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Ex.1 Match each word on the left with the appropriate definition on the right

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I

(I IV )

, (.) (.)
The 2nd Year of Study
III The Study of Crime. Criminology. Passive Voice. -
  Cezare Lombroso. Grammar Tenses Revision - -
  Law Breakers. The Sequence of Tenses. Direct, Indirect Speech. -
  Crime. Causes of Crime. Conditional Sentences.
  Classification of Crimes. Passive Voice.
  Degrees of Criminality Passive Voice.
  Parties in Court Grammar Tenses Revision
  Witnesses Grammar Tenses Revision
  Independent Reading  
:
IV The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The Sequence of Tenses.    
  UK Government. Conditional Sentences (real condition).  
  Political Parties. Conditional Sentences (unreal condition).  
  The USA. Washington. Complex Subject. -
  US Government. Complex Object.
  US President. Complex Object. Complex Subject.
  The Constitution of the USA.  
  Independent Reading. Punishment. Complex Subject.   -  
IV :

Unit 17

Topic for Discussion: The study of Crime. Criminology.

Grammar: Passive Voice

Ex. 1 Read the text and translate it into Ukrainian:

Criminology

Criminology is a social science dealing with the nature, extent, and causes of crime; the characteristics of criminals and their organizations; the problems of apprehending and convicting offenders; the operation of prisons and other correctional institutions; the rehabilitation of convicts both in and out of prison; and the prevention of crime.

The science of criminology has two basic objectives to determine the causes whether personal or social, of criminal behavior and to evolve valid principles for the social control of crime. In pursuing these objectives, criminology draws on the findings of biology, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology, and related fields.

Criminology originated in the late 18th century when various movements began to question the humanity and efficiency using punishment for retribution rather than deterrence and reform. There arose as a consequence what is called the classical school of criminology, which aimed to mitigate legal penalties and humanize.

penal institutions. During the 19th century the positivist school attempted to extend scientific neutrality to the understanding of crime. Because they held that criminals were shaped by their environment, positivists emphasized case studies and rehabilitative measures. A later school, the social defense movement, stressed the importance of balance between the rights of criminals and the rights of society.

Criminologists commonly use several research techniques. The collection and interpretation of statistics is generally the initial step in research. The case study, often used by psychologists, concentrates on an individual or a group. The typological method involves classifying offences, criminals, or criminal areas according to various criteria. Sociological research, which may involve many different techniques, is used in criminology to study groups, subcultures, and gangs as well as rates and kinds of crime within geographic areas.


Criminology has many practical applications. Its findings can give lawyers, judges, and prison officials a better understanding of criminals, which may lead to more effective treatment. Criminological research can be used by legislators and in the reform of laws and of penal institutions.

Ex.2. Complete the following sentences:

1. Criminology is a social science

2. The science of criminology has 2 basic objectives.

3. Criminology draws on ..

4. Criminologists commonly use.

5. Criminological research can be used

 

Ex. 3 Translate into Ukrainian:

1. Criminology deals with the operation of prisons and other correctional institutions.

2. Positivists emphasized case studied and rehabilitative measures.

3. The collection and interpretation of statistics is generally the initial step in research.

4. The typological method involves classifying offences, criminals. Or criminal areas according to various criteria.

5. Sociological research is used in criminology to study groups, subcultures and gangs.

6. Criminological research can be used by legislators and in the reform of laws and of penal institutions.

Ex.4 Translate into English:

1. 㳿 , .

2. XVIII .., .

3. , .

4. , , .

5. 㳿 , .

6. .

 

Ex. 5 Answer the following questions:

1. What steps can society take to cope with crime?

2. What trends can be observed in the development of criminology?

3. What methods and techniques are applied in criminology?

4. In what other spheres of life can criminology find a useful application?


Ex.6 Translate the following sentences into English:

1. .

2. ? ³ .

3. ? . ? .

4. , .

5. ³ , .

6. ϳ , , , .

7. ?

8. .

 

Ex.7 Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to translating the verbs in Passive Voice.

