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Which group do you belong to? Express your own point of view. Give reasons for what you say.

There are two viewpoints on travel. Some people like to go to one place and spend their holidays there. The place may be an interesting city, a picturesque village, a remote island or another attractive place. Other believe in seeing as much as possible in the time they have.

 

IV. a) Name various kinds of travelling you know. Say a few words about each of them:

whether it is a comfortable way of travelling;

whether it is interesting, exciting, adventurous, enjoyable, dangerous or safe;

what advantages and disadvantages it has.

b) Explain how this choice depends on:

the tavellers age, profession, character, health and aims;

the distance the traveller is going to cover;

the place he is planning to visit.

 

Read and fill in with by ship, by car, by bike, by train, by plane, on foot.

people read such magazines as Natali, Yedinstvennaia, Milk and others. So there are periodicals and magazines for many trades, professions, interests. They can say what they like about anyone and anything: the army, top officials, private individuals, policy and so on.

There are also newspapers and magazines published in English: Digest, English, News from Ukraine, Ukraine. Their content deals with very burning problems of our present-day life and history. Sometimes they are amusing and entertaining and touch upon cultural and sports events. In any case they help to improve our English.

There are also magazines for children, young people and women, sociopolitical, literary, scientific, sport and satirical periodicals. Their main purpose is to extend contacts among the media people in Ukraine and beyond its borders.

At present Ukraine numbers over 4,000 editions varying in forms of ownership, genre, type and periodicity.

Todays Ukrainian periodicals are independent and censorship free. The state guarantees their economic independence, while taking steps to prevent publishers and distributors market monopoly.

But in daily practice these freedoms are implemented in a hard way; editors and journalists are faced with the problem of keeping their publications alive or to put it simply, the problem of basic survival. The production expenses sometimes considerably out weigh the revenues.

 

III) Speaking.

 

- sensations and scandals;

- advertisements for things on sale;

- advertisements for jobs;

- whats on at the theatre;

- international news;

- articles about business and finance;

- sport events.

b) Using the information from a) say, what sections are interesting for different persons. Use the scheme.

- educated people; - businessmen;

- children and teens; - politicians;

- housewives; - sport fans;

Travelling is quick and comfortable.

Travelling you are sure to get pleasure and to enjoy comfort.

Travelling you can stop when and where you want and watch beautiful scenes.

Travelling is very tiring.

Travelling is cheap. Its not at all expensive. All you need is to book a ticket and to get on the right train.

Travelling you can enjoy fresh sea air and admire the beauty of nature.

Travelling is fascinating. But its not pleasant if the weather is bad or you fly above the clouds.

Travelling is not at all troublesome. Youre sure to have a good time. And to enjoy safety. But its not pleasant if you ride on a bumpy road.

Travelling is good for health and cheap. All you need is a rucksack. But its not pleasant if you got lost.

Travelling is fantastic. But its hateful if youre sea-sick.

Travelling is not at all dangerous. Youre sure to take pleasure and to enjoy safety. But its not pleasant if your companion is a bore.

 

 

V. Complete the dialogue with the correct tense forms of the English verb.

 

Ann: Do you like traveling?

Bill: Yes, I (like)____travelling very much. It (be) _____ my hobby. I always (take) ____my camera with me and (take) _____ pictures of everything that (interest) ____ me: the ruins of ancient buildings, the sights of cities, views of mountains, lakes, valleys, waterfalls and even animals and birds.

Ann: What countries (visit) ____ you?

Bill: Well, I (be) ____ to Italy, Greece, Russia and India. Some day I (go) ____ to the United States. My cousin (live) ____ there. She (invite) ____ me several times already. When I (have) ____ enough money, I (go) ____to the States.

Ann: I (be) ____ never to any of these countries. When (be) ____ you in Italy?

Bill: Two years ago.

Ann: Did you go there alone?

Topic: Mass Media.

