Britain has in practice a two-party system though different parties take part in the election campaign.

From 1832 to 1918 the dominant parties in GB were the Conservatives or Tories on the one hand and the Whigs or Liberals on the other. Later the Labour party backed the trade unions replaced the Liberals and since 1924 the political scene has been dominated by the Conservative and Labour Parties.

The Conservative party is supported traditionally by the rich and privileged the monopolists and landowners.

The formation of the Labour party at the beginning of the century was a victory of the labour movement. But there were not any radical changes in its policy in comparison with the Tories.

Today it is sometimes extremely difficult to tell the difference between the Labour and the Conservative policies.

The present day political scene is a combination of various political parties: The Conservatives, the Labour, the Liberal-Democratic party. The Parliamentary representation of the Liberal-Democratic party today is almost insignificant. But it plays a certain role in tipping the scales between the two largest parties.


Ex.2 Match elements from the first column with those from the second one:

party ins

part outs

nomination meeting

party card


Ex.3 Give the words of the same root from the basic text:

:To elect election;

To elect; to place; to own; to move; to differ; to represent.


Ex.4 Sort out the expressions into 2 groups:

) )

party in office; party in power; party in opposition; ruling party; party ins; party outs.

Ex.5 Complete the sentences ( ):

1. Different British parties take part

2. The Conservative party is supported

3. was a victory of the labour movement.

4. The Liberal-Democratic party today plays a certain role


Ex.6 Answer the questions:

1. What are the main parties in GB?

2. Whom did and do the Tories, later the Conservatives support?

3. Does the Labour Party support the private ownership and enterprise?

4. What influential parties formed an alliance?

Ex.7 Review the Grammar Tenses and translate the following sentences into English:

1. ? ͳ, .

2. ? , .

3. ?

4. ? .

5. , .

6. , .

7. .


Ex.8 Translate into English:

1. ˳ , .

2. , .

3. , ?

4. , .

5. , .

6. , .

7. , , .

8. 򳺿 , ,


9. , .

10. , .

11. , .

12. , .

13. , .


Ex.9 Open the brackets using the verbs in the correct tense form:

1. If she (to find out) the truth, she (to be) very happy.

2. If they (to have) plenty of time yesterday they (to miss) the train.

3. If my friend (to phone) now I (not to feel) so lonely.

4. I (to visit) him in the hospital, if I (to know) about his illness.

5. If I (to have) time tonight, I (to finish) this book.

6. If we (not to like) his suggestion, we (to tell) him about it.

7. If John (to want) the advice, he (to ask) you.

8. If his sister (to have) better qualification, she (to be able to) apply for better job.

9. They (to find) the solution, if they (to understand) the problem.

10. If he (to check) the oil before driving, he not to have) problems with the car.

11. If she (to be) here now, she (to help) you.

12. If Beth (to go) to her native town, she (to be) happier.

13. If you (not to agree) with me, I (to go) to the director.

14. What you (to do), if he (tell) you to leave?

15. If somebody (to invite) you, you (to go) to the blind date?


Ex.10 Open the brackets using the correct tense form of the verb:

1. If Beth (to go) to her home own, she could visit her parents.

2. If you (to be) still ill tomorrow, you will have to stay at home.

3. If she (not to drink) coffee late at night, she would have been to sleep.

4. She wouldnt have married him if she (to know) what was he like.

5. If he (to phone) tomorrow, please say we are out.

6. If the child (not to fall) he wouldnt have burst into tears.

7. If Barry (to come) to visit us for the weekend, he will be very glad.

8. If he (not to leave) the door open, his cat wouldnt have eaten the fish.


Ex. 11 Form the conditional sentences:

1. He drinks too much coffee. He doesnt feel calm. If

2. You cant type. You are not able to operate a computer. If

3. They didnt know the sign language, so they didnt understand the Indians. If

4. Frank ate too much sweets, so he felt sick. If

5. I will not phone them, because its too late. If

6. She doesnt understand the problem. She wont find a solution. If

7. The travelers lost their way, because it was too dark in the wood. If

8. I am not in your position. I am not able to advise you. If

9. She left the child alone, so he hurt his hand. If

10. He walked to the office in the rain, so he got wet. If

Unit 29

Topic for discussion: The USA. Washington.