1. The room was not cleaned.

2. All the tickets for the film were sold out.

3. The address was repeated to John.

4. The train was stopped by Tom.

5. He is always waited for.

6. Our office is run well.

8. B's death was caused by 's unlawful conduct.

 

Ex.8 Change the following sentences using Passive Voice :

: Tom collected tickets. -Tickets were collected by Tom.

1. He runs his office well.

2. He never missed a single day.

3. His wife assisted him.

4. The policeman was following the felon.

5. A girl showed me the way.

 

Ex.9 Write passive sentences:

Example: The country to head by the President. The country is headed by the President.

1. Children to teach school. 2. After graduation students to guarantee employment. 3. Law to generally find in constitutions and legislation. 4. Formal legal rules usually to distinguish from other means of social control. 6. Law not to make- completely by humans. 7. She to suspect murder. 8. The chairman to elect every year.

 

Ex. 10. Make the sentences passive:

Example: The investigator left a suspect in the room A suspect was left in the room by the investigator.

1. The officers wrote a report in a terrible hurry. 2. They widely use Russian in Ukraine. 3. A popular vote approved Ukraines Declaration of Independence. 4. They established a Communist Government in 1918. 5. The President received a delegation


yesterday. 6. The policeman stopped the car. The suspect demanded the victims money.

 

Ex. 11 Transform the following newspaper headlines into sentences using Passive Voice:

FIVE PEOPLE INJURED IN CAR ACCIDENT

PRESIDENT OF UKRAINE WELCOMED TO AUSTRALIA YESTERDAY

POP CONCERT CALLED OFF YESTERDAY BECAUSE OF RAIN

ACCUSED FOUND GUILTY

 

Ex.12 Translate into English using Passive Voice:

1. . 2. 5 . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. , .

Ex. 13 Write Passive sentences and then tell the class what happened to Sarah Ford:

Sarah Ford/ kidnapped/yesterday. Threatening calls/made/before. Kidnappers/given/300,000$.

Sarah/released. Police/informed immediately. All areas/ searched. The suspect /found. Sarah /examined by the doctor at the police station. The accused /convicted with kidnapping /and/ imprisoned.

Unit 18

Topic for Discussion: Cesare Lombroso

Grammar: Grammar Tenses

Ex.1 Read the text and translate it into Ukranian:

Cesare Lombroso (18361909)

Professor Lombroso is a criminologist whose views, though not altogether correct, caused a lot of interest and made other people look into the problem of crime in a more scientific way. He is regarded as the father of the scientific study ofcriminals, or criminology.

Lombroso studied at the universities of Padua, Vienna and Paris, and later he became a professor of psychiatry and forensic medicine, a director of a mental asylum.

In an enormous book called The Criminal, he set out the idea that there is a definite criminal type, who can be recognized by his or her appearance. Some of what he said is difficult to believe. For example, he said that left-handed persons have a criminal instinct. Among the things he considered important were the shape of-the head, colour of the hair, the eyes, the curve of the chin and forehead and if the ears stick out.

Lombroso's theories were wide influential in Europe for a time, but his emphasis on hereditary causes of crime was later strongly rejected in favor of


environmental factors. Lombroso tried to reform the Italian penal system, and he encouraged more humane and constructive treatment of convicts through the use of work programs intended to make them more productive members of society.

 

Ex.2 Translate into Ukrainian:

1. Professor Lombroso is a criminologist whose views caused a lot of interest and made other people look into the problem of crime in a more scientific way.

2. Later he became a professor of psychiatry and forensic medicine, a director of a mental asylum.

3. He set out the idea that there is a definite criminal type who can be recognized by his or her appearance.

4. He said that left-handed persons have a criminal instinct.

5. But his emphasis on hereditary causes of crime was later strongly rejected in favor of environmental factors.

 

Ex. 3 Answer the questions:

1. What is Cesare Lombroso famous for?

2. How did he try to relate criminal behavior to a persons appearance?

3. What was Lombrosos contribution to the development of penal system?

 

Ex. 4 Translate into English:

1. . , . .

2. ³ , .

3. ! . ?

4. . , , .

5. , ? , . . , .

