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Ex. 1 Read the following words and word-combinations. Learn them.

A part-taker

A principal

An accessory


To be guilty

Criminal omission

An innocent agent

To commit a crime

To assist

To countermand

To be liable to the full penalty

Escape

Penal servitude for life

To conceal

Ex.2 Read and translate the following text into Ukrainian in a written form :

DEGREES OF CRIMINALITY

Criminal law recognizes degrees of criminality. Partakers in a crime may be either principals or accessories. And principals may be either in the first or the second degree, while accessories may be either before or after the fact. A principal in the first degree is the person who actually did the criminal act or was guilty of the criminal omission, either with his own hand or through an innocent agent, e.g. a child. A principal in the second degree is a person who, without actually taking part, is present at the commission of a crime and encourages and assists in preparation for it. An accessory before the fact is one who, without being present at its commission, advises it to be done and does not countermand it before it is done. All three - the principal in the first degree, the principal in the second degree and an accessory before the fact - are liable to the full penalty for the crime, therefore, these distinctions are largely academic.

An accessory after the fact to a felony is one who assists the felon or permits his escape. In murder cases such accessories after the fact are liable to penal servitude for life, in other cases - to two years' imprisonment; and they may be convicted even though the principal has not been brought to trial.

A woman cannot be convicted of being an accessory after the fact, merely for concealing her husband or aiding his escape. All accessories after the fact are guilty of felony. In treasons and misdemeanours all partakers are principals.

 

Ex.3 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations:

criminal act; to be guilty; accessory before the fact; felony; penal servitude; to bring to trial; partakers; innocent agent; the commission of a crime; degrees of criminality.

 

Ex.4 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; .

Ex.5 Answer the questions:

1. How is the person who actually did the criminal act called?


2. Who is liable to the full penalty for the crime?

3. What do we call a person who assists the felon or permits his escape?

4. Can a woman be convicted of being an accessory after the fact for concealing her husband?

5. All accessories after the fact are guilty of felony, aren't they?

6. Who is the principal in treasons and misdemeanors?

 

Ex.6 Transform the following sentences into negative ones substituting the given pronouns with the derivatives with particle no.

Example: There was somebody in the room five minutes ago. There was nobody in the room five minutes ago.

1. There was somebody in the room five minutes ago.

2. There is something interesting in our club tonight.

3. They went out somewhere last Sunday.

4. I see somebody through the window.

5. Somebody will have to meet them.

6. He can do something for you.

7. They invited somebody to dine with them.

8. Some of them know English.

9. I heard something about it.

Ex.7 Translate into Ukrainian paying attention to translating the verbs in Passive Voice:

1. That will be regarded as an attempt to commit a felony.

2. The death of this person has been caused through injury.

3. The deadly poison was left lying about.

4. The poison had been drunk by the child.

5. The charge of murder has been reduced to manslaughter.

6. He was spoken to about this problem.

7. The bag was looked for everywhere.

8. The letter will be posted immediately.

 

Ex.8 Change the following sentences using Passive Voice:

: The pupils broke the chair. -

The chair was broken by the pupils.

1. They are building two houses in our street.

2. Our teacher gives us much homework.

3. She brought the parcel.

4. His accessory had aided him.

5. His comrades encourage him.

 

Ex.9 Open the brackets using the correct tense form of the verb in Passive voice:

1. His car (to steal) last night.

2. Cheese (to make) of milk.

3. The dog (to give) some food in ten minutes.


4. The telegram (to receive) last week.

5. These TV-sets (to make) in Japan.

6. He (to give) a lot of money last month.

7. All the students (to invite) to the party next week.

8. I (to allow) to go for a walk now.

9. This man (to arrest) last year.

10. The article (to translate) in 3 days.

11. This newspaper (to sell) everywhere.

 

Ex.10 Open the brackets using the right verb form:

1. They (posted/were posted) the letters yesterday.

2. The letters (posted/were posted) yesterday.

3. You can (leave/be left) your case here.

4. The case can (leave/be left) here.

5. He will (tell/be told) me the truth.

6. The truth will (tell/be told) me.

7. You may (put/be put) your hat on.

8. The hat may (put/ be put) on

9. The machine musnt (use/be used) after 6 oclock.

10. They musnt (use/be used0 the machine.

11. Tomorrow I will (pay /be paid) the bill.

12. Tomorrow the bill will (pay/be paid).

 

Ex. 11 Translate into English using Passive voice:

1. .