I) Warming-up questions:

  1. Is the press an important source of information?
  2. Do people read nowadays as much as they used to?
  3. Can you imagine our present-day life without the press?
  4. Do people read newspapers to obtain news or to be entertained?
  5. Do people often buy newspapers and magazines?
  6. Do you like to read quality papers?
  7. What national papers do you have in your country?
  8. What is another word for the popular papers?

 

I) Read and translate the following texts:

Newspapers and magazines in Ukraine

 

Newspapers started being published in Ukraine in the 18th century. There was, for example, the Lviv Courier, in polish, in 1749. But Ukrainian periodicals began with the Kharkiv Weekly 1812 and Kharkiv News, 1817. After the World War II the Russian language periodicals began to dominate. Since Ukraine gained its independence the proportion of newspapers and magazines in Ukrainian increased again. A total of 2,659 newspapers were published in Ukraine in 1998 with annual circulation of 3,096 mln copies, plus 1,009 magazines with the annual circulation of 57 mln copies.

The newspapers in Ukraine cover significant political, social and economic questions. They also have publications which deal with important problems of our history, latest events, cultural, educational, sports news, They present different points of view.

The main national newspapers are Holos Ukrainy (The Voice of Ukraine), The Courier, The Day, etc. Very popular newspapers are Fakty (The Facts), Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (The Mirror of the Week) and some others. They report national and international news very thoroughly.

Very popular magazines among the readers are the magazines Berehynya, Vitchyzna, Viche, Dilovyi Visnik, Lyudyna i Svit, etc. Besides many

 

 

Bill: No, I (go) ____ there with my father. We (visit) ____ Venice and Rome, the most beautiful cities of Italy.

Ann: I (want) ____always to travel to other countries, but I (have not) ____ the opportunity. I (go) ____ to Germany in my childhood, but I (be not) ____ anywhere since then.

 

VI. Give your opinions on the topic:

Do you like to travel?

Why do you travel?

Do you believe that travelling is dangerous?

Is it expensive?

Is travelling your hobby?

 

Lesson 6.

 

Topic: Travelling.

Topical words:

Airport

flying weather

non-stop flight

to cancel the flight

to announce the flight

to take off

to land

When is the next flight to? ...?

At what time should I check in? ?

An hour before take off. .

Read and translate the following dialogues.

Dialogue 1

A: I want to go to Kharkiv as quickly as possible. What would you suggest as the quickest means?

listening to automobile radios. They also spend leisure hours hearing their favorite programs on radio.

 

II) Answer the following questions:

1) What are you favourite newspapers, magazines, radio and TV programmes?

2) What do the newspapers inform the readers of?

3) Do you like to read magazines?

4) What newspapers and magazines inform the readers of the life of youth?

5) Do you read any scientific journals?

6) What radio programmes do you prefer to listen to?

7) Do you watch TV every day?

8) Do you like to see TV News Programmes?

9) What other telecasts do you like watching?

10) What TV programmes are the most popular with the young people in our country?

11) What is your favourite TV programme?

12) How often does this programme come out?

13) What is this programme devoted to?

14) Who is your favourite author, analyst, presenter ()?

 

II. A perfect TV presenter

1. to have a creative mind .

2. to be a good-looking and photogenic .

3. to be a diligent and skilled specialist .

4. to be a bright personality .

5. to be able to communicate with different people .

6. to be confident of success .

7. This job involves meeting many people. .

 

 

Lesson 32.

B: The plane, of course; its only two flying hours to Kharkiv from here. Without any intermediate landings, non-stop service.

A: Is it flying weather today?

B: It is flying weather, certainly. There is no mist, no storm, nothing to prevent any flights.

A: I wonder what is the fare ?

B: The price of a ticket is the same as in a second-class carriage. But think how quicker you will reach your destination.

A: Thats quite true. But Im rather afraid to be air-sick.

B: No need to worry at all. With these modern planes on the line, youre sure to get along very fine.

A: Well, then I think Ill book my ticket and go there by plane.

B: And perfectly right you are in deciding so. I wish you good luck.

A: When does the plane take off?

B: Precisely at midnight.

A: Is it far to the airport?

B: Rather. Its out of town.

A: How shall we get there?