6. , . ³ , .

7. , . .

8. Ƴ . , 䒿.

 

Ex.5 Open the brackets using the right tense form:

1. When (to be) last time you (to see) Tom? Five years ago.

2. I just (to finish) the book which you (to give) me for my birthday.

3. Last night he (to see) the light in the neighbours house.

4. My father (to look) tired the day before yesterday. He (to work) at his computer for many hours.

5. She (to be) at the birthday party now.

6. It (to be) the most exciting holiday she ever (to have).

7. You ever (to eat) octopus? Yes, I . what it (to be) like? It (to taste)


nice.

8. Last year my friends (to stay) in my house while I (to be) on holiday. They (to stay) there for three weeks.

9. We (to be) glad to know that our relatives (to arrive) by the New Year.

Unit 19

Topic for Discussion: Law Breakers

Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses. Direct, Indirect Speech

Learn the words.

1. an arsonist a) attacks and robs people, often in the street

2. a shop-lifter b) sets fire to property illegally

3. a mugger c) is anyone who breaks the law

4. an offender d) breaks into houses or other buildings to steal

5. a vandal e) steals from shops while acting as an ordinary customer

6. a burglar f) kills someone

7. a murderer g) deliberately causes damage to property

8. a kidnapper h) steals things from peoples property

9. a pickpocket i) gets secret information from another country

10.an accomplice j) buys and sells drugs illegally

11.a drug dealer k) takes away people by force and demands money for their

return

12. a spy l) helps a criminal in a criminal act

13. a terrorist m) uses violence for political reasons

14. an assassin n) causes damage or disturbance in public places

15. a hooligan o) hides on a ship or plane to get a free journey

16. a stowaway p) takes control of a plane by force and makes the pilot

change course

17. a thief q) murders for political reasons or a reward

18. a hijacker r) is someone who steals

19. a forger s) makes counterfeit (false) money, signatures, etc.

20. a robber t) is a member of a criminal group

21. a smuggler u) steals money, etc. by force from people or places

22. a traitor v) marries illegally being married already

23. a gangster w) is a soldier who runs away from the army

 

Ex.2 Complete the sentences using Reported speech.
Example: Peter: "I clean the black shoes."
Peter told me that ____________________________

Answer: Peter told me that he cleaned the black shoes.

a) John: "Mandy is at home." John said that.

b) Max: "Frank often reads a book." Max told me that.

c) Susan: "I'm watching TV." Susan said to me that.

d) Simon: "David was ill." Simon said that.


e) Peggy: "The girls helped in the house." Peggy told me that.

f) Richard: "I am going to ride a skateboard." Richard said to me that.

g) Stephen and Claire: "We have cleaned the windows." Stephen and Claire told me that.

h) Charles: "I didn't have time to do my homework." Charles remarked that.

i) Mrs Jones: "My mother will be 50 years old." Mrs Jones told me that.

j) Jean: "The boss must sign the letter." Jean said that.

Ex.3 Rewrite the following sentences in indirect speech:

a) The Prime Minister said: The role of Parliament has much changed over the past 10 years.

b) The judge said: I have never faced such an awful mistake.

c) The students said: The professor explained the legal and political system of Great Britain properly.

d) The policeman said: I saw them at the station.

e) The postman said: I have brought you a recommended letter.

f) Mary said: I studied Criminology at the Academy.

g) His aunt said: Something terrible happened.

 

Ex.4 Translate the following sentences into English:

a) , .

b) , .

c) , .

d) , , ' .

e) ³ , 1952 .

f) ³ , .

g) , .

Unit 20

Topic for Discussion: Crime. Causes of Crime

Grammar: Conditional Sentences

Ex.1 a) Read the following text.

Crime. Causes of crime

Crime is an act or the commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is commanded by Public law and that makes the offender liable to punishment by that law.

Crime is examined by the science of criminology. Criminology is a social science dealing with the nature, extent and causes of crime, the characteristics of criminals, problems of apprehending and convicting offenders, operation of prisons and other correctional institutions and prevention of crime.

