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Scientific and Technological Progress.

Its difficult to overestimate the role of science and technology in our life. They accelerate the development of civilization and help us in our co-operation with nature. Scientists investigate the laws of the universe, discover the secrets of nature, and apply their knowledge in practice improving the life of people.

Lets compare or life nowadays with the life of people at the beginning of the 20th century. It has changed beyond recognition. Our ancestors hadnt the slightest idea of the trivial things created by the scientific progress that we use in our everyday life. I mean refrigerators, TV-sets, computers, microwave ovens, radio telephones, what not. They would seem miracle to them that made our life easy, comfortable and pleasant. On the other hand, the great inventions of the beginning of the 20th century, I mean radio, aeroplanes, combustion and jet engines have become usual things and we cant imagine our life without them.

 

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Lesson 8.

 

Topic: City Transport.

Active vocabulary:

An embankment

an embassy

a suburb

an avenue

a district

sights

a subway, a tube, an underground

a ticket

or commands to a computer. For expressing directions to a computer the programmer in practice uses special programming languages.

Because computers can accept letters and numbers, nearly all the programming languages express the directions in some combinations of letters and numbers.

The programming languages in use fall into three general categories in terms of their similarity to ordinary English: machine languages, symbolic languages and automatic coding languages. In terms of their importance for computer utilization, the machine languages are the most basic, for the computers can use them directly. But symbolic languages and automatic coding languages are more convenient for the programmer use because they are more similar to English.

Some programming languages are used only with a particular model of a computer; some are used with more than one model of a computer. For the convenience of the programmer, a language that can be used with several different models of computers is more useful.

When the user wishes to communicate with the computer, he uses a spectrum of languages: English, Pascal, C, Algol, Assembly language, Mnemonic machine language, Machine language.

A machine language which is sometimes called as a basic programming language or autocode refers to instructions written in a machine code. This machine code can be immediately obeyed by a computer without translation. The actual machine language is generated by software, not by a programmer. The programmer writes in a programming language which is translated into the machine language.

Symbolic languages use symbolic addresses in the operands. Indirect addresses allow greater flexibility in programming because the programmer by changing the contents of indirect addresses can, in effect, modify a program.

An assembly language is the most machine-dependent language used by programmers today. There are three advantages to using an assembly language rather than machine language. They are following: addresses are symbolic, not absolute as in machine language; reading easier; introduction of data is easier.

A disadvantage of assembly language is that it requires the use of an assembler to translate a source program into object code (program) in order to be directly understood by the computer. The program written in assembly language is called assembly.

 

Lesson 29.

a token

a drivers license

a traffic jam

a travel card

valid

a cab

reliable

to go on schedule

gas station

 

I. Read and translate the text:

British Transport.

 

You can come to Britain either by plane, by train, by car or by ship. If you go to England by car or by train you have to cross the English Channel. There is a tunnel under the Channel which links France and England.

In Britain they have left-hand traffic. In London you can take London underground or light railway only on weekdays and up to 21:30, also you can go by British rail and by bus. The first London bus started running in 1829, between Paddington and the City. In the late 19th century trams pulled by horses became popular. In the early 1900s the first motorized buses were introduced. The typical bus in London is a red double-decker. You can see all London sights travelling on the upper deck of a double-decker.

To save (economize) your money you can buy a travel card for all kinds of transport. London has twelve railway stations. British Rail (BR) run over ground train services from London to all parts of Britain. Every station has its own metro station. The worlds first Underground line was opened between Baker Street and the City in 1863. Now there are 273 London underground stations with the lines covering 404 km. Sometimes Londoners nickname the London Underground the tube. There are ten underground lines in London. Either you can buy a ticket

E-mail users can also have access to a mailbox, which they can call from anywhere in the world and retrieve messages. They receive a mailbox number and a password for confidentially. Messages can be printed out and kept for reference.

In comparison with telex, e-mail is relatively low in cost, and does not require a trained operator. It is also fast, relatively reliable, and messages can be sent or picked up anywhere in the world, and stored in the mailbox until they are retrieved.

This can be particularly advantageous for users who are communicating across international time zones.

 

Lesson 28.

Topic: AComputer.

Active vocabulary.

programming language

machine-dependent-

a source program

assembly language

symbolic language

automatic coding language

utilization

to obey

an absolute address

disadvantage

I. Read the text without a dictionary. Try to get the main idea of each paragraph. Render the text in Ukrainian.

Programming Languages.

 

In order to communicate with each other, men use languages. In the same way, languages of one sort or another are used, in order to communicate instructions

called Brit-Rail. It is valid from 4 till 30 days. You can travel everywhere you want and so many times as you need using this ticket. To go by bus is cheaper than by train. The buses stop only at the bus-stops.