2. ᒺ 659 , .

3. , .

4. . .

5. .

6. . . , , . . .

7. ³ , .

 

 

Unit 23

Topic for Discussion: Parties in court

Grammar: Grammar Tenses Revision

Ex.1 Read the following words and learn them.

To bring the action

To sue , ()

A plaintiff


A defendant

To appeal a case

An appellant

An appelles

A proceeding (: )

To resort to

 

Ex.2 Read and translate the following text in writing:

PARTIES IN COURT

The party who brings the action, who sues the other, is usually called the plaintiff. The party against whom the action is brought, who is sued, is the defendant. Where a case is appealed, the party appealing is called the appellant, and the party against whom the appeal is taken, the appelles.

The name of the case is usually formed from the name of the plaintiff and defendant with the word "against" or more often the Latin word versus (v), between them. Thus "A. v. B." means the suit brought by A. against ., the case of A. against B.

In criminal cases, where the action is in the name of the government, the State, the People, the Commonwealth, or in England the King or the Queen is named as the plaintiff. When there are more than one plaintiff or defendant, the names of all are sometimes given, as "A. v. B. and C."; but more often the name of only one followed by the words "and another", "and others" (et al., et als = et alius, et alii) . Thus we should usually write "A. V. B. et al." Where the unnamed party is the wife of the party named, the words "and wife" (et ux. = et uxor) are frequently used instead of "et al."

Sometimes, especially in the older reports the name of the plaintiff alone gives the title to the case, as "A's Case", "B's Case".

In some peculiar forms of proceedings, particularly in bankruptcy, the case is named after the principal character, the bankrupt for instance, in the following way: "The matter of A.", "In the matter of A."

Sometimes other ways of naming are resorted to.

 

Ex.3 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations:

to bring the action; plaintiff; appellant; criminal case; bankruptcy; to be named after; principal character; to sue somebody; to appeal a case.

 

Ex.4 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-combinations. Read the sentences with the given words aloud:

³, , , , , , .

 

Ex.5 Answer the following questions:

1. What is the name of the party who brings the action?


2. How is the party against whom the action is brought called?

3. What do we call the party appealing?

4. What do you call the party against whom the appeal is taken?

5. How is the name of the case usually formed?

6. Are there cases where the name of a plaintiff alone gives the title to the case?

 

Ex. 6 Open the brackets using the verbs in corresponding tense form:

1. They already (to announce) the results of our tests? Yes, they (to do) it some minutes ago. What mark you (to get)?

2. What (to be) wrong?- I see you (to be) in a bad mood? I (to translate) this article since morning, but (not to finish) it yet.

3. Where they (to be)?- Last week they (to leave) for Paris. If I (to receive) any news , I (to let) you know.

4. You (to know) him well?- I (to know) him since childhood. He always (to be) a very honest man.

5. what he (to do) in the garden some minutes ago? He (to find) a little bird. He (to think) it (to fall) out of the nest.

6. Yesterday on my way home I (to meet) my daughter. She (to tell) that (to wait) for me for 2 hours. She (to lose) her key.

7. He always (to dream0 to become an actor. He (to dream) about it since childhood.

8. I (to be) very tired, when I (to come) home yesterday. When I (to begin) to warm my dinner, my friend (to phone) me. We (to speak) only for 5 minutes, but when I (to enter) the kitchen, I (to see) that I (to burn) it.

9. After they (to spend) their holidays together, she (to understand) that her friend (not to be) such a nice person as she (to think).

10. You (to take) your children to the zoo next Sunday?-Yes, they never (to be) in the zoo before. I (to hope) they (to like) it.