Criminology has 2 basic objectives: to determine the causes of criminal behavior and to evolve valid principles for the social control of crime.

Criminology originated in the late 18th century and has several research techniques: the collection and interpretation of statistics, case study, the typological method and sociological research.

Criminology has many practical applications. Its findings can give lawyers, judges and prison officials a better understanding of criminals, which may lead to more effective treatment.

The father of criminology was Cesare Lombroso, a professor of psychiatry and forensic medicine .He related a persons appearance to his or her inclination to crime.

But nobody knows why crime occurs. Different theories have been trying to explain nature and causes of crime: theological and ethical, biological, climatic, social environment theories, psychological and psychiatric and multiple causation theories.

Since the mid 20th century the idea that crime can be explained by any single theory has fallen into disfavor among investigators. They say that crime springs out of a multiplicity of conflicting and converging influences biological, psychological, cultural, economic, political and other.


b) Answer the following questions:

1. What is crime?

2. What science studies crime?

3. What is the aim of criminology?

4. Who created the science dealing with crime?

5. What was Lombrosos approach to the study of crime?

6. What are the causes of crime?

7. What is the most credible theory of causes of crime? Why?

Ex.2 Retell the text above.

Unit 21

Topic for Discussion: Classification of Crimes

Grammar: Passive Voice

CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMES

Criminal law adopts certain classifications of crimes. We may refer to three of them.

Crimes are classed as treasons, felonies and misdemeanors. This is a historical classification, which was at one time of great importance, but has now lost much of its weight.

High Treason is the most serious crime known to English law. Felonies were those crimes a conviction for which formerly involved the forfeiture of the convict's property and also his capital punishment, except in the rare cases when a statute expressly provided otherwise. All other crimes are misdemeanors.

The second classification of crimes is into indictable offences and offences punishable on summary conviction. This classification has largely superseded the older classification into felonies and misdemeanors.

The third and last classification of crimes is based on the immediate objects of crime. Thus we have crimes against bodily security, crimes against property, crimes against religion and morality, crimes against the reputation and crimes against the State and Public Order.

 

Ex.3 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations .Read the sentences with them:

Indictable offences; capital punishment; to be of great importance; immediate object; high treason; rare cases; convict's property; crimes against State and Public Order; bodily security.

Ex.4 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations. Read the sentences with them:

; ();


; ; ; .

 

Ex.5 Answer the following questions:

1. What is the most serious crime known to English law?

2. Criminal law adopts certain classification of crimes, doesn't it?

3. Did felonies or misdemeanours involve the forfeiture of the convict's property and his capital punishment?

4. Is the historical classification of crimes of great importance now?

5. What classification has superseded the older classification into felonies and misdemeanours?

6. What is the last classification of crimes based on?

 

Ex.6 Transform the following sentences into Passive voice:

1. Jane must help her mother in the kitchen.

2. Somebody must send for the doctor.

3. You can buy this book at any book store.

4. She cant do this work.

5. A man showed me the way to her house.

6. I will translate this text in the morning.

7. She has just received the letter.

8. She has put her keys into the pocket.

 

Ex.7 Transform the sentences below into Active voice:

1. He was exhausted by his hard work.

2. My pen was taken by somebody.

3. He said his wallet had been stolen by someone.

4. Look. Someone is being attacked.

5. This story was written by my mother.

6. Who has been invited to dinner by Tom?

7. Liz said the fish had been eaten by hr cat.

8. I am sure I will be asked by police about this accident.

9. The article has been altered by Nick.

10. The newspaper is being published at the moment.

 

Ex.8 Translate into English:

1. . 2. ϳ . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. . . 7. . 8. ֳ . 9.ֳ . 10. ? 11. . 12. , . 13. . 14. ̳. 15. - . 16. ?


. 17. . 18.³ . 19. , . 20. : , , . 21. , . 22. . 23. .

 

Ex. 9 Look at the notes and write a news report using passive verb-forms:

Lives lose in a major sea tragedy in the Pacific Ocean. The disaster happened when the ship hit something unknown. Women and children put into lifeboats first while the men tell to stay on the ship. A nearby ship bring into action as a rescue vessel. The men who leave on the ship rescue. Unfortunately some of the men frighten and jump into the water. It believe they are now dead. Survivors take to hospital by helicopter and maximum effort now make to find the missing men.