London also has a specific kind of taxiso called black cabs. To get a taxi license drivers have to memorize hundreds of time-saving routes and pass a very strict exam under the title The Knowledge, so you can trust their knowledge and skills. The fare is shown at the indicator, usually you should pay a 10-per cent tip of this sum.

You can see a lot of private cabs. But they are not always reliable and you cant trust them, because the drivers often dont know the way to every point of the city. If you take a private cab, you should talk over the price before.

In the USA they have right-hand traffic. To use city transport is not very popular here.

Each city has an underground and each town and village has the bus. The bus goes on schedule. The fare is from 50 cents to 1 dollar. The ticket is valid for 2 or 2,5 hours. The bus stops at the bus stop and at any place you need.

If you dont know how to get to the place you need, address the nearest gas station. The workers will always show you the way and give the map of the city.

 

II. Answer the questions to the text:

 

1. How can you get to Britain?

2. What have you to do if you go to Britain by train or by car?

  1. When did the first London bus start running?
  2. What is the typical bus in London?
  3. When was the worlds first Underground line opened?
  4. What is the difference between black cabs and private cabs?
  5. Is it popular to use city transport in the USA?
  6. What is the fare in the USA?
  7. Who will help you if you dont know how to get to the place you need?

Read and discuss the texts.

Fax.

 

The word fax comes from the word facsimile. A fax machine will send a duplicate of the message, document, design or photo that is fed into it.

Faxing is a means of telecommunication that has developed very quickly over the past few years. There are various models of fax machine which connect to a telephone socket and which work on a system similar to the telephone system.

Charges are measured in telephone units and therefore vary according to the time of day, and where the fax is being sent.

The advantages of fax include instant reception of documents and documentary evidence of what has been transferred. A document can be relayed from one source to hundreds of other receivers, for example, if the head office of a chain store wants to circulate a memo or report to its branches.

 

Telex.

 

Telegrams and cables can be sent at any time and from any post office. This means of communication is available for twenty four hours a day, but between sending a message and its arrival there can be a short delay. Telex is as direct as using the phone.

The telex is a machine like a typewriter but the difference is that it has a dial on its casting. You can send messages by dialing the receivers number or by asking the operator at the exchange to connect you. An answerback code will appear on the teleprinter indicating that the sender is through as soon as the operator has dialed the code. The message is typed and will appear on the receivers machine.

Besides the advantages of sending a cable, telex is available right in the office, you neednt go to the post office. It offers a direct line with immediate reply.

 

Electronic Mail (E-Mail).

 

Electronic mail is a means of sending and receiving messages internally, nationally, or internationally.

Subscribers to e-mail need a terminal, such as personal computer, a telephone line, and a modem, which is a device for converting signals to text. Messages appear on the receivers computer screen.

III. Translate into English:

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2. .

3. , .

4. .

5. .

6. , .

7. .

8. .

9. 2 2,5 .

 

IV. Compose a dialogue, using the following phrases:

 

  1. I am afraid Im lost.
  2. Excuse me. Could you please tell me the way to?
  3. In which direction must I go?
  4. Whats the best way to get to?
  5. How far is it?
  6. Is this the right way to?
  7. How many blocks away is the cinema?
  8. Its a long walk.
  9. Its quite a walk.
  10. You should go straight two blocks, then turn to the right, you will see there
  11. Turn to the left at the next corner, and go straight all the way.

c. better

d. faster.

 

6. Output devices serve for displaying.

a. nice pictures

b. diagrams

c. results of calculations

d. words.

 

7. Some of the first computers cost .

a. hundreds of dollars

b. millions of dollars

c. thousands of pounds

d. thousands of roubles.

 

8. It is cheaper to let the expensive computer do the job than to..

a. have a hundred clerks

b. do the job oneself

c. buy another computer

d. waste your time and efforts.

 

9. Computers can fulfill the tasks much. than any number of people using the traditional methods.

a. cleverer

b. better

c. faster

d. worse.

 

10. Computers became very

a. large

b. small

c. expensive

d. popular.

 

Lesson 27.

 

Topic: A Computer.

  1. Take the first turning to the left, turn into street.
  2. Its just round the corner.
  3. Go straight along street in the direction of
  4. Which way?
  5. It across the street.

 

Lesson 9.

 

Topic: At the Hotel.

Topical words

to stay at the hotel

Receptionist

hotel clerk

to book a room

porter,

to check in

to check out

single/double room /

chambermaid, maid

vacant room

the hotel is full

suite

bellboy

key

lobby

to pay cash

to pay by credit card

to pay on departure

to pay in advance

to fill in a form

 

I. Read and translate the following text:

The computers became popular. As their popularity grew the number of factories producing them also grew.

 

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