are.


,

Examination Card #34

I. Reading

Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C, D) for the sentences (14).

Look up in the sky. Its a bird. Its a plane. No, its lightning. Truly faster than a speeding bullet and hotter than the surface of the sun, lightning strikes the Earth more than eight million times per day. Even though it has been studied over and over, the phenomenon of lightning is still very mysterious. This month on National Geographic Channel, Lightning Strike travels to a city deep in the heart of Australia that is home to violent storms. The cameras go into a cloud showing viewers the forces that actually trigger a bolt of lightning. Also on this episode, new research reveals that lightning is one of the strangest and most destructive forces in the world.

Lightning Strike is only one of the brilliant shows in the Naked Science series that includes input from some of the best minds of our time. Naked Science does not ignore the human side of science. By delving into the personal experiences of everyday people, the science discussed feels more real.

The worlds earliest superpower, the Roman Empire, felt it was of great importance to improve the quality of life for its citizens. Much of the technology in use today got its start more than 1,500 years ago. The Romans invented plastic surgery, varicose vein removal, sports arenas, and high-rise apartments. Roman Technology shows the construction of the Coliseum and Pantheon, as well as discovers that made the Roman Empire so great.

Humans have been to the top of Mount Everest and walked on the moon, but they have never even come close to visiting the deepest parts of the ocean or learning hurricanes, volcanoes, and some of the longest living animals on the planet. The Deep, Naked Science explores some of these extraordinary landscapes that litter the ocean floor. From the skies to the seas and all the places in between, Naked Science has got it covered.

Examination Card #34


2. This article is likely taken from ..... .

A a biology book  C a science book

Ba movie review article  D an English teachers guide

3. Naked Science makes science real by ..... .

A showing experiments

B showing how science affects real people

C talking only to specialists

D looking at how people work and live

Examination Card #34


You are planning to celebrate your friends birthday in a cafå and are going to come home later than usual. Write a note to your parents in which you:

explain the reason of coming later tonight;

ask your parents not to wait for you for supper;

promise to be at home by 10 p.m.


,

Examination Card #36

I. Reading

HISTORY OF BRITISH RAILWAYS

George Stephenson (17811848) was the father of British railways. He and his son, Robert (18031859), built steam locomotives engines for pulling trains. From 1830 to 1850 engineers and businessmen built railways all over Britain. The first railway line from Liverpool to Manchester opened in 1830. In 1833 Robert Stephenson became chief engineer on the first railway line from London to Birmingham. They finished it in 1838.

In 1840 people travelled for fun on a train for the first time. It took them from Nottingham to Leicester. They sang all the way! By 1850, there were over 2,500 steam locomotives in Britain. Their highest speed was 125 kilometres an hour. After 1850, Queen Victoria often travelled from London to Edinburgh by train.

Victorian Railway stations were big, high, beautiful buildings. You can see many of them today. In London, there are nine main railway stations. The oldest is London Bridge (1836) and t he newest is Marylebone (1899.) The first electric railway opened in 1883. It was cleaner and quieter than steam.

In 1914, at the start of World War I, no town in Britain was more than 32 kilometres from a railway station. Later, cars and aeroplanes became popular, and many smaller railway stations closed. But trains didnt go away. In 1994, the Channel Tunnel opened. Now people can travel by train under the sea between England and France. It is one of the worlds greatest railway projects.

A.People first travel on a train for fun.

B.The first electric railway opens.

C.Queen Victoria starts going by train to Scotland for her holidays.

D.They build London Bridge Station.

E.They build the Channel Tunnel.

F.They build Marylebone Station.

G.They build the first railway line between Liverpool and Manchester.

H.They finish the first railway line from London to Birmingham.

 

Examination Card #36


               

II. Writing

Choose the correct answer.

1. You ..... be late for work. I know. Im leaving now.

A neednt  B must  C mustnt

2. Jim ..... lose some weight. His doctor said so. Then he must go on a diet.

A mustnt  B can  C has to

3. I ..... go to the bank today. I have enough money. Well, Ill go alone, then.

A neednt  B have to  C must

4. Did you deliver that parcel for me? No, I ..... find the house, so Ive come back to get a map.

A can  B could  C couldnt

5. I ..... clean the house today. Its dirty. Ill help you.

A neednt  B must  C mustnt

6. I ..... feed the dog at lunchtime. My brother did it in the morning. You can do it this evening, then.

A didnt need to  B neednt have  C need

7. Do you need any help? Yes. I ..... open the window. Its stuck.

A could  B am able to  C cant

8. I ..... swim until I was ten. Well, I didnt learn until I was eleven.

A can  B cant  C couldnt

               

Write an advertisement about the coming sports competitions in your school. Include the following:

the dates of the events;

who is invited to take part;

the places where the sporting events are going to be held;

whom to address to sign up to participate.

,

Examination Card #39

I. Reading

Read the text and choose the best answer (A, B, C, D) for the sentences (14). THE SPIRIT OF SPAIN

Spain looks pretty small on a world map, but this country has pr

...

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