Start with:

Many lives have been lost in a major sea tragedy in the Pacific Ocean

Ex. 10 Choose the correct item:

1. The ministers of the Government by the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

a) are being appointed b) have been appointed c) are appointed

2. The work of the Government by the Lords and Commons.

a) are examined b) is examined c) was being examined

3. Members of the Cabinet by the Prime Minister sincel long ago.

a) are chosen b) have been chosen c) have been choosing

4. The House of Commons decides what taxes and how the money shall be spent.

a) to be collected b) must be collected c) must to be collected

5. The results from each constituency are announced as soon as the votes

a) are counted b) have been counted c) are counting

6. The Conservative Party in the mid of 19th century.

a) is formed b) has been formed c) was formed

7. The speech which the Queen is reading out, by the Prime Minister.

a) has been drawn up b) was drawn up c) was being drawn up

Unit 22

Topic for Discussion: Degrees of Criminality

Grammar: Passive Voice

DEGREES OF CRIMINALITY

Criminal law recognizes degrees of criminality. Partakers in a crime may be either principals or accessories. And principals may be either in the first or the second degree, while accessories may be either before or after the fact. A principal in the first degree is the person who actually did the criminal act or was guilty of the criminal omission, either with his own hand or through an innocent agent, e.g. a child. A principal in the second degree is a person who, without actually taking part, is present at the commission of a crime and encourages and assists in preparation for it. An accessory before the fact is one who, without being present at its commission, advises it to be done and does not countermand it before it is done. All three - the principal in the first degree, the principal in the second degree and an accessory before the fact - are liable to the full penalty for the crime, therefore, these distinctions are largely academic.

An accessory after the fact to a felony is one who assists the felon or permits his escape. In murder cases such accessories after the fact are liable to penal servitude for life, in other cases - to two years' imprisonment; and they may be convicted even though the principal has not been brought to trial.

A woman cannot be convicted of being an accessory after the fact, merely for concealing her husband or aiding his escape. All accessories after the fact are guilty of felony. In treasons and misdemeanours all partakers are principals.

 

Ex.3 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations:

criminal act; to be guilty; accessory before the fact; felony; penal servitude; to bring to trial; partakers; innocent agent; the commission of a crime; degrees of criminality.

 

Ex.4 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

Ex.5 Answer the questions:

1. How is the person who actually did the criminal act called?


2. Who is liable to the full penalty for the crime?

3. What do we call a person who assists the felon or permits his escape?

4. Can a woman be convicted of being an accessory after the fact for concealing her husband?

5. All accessories after the fact are guilty of felony, aren't they?

6. Who is the principal in treasons and misdemeanors?

 

Ex.6 Transform the following sentences into negative ones substituting the given pronouns with the derivatives with particle no.

Example: There was somebody in the room five minutes ago. There was nobody in the room five minutes ago.

1. There was somebody in the room five minutes ago.

2. There is something interesting in our club tonight.

3. They went out somewhere last Sunday.

4. I see somebody through the window.

5. Somebody will have to meet them.

6. He can do something for you.

7. They invited somebody to dine with them.

8. Some of them know English.

9. I heard something about it.

Ex.7 Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to translating the verbs in Passive Voice:

1. That will be regarded as an attempt to commit a felony.

2. The death of this person has been caused through injury.

3. The deadly poison was left lying about.

4. The poison had been drunk by the child.

5. The charge of murder has been reduced to manslaughter.

6. He was spoken to about this problem.

7. The bag was looked for everywhere.

8. The letter will be posted immediately.

 

Ex.8 Change the following sentences using Passive Voice:

Unit 23

Topic for Discussion: Parties in court

Grammar: Grammar Tenses Revision

PARTIES IN COURT

The party who brings the action, who sues the other, is usually called the plaintiff. The party against whom the action is brought, who is sued, is the defendant. Where a case is appealed, the party appealing is called the appellant, and the party against whom the appeal is taken, the appelles.

