Read the text given below. Decide if the statements (1–6) are T (true) or F (false).
Having a ‘lovely’ smile is a desired part of our appearance, and it usually means being the proud owner of gleaming and straight set of ‘pearly whites’ – or teeth. What happens when our teeth aren’t that well-aligned, or are, in other words, just plain crooked? That’s when an orthodontist comes in, with orthodontic treatment that includes dental braces. There are many horror stories about teenagers who wear braces being given a hard time at school and being taunted as ‘metal mouth’. However, today’s braces can be much more subtle in appearance, and the end result is actually about more than a beautiful smile.
Straightening crooked teeth isn’t just about beauty and vanity. It’s also about good health. Irregularly positioned teeth are hard to clean and this can cause tooth decay as well as promote gum disease. Speech problems and damage to the jaw can also occur as a result of very crooked or crowded teeth. The ideal age for braces to do their desired job of straightening teeth is during childhood and adolescence, from the ages of about ten to sixteen. People as old as sixty years of age can also have successful results with braces, although those over the age of eighteen won’t have as good an end result as younger people whose jaws, bones and teeth are still developing.
What about the man or woman behind the fitting of braces? What is he or she all about? An orthodontist has studied orthodontics, an advanced and specialized area of dentistry. Apart from the four years of university training needed to become a dentist, orthodontists need a further two years of study in subjects ranging from genetics to human development. The medical writings of ancient Greece and Rome refer to practising orthodontics, which is an ancient Greek word meaning correcting or straightening teeth. The first braces as we know them today, were designed by a French man, Pierre Fauchard, in 1728. They consisted of a flat metal strip that was connected to teeth by pieces of thread.
Now, braces come in many variations. They don’t have to be metal or metallic-coloured. They can be made of a special softer substance and be either clear in colour, colourful or even resemble the colour of teeth. You can get removable braces or the more effective fixed type. The latter include metal bands
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that are cemented onto the teeth and metal brackets which are then glued to the front teeth. A wire connects the bands and sometimes rubber bands are used. Orthodontists gradually tighten the wires so that teeth slowly move into their correct position. The treatment lasts for about two years. Braces are not only for humans, as dogs can get them too, to correct crooked jaws and other dental disorders. So if you or a friend needs braces, brace yourself to embrace the wonderful health and beauty aid that they are!
1.In the past, braces used to be less obvious than they are today.
2.Crooked teeth can lead to gum disease.
3.All teenagers should wear braces.
4.The older you get, the better results you get by wearing braces.
5.It takes six years for someone to become an orthodontist.
6.Ancient Greeks were familiar with the science of orthodontics.
Choose the correct answer.
1. ‘Can you swim?’ ‘Oh yes. I ..... how to swim when I was five.’
A taught B am taught C was taught
2. ‘Doctors have to do a lot of work.’ ‘Yes, but they ..... well.’
A be paid B are paid C pay
3. ‘Where does that lady keep her jewellery?’ ‘It ..... in a safe somewhere inher house.’
A is kept B are kept C was kept
4.‘What is happening over there?’ ‘Oh, a new cinema ..... .’
A is being built B is built C was built
5. ‘How is Kevin?’ ‘Well, his car ..... last night, so he’s upset today.’
A is stolen B has been stolen C was stolen
6. ‘What should you do if you are lost?’ ‘You should stay where you are and wait ..... .’
A was found B to find C to be found
7. ‘Have you got Claire’s phone number?’ ‘Yes. It ..... on this piece of paper.’
A is written Bwritten C be written
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8. ‘What are you doing tonight?’ ‘I don’t know. I can’t make ..... my mind!’
Aup B out C in
Write a personal profile of a member of your family (50–60 words). Include:
• appearance and character;
• interests and activities;
• achievements and future hopes.
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Read the text given below. For questions (1–4), choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D).
ABOUT BRITAIN’S TEENAGERS
British teenagers can leave school at sixteen after taking their GCSE exams. They study for exams in as many as ten subjects, so they have to work pretty hard! Today’s teens spend more time doing their homework than any teenagers in the past, studying for 2 1/2–3 hours every evening.
It’s not all work, of course. What do British teenagers do to have fun? They love watching TV, going out, meeting friends in the Internet cafes and listening to music. Researchers found that 99 % of teenagers questioned in a survey said their favourite activity was watching TV, while 98 % also liked listening to music. Some teens like the UK garage music, but others prefer to listen to hip-hop or nu-metal on their portable stereos, personal stereos and CD players. 89 % spend most of their free time online, emailing their ‘mates’ or making new friends in their favourite chat rooms.
As well as the Internet, teenagers in Britain use their computers to play games and do their homework. They also love their mobile phones, and spend hours texting their friends and chatting. Today, phones are getting smaller and lighter and you can do a lot more with them than just talk. Text messaging has taken over as the coolest and trendiest way to socialise. More than 90 % of 12 to 16-year-olds have a mobile, and experts say that this trend stops teens from spending their cash on sweets and cigarettes. The latest craze, mobile phones with built-in video cameras, is taking the country by storm, as these are digital cameras with which you can take photos that can be sent over the Internet.