B: There is bus service from the centre of the city to the airport but we can take a taxi if you wish.

A: We havent much luggage and so we can go by bus.

B: How many passengers does the plane accommodate?

A: There are forty-two seats in the plane.

B: And the crew? Is it large?

A: I dont know exactly. But there is a pilot, a navigator, a radio operator and stewardess.

Dialogue 2.

 

- Please, three tickets to Edinburgh.

- One way, sir?

- Two one-way and one return.

- Here you are, sir.

Dialogue 3.

* * *

dramas, comedies, soap operas, sporting events, cartoons, quizzes, variety shows, and motion pictures.

Commercial TV stations broadcast mostly entertainment programs because they must attract larger number of viewers in order to sell advertising time at high prices. Advertising is an important part of commercial TV. Advertisement appears between and during most programs.

Public television focuses mainly on education and culture. There are programs on wide range of subjectsfrom physics and literature to cooking and yoga. Public TV also broadcasts plays, ballets, symphonies, as well as programs about art and history. Public TV attracts less viewers than commercial TV.

Newspaper is a publication devoted chiefly to presenting and commenting on the news. Newspapers can be daily and weekly, they print world, national and local news. Newspapers provide an excellent means of keeping well informed on current events, they also play a vital role in shaping public opinion.

Newspapers have certain advantages over the other major news, media-television, radio, and newsmagazines. For example, newspapers can cover more news and in much greater detail that can television and radio newscasts. Newsmagazines focus on chief national and international news.

Magazine is a collection of articles or stories or both published at regular intervals. Magazines can be weekly or quarterly. Most magazines usually contain a lot of illustrations.

Magazines provide a wide variety of information, opinion, and entertainment. For example, they may cover current events and fashions, discuss foreign affairs, or describe how to repair appliances or prepare food. Subjects addressed in magazines include business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science, and sports. Some magazines seek simply to entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography, cartoons, or articles about television shows or motion-picture stars.

So the functions of newspapers and magazines are: to keep us well-informed, to enrich our outlook, to reflect our life, to entertain us.

Radio is one of the most important means of communication. It enables people to send words, music, codes, and other signals to any part of the world. People also use radio to communicate far in to space.

The most widespread and familiar use of radio is broadcasting. Radio broadcasts feature music, news, discussions, descriptions of sports events, and advertising. People wake up to clock radios and ride to their jobs

Can I book a ticket to London here?

- Yes, you can, madam. Which flight?

- I think eight two one will do, its a through plane, isnt it?

- Yes, but its all booked up. I can offer you only flight eighty two with a stop-over in Paris.

 

I) a) You need to travel from Kyiv to Donetsk by train, where you have an important business appointment. What questions will you ask at the Inquiry Office?

You: ( )

Clerk: At 8.40 p.m., sir.

You: ( )

Clerk: Yes, the train has sleeping accommodation.

You: (, )

Clerk: I can give you a lower berth in the first-class compartment.

You: (, )

Clerk: Its due to arrive in Donetsk at 9.30 a.m.

You: (, )

Clerk: Yes, sir, its usually runs in time.

You: (, )

Clerk: Platform 2.

You: ( ).

b) Complete the dialogue. Try to reproduce it

You: .

Clerk: At 8.40.

You: .

Clerk: Yes, the train has the dining car.

You: .

Clerk: I can give you first class non-smoking compartment.

You: .

Clerk: It is due to arrive in Glasgow at 6.30 a.m.

You: .

Clerk: Yes, sir, it usually runs in time.

You: .

Clerk: Platform 5.

a live telecast

a quiz

a cartoon

fashion

presenter

a steady stream of .

variety show

simulated,

celebrity,

tabloid

gossip

profit

luxury

II. Read and translate the following text:

Communication

Communication is the sharing of information. People communicate mainly by speaking and writing.

Most of our daily communications is personal communication, a sharing of information with one person or perhaps a few people. We also receive much information through mass communication.

Mass media are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization. People are united into one global community with the help of mass media. People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media. The mass media include newspapers, magazines, radio and television.