The name of the case is usually formed from the name of the plaintiff and defendant with the word "against" or more often the Latin word versus (v), between them. Thus "A. v. B." means the suit brought by A. against ., the case of A. against B.

In criminal cases, where the action is in the name of the government, the State, the People, the Commonwealth, or in England the King or the Queen is named as the plaintiff. When there are more than one plaintiff or defendant, the names of all are sometimes given, as "A. v. B. and C."; but more often the name of only one followed by the words "and another", "and others" (et al., et als = et alius, et alii) . Thus we should usually write "A. V. B. et al." Where the unnamed party is the wife of the party named, the words "and wife" (et ux. = et uxor) are frequently used instead of "et al."

Sometimes, especially in the older reports the name of the plaintiff alone gives the title to the case, as "A's Case", "B's Case".

In some peculiar forms of proceedings, particularly in bankruptcy, the case is named after the principal character, the bankrupt for instance, in the following way: "The matter of A.", "In the matter of A."

Sometimes other ways of naming are resorted to.

 

Ex.3 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations:

to bring the action; plaintiff; appellant; criminal case; bankruptcy; to be named after; principal character; to sue somebody; to appeal a case.

 

Ex.4 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations. Read the sentences with the given words aloud:

³, , , , , , .

 

Ex.5 Answer the following questions:

1. What is the name of the party who brings the action?


2. How is the party against whom the action is brought called?

3. What do we call the party appealing?

4. What do you call the party against whom the appeal is taken?

5. How is the name of the case usually formed?

6. Are there cases where the name of a plaintiff alone gives the title to the case?

 

Ex. 6 Open the brackets using the verbs in corresponding tense form:

1. They already (to announce) the results of our tests? Yes, they (to do) it some minutes ago. What mark you (to get)?

2. What (to be) wrong?- I see you (to be) in a bad mood? I (to translate) this article since morning, but (not to finish) it yet.

3. Where they (to be)?- Last week they (to leave) for Paris. If I (to receive) any news , I (to let) you know.

4. You (to know) him well?- I (to know) him since childhood. He always (to be) a very honest man.

5. what he (to do) in the garden some minutes ago? He (to find) a little bird. He (to think) it (to fall) out of the nest.

6. Yesterday on my way home I (to meet) my daughter. She (to tell) that (to wait) for me for 2 hours. She (to lose) her key.

7. He always (to dream0 to become an actor. He (to dream) about it since childhood.

8. I (to be) very tired, when I (to come) home yesterday. When I (to begin) to warm my dinner, my friend (to phone) me. We (to speak) only for 5 minutes, but when I (to enter) the kitchen, I (to see) that I (to burn) it.

9. After they (to spend) their holidays together, she (to understand) that her friend (not to be) such a nice person as she (to think).

10. You (to take) your children to the zoo next Sunday?-Yes, they never (to be) in the zoo before. I (to hope) they (to like) it.

Unit 24

Topic for Discussion: Witnesses

Grammar: Grammar Tenses Revision

Ex.1 Read and translate the following text in writing:

WITNESSES

A witness is called a person who has seen or has some personal knowledge of a thing or crime which he can testify in the court.

The attendance of witnesses is secured by means of a writ called a writ or "sub poena" or, sometimes, a summons. It is issued either from the court or by some public officer, and is addressed to the witness, commanding him to appear before the court on a day named in the writ to testify in such and such a case, "under a penalty" if he disobeys. If the witness falls to appear, a second writ, called a "capias", is issued from the court, directed to some officer, and commanding him to "take the body" of the witness and bring him before the court, where he is compelled to testify and is liable


to be punished for contempt of the court in disregarding the first summons, unless he can show a good excuse for having done so.

The witness is first sworn to speak the truth, and then is questioned by the party who called him. Afterwards the other party has the right to cross-question him. After the cross-examination a re-direct examination is allowed and after that a second cross-examination. Sometimes still further direct and cross-examinations are had.

