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The Destruction of Hedda Nussbaum

Joel and Hedda appeared to be an ideal couple. He was a successful attorney, good-looking, charismatic, and intelligent. She was a lovely, bright, and vibrant young career woman, an editor of children's books for Random House. They met at a party in 1975, and she moved in with him in 1976. They were deeply in love and life seemed wonderful. And it was wonderful for the first 3 yearsthen Joel hit her. Hedda does not remember what precipitated that first attack but does remember that both of them were shocked and, although he did not express any regret, Joel was very affectionate following the attack. It was easy for Hedda to believe that it would never happen again.

Hedda continued to believe that each incident of abuse was the lasteven when she required surgery to repair a ruptured spleen after a beating in 1981. After each episode, Joel was affectionate and Hedda believed that it was an isolated incident, one that would never happen again. She loved Joel and believed that he loved her. Then, in 1981, a client retained Joel to find a home for her illegitimate daughter. Joel decided to keep the child and brought "Lisa" home to live with him and Hedda. Hedda was thrilled to be a mother, and life was wonderful for all of them for about 6 months. Then the abuse of Hedda began again.

When her injuries were apparent, black eyes or facial injuries, Hedda was embarrassed to go to work. As the heatings became more frequent and severe, she missed more and more work until Random House fired her in 1982. Her job was not only her sole source of income, it had provided her with outside relationships. With her termination these relationships ceased, leaving her even more dependent on Joel. Although he was quite wealthy, Joel took Hedda's savings. When he persuaded Hedda that her friends and family were not good for her and eliminated her contact with them, Hedda was completely isolated and entirely dependent on Joel. Joel and Hedda began to use drugs. Joel's use became heavy, and he coerced Hedda into using more and more.

The abuse increased and the cruelty escalated. Joel devised new and more horrible ways of tormenting Hedda: he hung her from a bar with handcuffs, burned her with a blowtorch, broke her nose a number of times, and choked her. Hedda ran away six times, going to friends or to shelters. But each time she went back to Joel, swayed by his tenderness and apparent love, or wanting to be with Lisa. In 1986, Joel brought home another child, an infant, Mitchell. As with Lisa, Mitchell was never legally adopted. Despite Joel's cruelty to her, Hedda did not think that he would abuse the children.

In November, 1987, Hedda was no longer the attractive, independent, happy, capable young woman who fell in love with Joel and went to live with him. She had lost 25 pounds, was permanently disfigured, defenseless, and psychologically traumatized. She was the typical battered woman, completely isolated from the outside world. That was her condition the night Joel brutally beat Lisa. Not only was Hedda incapable of defending herself from her lover, she could not prevent him from attacking Lisa. Joel prevented Hedda from summoning help for the child who lay unconscious for 12 hours. By the time Lisa was taken to the hospital, it was too late to help her and she died. After a year of hospitalization for physical and mental problems, Hedda was able to testify against her former lover who was convicted of first-degree manslaughter in the death of 6-year-old Lisa.

Could Hedda have done anything to prevent her exploitation by Joel? How much influence did drugs have on the behavior of Joel and Hedda? What could society do to prevent the abuse of people like Hedda and Lisa? How can people avoid destructive relationships?

5

15. International Law.

15 , :

1: International Organizations the UN Specialized Agencies. English for Lawyers: / . : , 2009. .265-267.

 

1: International Organizations the UN Specialized Agencies. English for Lawyers: / . : , 2009. .265-266.

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .

1. . Participle I Participle II. .

  1. They saw overturned tables and chairs and pieces of broken glass all over the room.
  2. The hour late, she hastened home.
  3. And then came the final moment, with the guards coming for him.
  4. The speaker faced the audience, his hand raised for silence.
  5. Running into the room, she caught her foot on a rug and fell.
  6. The man saw a notice pinned to the door.
  7. Wading across the river, I swept off my feet by the current.
  8. The doll lay deserted on the porch.
  9. Tied to the tree, the victim could not run away.
  10. There being no chance of escape, the thief was arrested on the spot.

. ϳ 10 , , - . , .

Supranational law

The European Union

European Union law (historically called European Community law) is a body of treaties, law and court judgements which operates alongside the legal systems of the European Union's member states. It has direct effect within the EU's member states and, where conflict occurs, takes precedence over national law. The primary source of EU law is the EU's treaties. These are power-giving treaties which set broad policy goals and establish institutions that, amongst other things, can enact legislation in order to achieve those goals. The legislative acts of the EU come in two forms: regulations and directives. Regulations become law in all member states the moment they come into force, without the requirement for any implementing measures, and automatically override conflicting domestic provisions. Directives require member states to achieve a certain result while leaving them discretion as to how to achieve the result. The details of how they are to be implemented are left to member states.

East Africa Community

There are ambitions to make the East African Community, consisting of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda, a political federation with its own form of binding supranational law by 2010.

 

Union of South American Nations

The Union of South American Nations is an organization on the South American continent. It intends to establish a framework akin to the European Union by the end of 2019. It is envisaged to have its own passport and currency, and limit barriers to trade.

 

Andean Community of Nations

The Andean Community of Nations is the first attempt the countries around the Andes Mountains in South America. It started with the Cartagena Agreement of 26 May 1969, and nowadays consists in four countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. It does have a supranational law, called Agreements, which are mandatory for these countries.

1. European Community law operates as the only law in all European Union's member states.

2. European Union law takes precedence over national law.

3. The main source of EU law is the EU's agreements.

4. The legislative acts of the EU come in three forms: regulations, directives and orders.

5. Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda want to create a political federation.

6. The East African Community was created in 2010.

7. By the end of 2020 the Union of South American Nations will establish a framework akin to the European Union.

8. The Union of South American Nations is envisaged to have its own passport and currency, and limit barriers to trade.

9. The Andean Community of Nations consists of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

10. The Andean Community of Nations started with the Cartagena Agreement of 26 May 1969.

 


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