Television, also called TV, is one of our most important means of communication. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around of the world into millions of homes. So one can see events in faraway places just sitting in his or her chair. Through television, viewers can see and learn about people, places and things in distant countries.

In addition to all these things, television brings its viewers a steady stream of programs that are designed to entertain. In fact, TV provides many more entertaining programs that any other kind. The programs include

II) a) Complete the following sentences:

1. When we came to the railway station we saw 2. If you didnt book your ticket beforehand you will have to 3. If you want to buy a ticket for your journey you must 4. If you have a lot of luggage and prefer to travel light you can 5. If you dont like queuing up at the booking-office you can 6. They didnt want to miss the train thats why 7. The train was ready to leave thats why 8. The train starts in 20 minutes so if you are hungry you can

b) Translate the following sentences using your active vocabulary:

 

1. ? 2. ̳ 20 . 3. , . 4. . 5. . 6. . 7. 27 , 8 . 8. . 9. -. 10. , - . 11. , . 12. ҳ, , . 13. , -, . 14. , . 15. . , . 16. 12 .

 

c) Open the brackets using the verb in the required tense:

 

1. When we came to the station the train already (to leave) an we (to have to wait) for the next train for an hour and a half. 2. Hello, Peter. I (to be) happy to meet you. I (not to see) you since 2002. I must say that you (to change) greatly. 3. Im glad that it (to be) a through train and we (not to have

So science makes peoples life faster, more enjoyable, variable, but at the same time it creates problems between humanity and nature. Technological innovations improve peoples life but also have negative effects. There are many great problems caused by rapid scientific progress. One of them is invention of terrible weapons of mass-destruction. Modern nuclear weapons are able to destroy our planet. So every war does incredible harm to our natural environment and destroys animals and their natural habitat. Factories, power stations and plants pollute air and water. And accidental destruction of nuclear power station leads to a natural disaster. Chernobyl catastrophe is a terrible example. Nowadays world suffers from deforestation, destruction of ozone layer, acid rains caused by the development of science. This all leads to dehumanization and taking people away from their natural environment. So the major aim of science is to protect people and nature where they live from harmful effect of industrial progress, to prevent the natural catastrophe before it is too late.

 

Lesson 31

 

Topic: Mass Media.

Active Vocabulary

Mass media̲

a magazine

a newspaper

to entertain

to share information

to shape public opinion

a point of view

local affairs

home events䳿

foreign events䳿

current news

to telecast

to broadcast

to change). 4. My friend said that he (to make) a journey to the Crimea two years before. 5. Im afraid I (not to be able) to collect the tickets tomorrow. 6. He wondered when train 15 (to be due) to Lviv. 7. I (to come) to the station at 5 oclock yesterday. My friend (to wait) for me there as he (to come) earlier than I. We (to collect) his luggage at the left-luggage office and (to go) to the platform. 8. I (to ask) the porter to see to my luggage. My train (to arrive) already. We (to find) my carriage, I (to show) my ticket to the attendant and (to get in). There (to be) a few passengers in my compartment. They (to put) their suit-cases on the luggage-racks and (to take) their seats.

 

Lesson 7.

 

Topic: Getting About Town.

Topical Words:

To get about town

to go by tube/subway

to go on foot

to change a bus

to cross the street

traffic lights

rush hours

to take the bus

pavement

pedestrians

to pay fare

TV-set, cars, pens, paper, books, and even forget that they all are available owing to science. Science give people an opportunity to communicate with each other on the telephone, through the Internet, get current news from all over the world from TV, radio, newspapers, move all over the world using all means of transport, store information in computers. Scientific progress made it possible to cure dangerous illnesses and probably humanity will get rid of incurable diseases and eliminate congenital diseases through genetic engineering. No one can imagine his life without an electric bulb. Scientists discovered electricity, nuclear energy great source of power; and lots of theoretical ideas were brought to life by science. Modern technologies and inventions of science are used constantly all over the world and every year science develops and breeds new inventions.