If the witness, on account of distance, infirmity or residence out of the jurisdiction of the court, cannot be brought to court, the parties are sometimes allowed to examine him elsewhere; and this testimony is committed to writing and read to the triers at the trial. Such a document is called a deposition.

The witness must testify only to matters of fact. The principal rule regulating the production of this class of evidence is that the witness must testify only to facts with which he is personally acquainted. This has two Branches: First, he must testify only to facts, not to mere matters of opinion. Secondly, the witness must testify to such facts only as he is personally acquainted with, which he knows, to use the common expression "of his own knowledge"; he must not merely repeat what has been told by someone else; which kind of evidence is called "hearsay", and is excluded, except in a few peculiar cases.

 

Ex.2 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations:

to testify in the court; under a penalty; a good excuse; to speak the truth; to cross-question somebody; the residence out of the Jurisdiction of the court; to be personally acquainted with; to disobey; a writ; a contempt of the court; a "capias"; the attendance of witnesses; a summons.

 

Ex.3 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , .

 

Ex.4 Answer the following questions:

1. What do we call a person who has some personal knowledge of a crime?

2. What do we call the document which is addressed to the witness commanding him to appear before the court?

3. What happens if the witness fails to appear before the court?

4. The witness is first sworn to speak the truth, isn't he?

5. Who has the right to cross-question the witness?

6. What is the principal rule regulating the production of evidence at the trial?

 

Ex.5 Open the brackets using the right tense form :

1. Where you (to be) just now? I (to wait) for you for 10 minutes. Lets go to the cinema. We (to be) late.

2. When I (to enter) the house, I (to see) that the old man (to sit) near the fireplace


and (to read) the book. He (to sit) there for a long time.

3. What you (to do) now?- I (to translate) an interesting story. How long you (to translate) it?- I (to work) for seven hours. I (to hope) I (to finish) translating by nine oclock.

4. The lecture (not yet to begin) and the students (to talk) in the corridor.

5. Last night Beth (to thank) Chris for the lovely flowers which he (to buy) for her.

6. Oh, I (to see) he (to stop) smoking. When he (to decide) not to smoke)?

7. We (to be) in the forest a week ago. We (to hear) how a wild animal (to cry out). It (to get) in a trap.

8. I (to be) nervous at the dentist this morning as it was the first time I (to see) him since August 1998.

9. When I was a child I (not to like) the girl next door. She always (to tease) me and (to fight) with me.

10. Dont worry! You (to see) your children playing in the yard if you (to look) out of the window.

 

Ex.6 Translate into English:

1. - ? . . .

2. ? ³ . ³ 2 .

3. , ? , , . 볿.

4. ? . . ϳ .

5. . , . .

6. . 1977 .

7. ? ͳ. . . , .

 

Ex.7 Translate the following sentences into English:

1. , , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. 䳿 , , . 6. , . 7. , .

Unit 25

Independent Reading

Unit 26

Topic for Discussion: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Grammar: The Sequence of Tenses

Economy

Chief products:Agriculture - wool, beef cattle, milk, chickens and eggs, pigs, wheat, potatoes, barley, sugar beet. Manufacturing - foods and beverages, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, electrical and electronic goods, machinery, motor vehicles, textiles and clothing, rubber and plastics goods, iron and steel, metal manufactures, ceramics.

Money:Basic unit - pound, also called pound sterling.

The United Kingdom is an island country in northwestern Europe. More than 70 countries are larger in size, and the United Kingdom has only about 1 per cent of the world's people. It has few natural resources. Yet for hundreds of years, the United Kingdom has been one of the world's most important countries.

The British started the Industrial Revolution. They founded the largest empire in history. They have produced some of the world's greatest scientists, explorers, artists, and political leaders. The United Kingdom is really four countries united under one government. These countries are England. Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The nation's official name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Most people call the country the United Kingdom, the UK, Great Britain, or simply Britain. London is the capital, and the largest city.