Grammar: Complex Subject

Ex.1 Read the following words and translate them into Ukrainian. Make up the sentences of your own:

area,n density,n vary,v giant,adj

census,n urban,adj comparable,adj throughout,prep

valuable,adj official,adj rural,adj wilderness,n

elevation,n resources,n Orthodox,adj merchandise,n

expectancy,n various,adj mountainous,adj scattered,adj

descent,n sulfur,n distribution,n lead,n

plateau,n deposits,n expectancy,n consumer,n


Ex.2 Read the text The USA and translate it into Ukrainian.


Capital:Washington D.C.

Language:English spoken throughout the country, but does not have official status. Spanish - second most common language. Official name:The United States of America. National anthem:"The Star-Spangled Banner". Largest population centres:New York City (7,322,564) Los Angeles (3,485,398) Chicago (2,783,726) Philadelphia (1,585,577) Houston (1,630,553) Detroit (1,027,974) Dallas (1,006,877) San Diego (1,110,549)

Symbols of the United Statesinclude the American flag and the Great Seal. The eagle holds an olive branch and arrows, symbolizing a desire for peace but the ability to wage war. The reverse size bears the Eye of Providence, representing God, and a pyramid dated 1776.

Area:9,372,571 km (including Alaska and Hawaii).

Elevation:Highest-6,194 m (Mount McKinley in Alaska)

Lowest - 86 m below sea level (Death Valley in California)

Population:259,259,000. Population density: 27 persons per sq. km. Distribution: 74% urban, 26% rural.

Major ethnic/national groups: 80,3 % white, 12,1% black, 9% Hispanic origin, 2,9 % of Asian descent, 0,8% American Indians (native peoples).

Major religions:31% Protestant (chiefly Baptists, Methodists, Lutherans, Pentecostals and Presbyterians), 22% Roman Catholic, 3% Jewish, 2% Mormon, 2% Eastern Orthodox.


Chief products:Agriculture - beef cattle, milk, maize, soybeans, pigs, wheat, chickens and eggs, cotton. Fishing: tuna, salmon. Manufacturing- foods and beverages, cars, aircrafts, communications equipment, printed materials, fabricated metal products, paper, clothing, computers, drugs, wood and wood products. Mining -petroleum, natural gas, coal. Money: Basic unit-US dollar.

Foreign trade:Major exported goods - motorcars and parts, computers and other office equipment, aircraft, electrical machinery, scientific measuring instruments, telecommunications apparatus, grain, soybeans. Major imported goods - petroleum and petroleum products, cars and parts, clothing and shoes, telecommunications equipment, data processing equipment, electrical machinery, iron and steel, seafood.

The United States of America is the third largest country in the world in population and the fourth largest in area. China and India are the only countries with more people. Only Russia, Canada, and China have larger areas. The United States covers the entire midsection of North America, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It also includes Alaska, in the northwest part of North America; and Hawaii, far out in the Pacific. The United States is often called the US, U.S.A., or America.

The land of the United States is as varied as it is vast. It ranges from the warm beaches of Florida and Hawaii to the frozen northlands of Alaska, and from level Midwestern prairies to the snow-capped Rocky Mountains. This huge and beautiful country is rich in natural resources. It has great stretches of some of the most fertile soil on earth, a plentiful water supply and excellent water routes, and large stretches of forests. There are also huge deposits of valuable minerals which lie underneath the ground.

Economically, the United States is one of the world's most highly developed and productive nations.

No other country equals the United States in the production of goods and services. Its people enjoy one of the world's standard of living.

Until the 1500s, what is now the United States was largely a wilderness. Indians lived scattered over the land between the Atlantic and the Pacific. Eskimos inhabited what is now Alaska, and Polynesians lived in Hawaii. People in Europe saw in this vast ''new world" a chance to build new, better lives.

In 1776, colonists in the East established an independent nation based on freedom and economic opportunity. Through the years, large numbers of people from Europe continued to settle in the United States. In addition, people from almost every other part of the world settled in the country. Except for black Africans brought in as slaves, these immigrants came seeking the rights and the opportunities that had become part of the American way of life. As a result of this immigration the United States today has one of the most varied populations. It has been called "a nation of immigrants".

