Ex.5 Read the passage and try to guess the object of smuggling.

Sam Lewis was a customs officer. He used to work in a small border town. It wasnt a busy town and there wasnt much work. The road was usually very quiet and there werent many travelers. It wasnt a very interesting job, but Sam liked an easy life. About once a week, he used to meet an old man. His name was Draper. He always used to arrive at the border early in the morning in a big truck. The truck was always empty. After a while Sam became suspicious. He often used to search the truck, but he never anything. One day he asked Draper about his job. Draper laughed and said, Im a smuggler.

Last year Sam retired. He spent his savings on an expensive holiday. He flew to Bermuda, and stayed in a luxury hotel. One day, he was sitting by the pool and opposite him he saw Draper drinking champagne. Sam walked over.

Sam Hello, there!


SamDo you remember me?

DraperYesof course I do. Youre a customs officer.

SamI used to be, but Im not any more. I retired last month. I often used to search your truck

Draperbut you never found anything!

SamNo, I didnt. can I ask you something?

Draper Of course you can.

SamWere you a smuggler?

Draper Of course I was.

Sam Butthe truck was always empty. What were you smuggling?

Unit 20

Topic for Discussion: Crime. Causes of Crime

Grammar: Conditional Sentences

Ex.1 a) Read the following text.

Crime. Causes of crime

Crime is an act or the commission of an act that is forbidden or the omission of a duty that is commanded by Public law and that makes the offender liable to punishment by that law.

Crime is examined by the science of criminology. Criminology is a social science dealing with the nature, extent and causes of crime, the characteristics of criminals, problems of apprehending and convicting offenders, operation of prisons and other correctional institutions and prevention of crime.

Criminology has 2 basic objectives: to determine the causes of criminal behavior and to evolve valid principles for the social control of crime.

Criminology originated in the late 18th century and has several research techniques: the collection and interpretation of statistics, case study, the typological method and sociological research.

Criminology has many practical applications. Its findings can give lawyers, judges and prison officials a better understanding of criminals, which may lead to more effective treatment.

The father of criminology was Cesare Lombroso, a professor of psychiatry and forensic medicine .He related a persons appearance to his or her inclination to crime.

But nobody knows why crime occurs. Different theories have been trying to explain nature and causes of crime: theological and ethical, biological, climatic, social environment theories, psychological and psychiatric and multiple causation theories.

Since the mid 20th century the idea that crime can be explained by any single theory has fallen into disfavor among investigators. They say that crime springs out of a multiplicity of conflicting and converging influences biological, psychological, cultural, economic, political and other.

b) Answer the following questions:

1. What is crime?

2. What science studies crime?

3. What is the aim of criminology?

4. Who created the science dealing with crime?

5. What was Lombrosos approach to the study of crime?

6. What are the causes of crime?

7. What is the most credible theory of causes of crime? Why?

Ex.2 Retell the text above.

Ex.3. Open the brackets, using the corresponding grammar tense form of the verb.

1. If the weather is nice tomorrow, we (to go) to the zoo.

2. He would answer the phone if he (to be) in the office.

3. If mum (to have) enough berries, she will bake a pie.

4. We (to go) with you if we had enough money.

5. If Rey had had time, he (to write) his parents.

6. I would fix your bike if I (to have) tools.

7. If Ted (to be) at home tomorrow, we are going to visit him.

8. What you (to do) I you won a million?

9. If I (to know) you hadnt met her before, I (to introduce) you.

10. He (to buy) a new house if he has money?

11. She will be very happy if he (to come) right now.

12. They (to offer) their help if they (to know) you had a problem.


Ex.4 Choose the correct variant of the verb in brackets:

1. If the weather were hot and sunny, Julia (will go/would go/went)to the beach.

2. If he (doesnt phone/didnt phone/hadnt phoned) me, I will phone him myself.

3. We (would take/would be taken/would have taken) him to the country.

4. If Leo were more careful, he (wont make/wouldnt made/wouldnt make) so many mistakes in his tests.

5. If he (doesnt phone/ didnt phone/ hadnt phoned) me, I will phone him myself.

6. I wouldnt refuse if they (asked/ask/would ask) to give them a lift.

7. If Brenda had had plenty of time yesterday, she (would visit/would have visit/ would have visited) us.


Ex. 5 Complete the following sentences:

1. If Henry comes tomorrow,

2. Paula would not have felt sick if

3. If I were you

4. If it were not so late, we

5. Claire will be very upset if

Unit 21

Topic for Discussion: Classification of Crimes

Grammar: Passive Voice

Ex.1 Read the following words and word-combinations. Learn them.