Throughout the 19th century Britain, France and Germany were the leading sources of new ideas in science. These ideas included: Daltons atomic theory; Darwins theory of the biological evolution; Marie and Pierre Curies studies of radioactivity; Joules theory of the conservation of energy; Roentgens discovery of x-rays and many others.

The major scientific invention which influenced humanity greatly in the 20th century is a computer. Nowadays computers are used in all aspects of basic research, experimentation, data gathering, testing, and analysis. But beyond the laboratories, spacecrafts, aircrafts computers are used in hospitals, factories, farms, libraries, schools and homes. Computers are used to aid in medical diagnosis, record keeping, designing, manufacture, making of new products. Computer-controlled robots are performing more and more production functions, computers are used in distribution centers, communication networks. Most cars, trains, ships, appliances, machine tools, communication equipment contain incorporated computers. Computers can do a lot of dull, routine, long-lasting, work; they can perform actions in such conditions where people are not able, do micro-accurate operations, or gather toxic wastes instead of people. Nowadays scientists even try to make an artificial intellect. Computers are also a great source of information. Even a scholar can find an article or advertisement he wants in the Internet. The Internet also gives us an opportunity to find a job, buy and read a book or communicate just sitting in front of a monitor and clicking buttons. But at the same time worsen our eyesight, make our life passive and generally affect badly human health. Many computer games show cruelty and violence which is sometimes used by children in their real life.

traffic

vehicles

overcrowded

 

I. Read and translate the text:

Getting About Town.

 

A town is a large number of houses, schools, hospitals, theatres, factories and other buildings built near each other. Streets divide all these buildings into blocks. On one side of the street the buildings have even numbers, on the otherodd numbers. Along the streets run car, buses and trolley-buses. On both sides of the streets there are pavements on which people walk.

People usually cross the streets at special places, called crossings. When the traffic is very heavy, the policeman, who regulates the movement of the cars and buses, has to stop the never-ending stream by raising one hand, thus giving the pedestrians a chance to cross the street.

In the centre and in important parts of a large town, there are squares, gardens and market places. Certainly, in every town there are places of interest, such as monuments, cathedrals, museums, etc.

People use various means of communication to get from one place to another. When getting about town one can go by bus, by tram, by trolley-bus or by the underground. The underground in large cities is very popular with the citizens. Its the fastest and most convenient way of going about town. If you have to travel a short distance you make take a bus, a tram, a trolley-bus or go on foot. If there is no direct bus to your destination youll have to change to another bus,(trolley-bus, tram). When we travel on buses, (trolley-buses, trams, etc.) we have to pay fare. It doesnt depend on the distance you go. If there are many cars, buses and trolley-buses in the town we say that the traffic is heavy. If the vehicles are few we say that the traffic is light. The traffic is especially heavy in the rush hours, that is in the morning when people are hurrying to work and in the evening when people are coming back home. At this time the public transport is overcrowded (packed to the full).

b) has changed beyond recognition.

c) has become more pleasant and comfortable.

3. Our century has had several names that were connected with

a) a certain era in science and technology.

b) a certain era in art and music.

c) the development of the society.

 

VI. Answer the questions.

1. What is the role of science and technology in our life?

2. What things, which we use in our everyday life, would seem miracles to our ancestors?

3. How have great inventions changed our life?

4. What problems has the rapid scientific progress aroused?

VII. Speak about:

 

1. Trivial things that make our life comfortable, but would seem miracles to our ancestors.

2. Why the 20th century was called the atomic age; the age of the conquest of space and the information era.

3. Newer fields in science and the responsibility of the scientist.

4. The problems caused by the rapid scientific progress.

 

 

Lesson 30.

 

Topic: Scientific and Technological Progress.

I) Read and translate the following text:

Science

 

Science is knowledge about different spheres of the world around us. It studies everything from the structure of atoms to the movement of stars. There are pure sciences as mathematics, chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, and applied sciences as linguistics, philosophy, psychology, history. Nowadays people can not even imagine themselves without science. Science influenced peoples lives greatly. Every day people use telephones,

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