The vast space and resources of the land, the ideals of freedom and economic giant it

is today. The Americans - as the people are commonly called - also made major contributions in such fields as technology, science and medicine. Americans developed the mass production system of manufacturing. They also created the skyscraper and such new art forms as jazz and musical comedy.

The United States consists of fifty states and the District of Columbia. The District of Columbia is a piece of land set aside by the federal government for the ' nation's capital, Washington, D.C.

The United States has a federal system of government, which gives the states many powers that national government have in most countries. For example, the states have broad control over public education and the establishment of criminal and civil laws. The states of the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, are often divided into seven major regions. Each region is made up of states, that have similarities in geography, climate, economy, traditions and history. The regions are: (1) New England, (2) the Middle Atlantic States, (3) the Southern States, (5) the Rocky Mountains, (6) the South Western States, and (7) the Pacific Coast States,

The climate of the United States varies greatly from place to place. Average annual temperature range from - 13C in Barrow, Alaska, to 25.7C in Death Valley, California. In general, most parts of the United States have seasonal changes in temperature and moderate precipitation. The Midwest, the Middle Atlantic States and

New England experience warm summers and cold, snowy winters. In the South, summers are usually long and hot, and winters are mild. Along the Pacific Coast and in some other areas, near large bodies of water, the climate is relatively mild all year round. Mountains also affect the climate. In the West, for example, the mountainous areas are cooler and wetter than the neighboring plains and plateaus. Parts of the West and South-West of the United States have a desert climate. The moderate climate in much of the United States has encouraged wide spread population settlement. It has also helped make possible the production of a great variety of agricultural goods.

The United States ranks first in the world in the total value of its economic production. The nation's gross national product (GNP) the value of all the goods and services produced by a country in a year - amounted to about 5 trillion U. S. dollars in 1988. This total was more than twice the GNP of Japan, which ranked the second.

The United States' economy is based largely on a free enterprise system. In such a system, individuals and companies are free to make their own economic decisions. Even though the U.S. economy is based on free enterprise, the government have placed regulations on economic practices through the years. Government regulations have protected consumers from unsafe merchandise and protected workers from unsafe working conditions and unreasonably low wages.

A variety of natural resources provide the raw materials that support the economy of the United States. In addition to a moderate climate, the most valuable resources are minerals, soils, water, forests, and fish.

The United States has large deposits of coal, iron ore, natural gas, and petroleum, which are vital to the country's industrial strength. Its many other important minerals, include copper, gold, lead, phosphates, potash, silver, sulfur, and zinc. To meet its

needs, however, the United States must import additional amounts of iron ore, petroleum and other minerals.

Forests cover nearly a third of the United States and they yield many valuable products.

Agriculture accounts for 2 per cent of the U. S. gross domestic product and provides jobs for 2 per cent of the nation's workers. Yet, the United States is a world leader in agriculture production. The country's farms turn out as much food as the nation needs, with enough left over to export food to other countries. About a third of the world's food exports come from U. S. farms.

The US population amounts to 259, 632, 692 people according to the US Census Bureau. Whites make up about 80 per cent of the country's population. Blacks form the largest minority group. They account for about 12 per cent of the population. About 3 per cent of the population is of Asian descent. American Indians make up almost 1 per cent of the population. Other groups combine to make up the remaining 4 per cent. The population of the United States includes many Hispanic people, such as people of Mexican, Puerto Rican, or Cuban descent. Hispanic consist mainly of whites, but they also include some blacks and American Indians. Hispanic make up 8 per cent of the US population.

About 51.5 per cent of the people in the United States are females. The United States has one of the highest life expectancies of any country - 74.9 years old. Since 1945, the part of the US population that is over 65 years old has increased from 8 per cent to 12 per cent. Improvements in medical care have been the main reason for the increase.

Approximately 94 percent of the total population was born in the United States. The largest foreign-born groups are in order of size, Mexicans, Germans, Canadians, Italians, British and Cubans. The United States has an overall average population density about 27 people per square kilometre.

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