Misdemeanour ,

To lose weight

High treason

Conviction ,

Forfeiture of property

Capital punishment

Indictable offences ,

Summary conviction

Ex.2 Read and translate the following text in writing :


Criminal law adopts certain classifications of crimes. We may refer to three of them.

Crimes are classed as treasons, felonies and misdemeanors. This is a historical classification, which was at one time of great importance, but has now lost much of its weight.

High Treason is the most serious crime known to English law. Felonies were those crimes a conviction for which formerly involved the forfeiture of the convict's property and also his capital punishment, except in the rare cases when a statute expressly provided otherwise. All other crimes are misdemeanors.

The second classification of crimes is into indictable offences and offences punishable on summary conviction. This classification has largely superseded the older classification into felonies and misdemeanors.

The third and last classification of crimes is based on the immediate objects of crime. Thus we have crimes against bodily security, crimes against property, crimes against religion and morality, crimes against the reputation and crimes against the State and Public Order.


Ex.3 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations .Read the sentences with them:

Indictable offences; capital punishment; to be of great importance; immediate object; high treason; rare cases; convict's property; crimes against State and Public Order; bodily security.

Ex.4 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations. Read the sentences with them:

; ();

; ; ; .


Ex.5 Answer the following questions:

1. What is the most serious crime known to English law?

2. Criminal law adopts certain classification of crimes, doesn't it?

3. Did felonies or misdemeanours involve the forfeiture of the convict's property and his capital punishment?

4. Is the historical classification of crimes of great importance now?

5. What classification has superseded the older classification into felonies and misdemeanours?

6. What is the last classification of crimes based on?


Ex.6 Transform the following sentences into Passive voice:

1. Jane must help her mother in the kitchen.

2. Somebody must send for the doctor.

3. You can buy this book at any book store.

4. She cant do this work.

5. A man showed me the way to her house.

6. I will translate this text in the morning.

7. She has just received the letter.

8. She has put her keys into the pocket.


Ex.7 Transform the sentences below into Active voice:

1. He was exhausted by his hard work.

2. My pen was taken by somebody.

3. He said his wallet had been stolen by someone.

4. Look. Someone is being attacked.

5. This story was written by my mother.

6. Who has been invited to dinner by Tom?

7. Liz said the fish had been eaten by hr cat.

8. I am sure I will be asked by police about this accident.

9. The article has been altered by Nick.

10. The newspaper is being published at the moment.


Ex.8 Translate into English:

1. . 2. ϳ . 3. . 4. . 5. , . 6. . . 7. . 8. ֳ . 9.ֳ . 10. ? 11. . 12. , . 13. . 14. ̳. 15. - . 16. ?

. 17. . 18.³ . 19. , . 20. : , , . 21. , . 22. . 23. .


Ex. 9 Look at the notes and write a news report using passive verb-forms:

Lives lose in a major sea tragedy in the Pacific Ocean. The disaster happened when the ship hit something unknown. Women and children put into lifeboats first while the men tell to stay on the ship. A nearby ship bring into action as a rescue vessel. The men who leave on the ship rescue. Unfortunately some of the men frighten and jump into the water. It believe they are now dead. Survivors take to hospital by helicopter and maximum effort now make to find the missing men.

Start with:

Many lives have been lost in a major sea tragedy in the Pacific Ocean

Ex. 10 Choose the correct item:

1. The ministers of the Government by the Crown on the recommendation of the Prime Minister.

a) are being appointed b) have been appointed c) are appointed

2. The work of the Government by the Lords and Commons.

a) are examined b) is examined c) was being examined

3. Members of the Cabinet by the Prime Minister sincel long ago.

a) are chosen b) have been chosen c) have been choosing

4. The House of Commons decides what taxes and how the money shall be spent.

a) to be collected b) must be collected c) must to be collected

5. The results from each constituency are announced as soon as the votes

a) are counted b) have been counted c) are counting

6. The Conservative Party in the mid of 19th century.

a) is formed b) has been formed c) was formed

7. The speech which the Queen is reading out, by the Prime Minister.

a) has been drawn up b) was drawn up c) was being drawn up

Unit 22

Topic for Discussion: Degrees of Criminality

Grammar: Passive Voice

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