The landscape varies dramatically throughout the UK. Northern Scotland is a wild, windswept region, broken by long arms of the sea that reach far inland. Much of Northern Ireland has low mountains and rolling fields. Wales is famous for its rugged mountains and green valleys. Most of England is covered by rolling plains, laid out in a patchwork of fields and meadows. The coastline is a shifting scene of steep cliffs, golden beaches, jagged rocks, and fishing towns tucked in sheltered bays. The old and the new can be found almost everywhere. The UK has magnificent old castles and atomic laboratories, snug villages and sprawling cities, ancient universities and modern factories.

The English Channel separates the UK from France. This narrow stretch of water has helped shape the character and history of the British people. It has helped protect the UK from invasion, and has given the people a feeling of security. Since 1066, no enemy has crossed the channel and invaded the country.

Crowded together on their "tight little island," cut off from the rest of Europe by the sea, and secure from invasion, the British developed their own character and way of life. They came to respect privacy and to value old traditions. They developed a dry wit, a love for personal freedom, and a high degree of self-criticism. The British have shown themselves at their best - brave and united - in times of crises.

The history of the United Kingdom is the story of how a small island country became the world's most powerful nation - and then declined. In the 1700s, the British began the Industrial Revolution and made the United Kingdom the world's richest manufacturing country. The British ruled the seas, and were the world's greatest traders. By 1900, they had an empire that covered about a fourth of the world's land and included about a fourth of its people. They spread their way of life throughout their empire.

Then came the 1900s and the shock of two crippling world wars. The British Empire began to fall away. The UK faced one economic crisis after another. Today, the UK is still a leading industrial and trading nation. But it is no longer the world power it once was.

Population:The United Kingdom is more thickly populated than most countries. It has an average of 236 people per square kilometre. About 48 million people, or more than four-fifths of the British population, live in England. London and England as a whole have an enormous influence over the rest of the United Kingdom because of their large population.

Most of the British are descendants of many early peoples who invaded Britain. These people included the Celts, Romans, Angles, Saxons, Scandinavians, and Normans. It is difficult to tell which of these peoples are most important in the ancestry of the British.

Since the late 1940s, many immigrants from Commonwealth countries have settled in the United Kingdom.

 

Ex.3 Match the following words with the corresponding definitions:

1. natural resources a) continue to become smaller, weaker, lower;

2. to produce b) enter a country with armed forces in order to attack;

3. landscape c) quickness of mind;

4. security d) an area of the country-side or land, considered in

terms of how attractive it is to look at;

5. jagged e) state of being away from others, alone, undisturbed;

6. to invade f) manufacture, make, grow, create;

7. privacy g) (smth. that provides) safety, freedom from danger;

8. wit h)its minerals, forests;

9. to decline i) with rough, uneven edges.

 

Ex. 4 Find in the text the English for:

; , ; ; ; ; ; , ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

 

Ex.5 Say whether these statements are true or false. If some of them are false, give your version using the following expressions:

Unit 27

Unit 28

Topic for Discussion: Political Parties

Grammar: Conditional Sentences (unreal condition)

Ex.1 Read and translate the following text in writing :

Unit 29

Topic for discussion: The USA. Washington.

Grammar: Complex Subject

Ex.1 Read the following words and translate them into Ukrainian. Make up the sentences of your own:

area,n density,n vary,v giant,adj

census,n urban,adj comparable,adj throughout,prep

valuable,adj official,adj rural,adj wilderness,n

elevation,n resources,n Orthodox,adj merchandise,n

expectancy,n various,adj mountainous,adj scattered,adj

descent,n sulfur,n distribution,n lead,n

plateau,n deposits,n expectancy,n consumer,n

 

Economy

Chief products:Agriculture - beef cattle, milk, maize, soybeans, pigs, wheat, chickens and eggs, cotton. Fishing: tuna, salmon. Manufacturing- foods and beverages, cars, aircrafts, communications equipment, printed materials, fabricated metal products, paper, clothing, computers, drugs, wood and wood products. Mining -petroleum, natural gas, coal. Money: Basic unit-US dollar.

Foreign trade:Major exported goods - motorcars and parts, computers and other office equipment, aircraft, electrical machinery, scientific measuring instruments, telecommunications apparatus, grain, soybeans. Major imported goods - petroleum and petroleum products, cars and parts, clothing and

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