Unit 24

Topic for Discussion: Witnesses

Grammar: Grammar Tenses Revision

Ex.1 Read and translate the following text in writing:

WITNESSES

A witness is called a person who has seen or has some personal knowledge of a thing or crime which he can testify in the court.

The attendance of witnesses is secured by means of a writ called a writ or "sub poena" or, sometimes, a summons. It is issued either from the court or by some public officer, and is addressed to the witness, commanding him to appear before the court on a day named in the writ to testify in such and such a case, "under a penalty" if he disobeys. If the witness falls to appear, a second writ, called a "capias", is issued from the court, directed to some officer, and commanding him to "take the body" of the witness and bring him before the court, where he is compelled to testify and is liable


to be punished for contempt of the court in disregarding the first summons, unless he can show a good excuse for having done so.

The witness is first sworn to speak the truth, and then is questioned by the party who called him. Afterwards the other party has the right to cross-question him. After the cross-examination a re-direct examination is allowed and after that a second cross-examination. Sometimes still further direct and cross-examinations are had.

If the witness, on account of distance, infirmity or residence out of the jurisdiction of the court, cannot be brought to court, the parties are sometimes allowed to examine him elsewhere; and this testimony is committed to writing and read to the triers at the trial. Such a document is called a deposition.

The witness must testify only to matters of fact. The principal rule regulating the production of this class of evidence is that the witness must testify only to facts with which he is personally acquainted. This has two Branches: First, he must testify only to facts, not to mere matters of opinion. Secondly, the witness must testify to such facts only as he is personally acquainted with, which he knows, to use the common expression "of his own knowledge"; he must not merely repeat what has been told by someone else; which kind of evidence is called "hearsay", and is excluded, except in a few peculiar cases.

 

Ex.2 Read the text once more and give the Ukrainian equivalents for the given below words and word-combinations:

to testify in the court; under a penalty; a good excuse; to speak the truth; to cross-question somebody; the residence out of the Jurisdiction of the court; to be personally acquainted with; to disobey; a writ; a contempt of the court; a "capias"; the attendance of witnesses; a summons.

 

Ex.3 Look through the text again and find the English equivalents for the following words and word-:

; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; , .

 

Ex.4 Answer the following questions:

1. What do we call a person who has some personal knowledge of a crime?

2. What do we call the document which is addressed to the witness commanding him to appear before the court?

3. What happens if the witness fails to appear before the court?

4. The witness is first sworn to speak the truth, isn't he?

5. Who has the right to cross-question the witness?

6. What is the principal rule regulating the production of evidence at the trial?

 

Ex.5 Open the brackets using the right tense form :

1. Where you (to be) just now? I (to wait) for you for 10 minutes. Lets go to the cinema. We (to be) late.

2. When I (to enter) the house, I (to see) that the old man (to sit) near the fireplace


and (to read) the book. He (to sit) there for a long time.

3. What you (to do) now?- I (to translate) an interesting story. How long you (to translate) it?- I (to work) for seven hours. I (to hope) I (to finish) translating by nine oclock.

4. The lecture (not yet to begin) and the students (to talk) in the corridor.

5. Last night Beth (to thank) Chris for the lovely flowers which he (to buy) for her.

6. Oh, I (to see) he (to stop) smoking. When he (to decide) not to smoke)?

7. We (to be) in the forest a week ago. We (to hear) how a wild animal (to cry out). It (to get) in a trap.

8. I (to be) nervous at the dentist this morning as it was the first time I (to see) him since August 1998.

9. When I was a child I (not to like) the girl next door. She always (to tease) me and (to fight) with me.

10. Dont worry! You (to see) your children playing in the yard if you (to look) out of the window.

 

Ex.6 Translate into English:

1. - ? . . .

2. ? ³ . ³ 2 .

3. , ? , , . 볿.

4. ? . . ϳ .

5. . , . .

6. . 1977 .

7. ? ͳ. . . , .

 

Ex.7 Translate the following sentences into English:

1. , , . 2. , . 3. , . 4. , . 5. 䳿 , , . 6. , . 7. , .

Unit 25

Independent Reading

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