From the History of Computers.

The educated man of 200 years ago did not need to know anything about science. The educated man of 25-30 years ago did not need to know anything about computers. But the educated man of today needs to have some significant knowledge of science and a little significant knowledge about computers.

The computer is no doubt the most amazing achievement of mankind. It is a data storage system created by man. A human tells the machine what to do, when to do it and how it should be done.

The word computer comes from a Latin word which means to count.

Nearly one hundred fifty years ago there were no such things as computers. Knotted ropes, marks in clay, the abacus were all the methods of keeping track of numbers.

In 1833 an English inventor and mathematician Charles Babbage, professor of Cambridge University designed the first computer. The mathematical programme for his machine had been composed by Augusta Ada Byron, Lord Byrons

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VIII. Change the following sentences from affirmative to negative. Use the contracted form.


  1. The guests pay per day.
  2. I leave the key at the reception desk.
  3. I want my bill ready at 8 a.m.
  4. My room faces the yard.
  5. She eats lunch at the cafeteria every day.
  6. The receptionist speaks English very well.
  7. The manager solves all the problems.
  8. They live in a double room.
  9. I have a letter of confirmation.

Computers in our life


The first digital computer was completed in 1944. Since that time, there have been many changes. Now computers are smaller, cheaper, and more common. There are few people who have not worked with a computer, either directly or indirectly. Banks, businesses, hospitals, universities, and airlines all use computers. Libraries also use computers to check out books.

Up until now, the computer has been used most often in business, where it was first used for accounting. This is still its most common use. It can list and remember the number of products that the business buys and sells. It can also calculate the average cost of the products in the store. It can tell the businessman when they need to buy more. Management uses it to prepare business reports and to make decisions. It can predict the future of the business so the management can use the information when it has to make important decisions.

Many banks use computers to process customers checks and to keep records of their money. Outside many banks, there are automatic tellers, which are computers. People use them when the bank is closed. They can deposit money, they can get cash, and they can transfer money from a savings account to a checking account and vice versa.

Computers that are used in factories to control the assembly line put together cars, airplanes, and other machines. They do jobs that are difficult, dangerous, or boring for people to do. A computer is also used to check quality in the factory because it can test products to see if they are satisfactory. Chemical companies often use computers to analyze their processes and check their products.

In the travel industry, computers are widely used to make reservations for airlines and hotels. Passengers do not have to wait days or weeks to see if there are seats on the airplanes because the computer can give them the information immediately.

Schools are beginning to use the computers more and more because it can teach many kinds of lessons. Pupils have the chance to learn at their own speed. Some pupils can work slowly, others can work quickly. The computer tells them if their answers are right or wrong. The computers can help pupils to review if they need to. One computer system that is used in education is PLATO. It teaches English!

One very important use of the computer is in word processing. A word processor is a computer that can type letters, papers, or books. It makes the

  1. We always fill out the form when we check in.


IX. Supply do or does to complete the questions.


  1. What hotel you usually stay?
  2. Why he usually stay at this hotel?
  3. What the maid do?
  4. When the Smiths check out?
  5. How much you usually pay for your lunch?
  6. What your secretary know about this hotel?
  7. Howyou get there?
  8. What you think of the service?
  9. How much it cost?
  10. What room you prefer?
  11. What time she prefer to have breakfast?


X. Change the following sentences to questions beginning with the question word in parentheses.


  1. She works in a hotel. (where)
  2. Her work begins at 9 a.m. (what time)
  3. The clerk speaks English very well. (how)
  4. These rooms cost $50. (how much)
  5. They travel by plane. (how)
  6. She wants to learn English in order to get a better job. (why)
  7. This car belongs to my father. (whom. to)

. .


Lesson 25.

Topic: A Computer.


Active Vocabulary

a binary numeration system

a database

a set of instructions

a floppy disc

a hard disc

to store data

to perform operations

to solve problems

to process data

to digitize

a hardware

a software

special-purpose computers

general-purpose computers

to calculate

a memory

a keyboard

to use

digital computers

to compute,

to penetrate

to display,

an accuracy

I) Read and translate the following text:

  1. Mr. Brown returns to the hotel at 8 p.m. (when)
  2. We have three vacant rooms. (how many)


XI. Sample Dialogue.

-- Can I reserve a double room for the next weekend?

-- Yes, please. We have a double room on the fourth floor. Its price is 25 dollars per night. And the double room on the second floor is a little more expensive. Its price is 40 dollars. Which one would you choose?

-- I think Ill take the cheaper one which is on the fourth floor. What is the check-out time?

-- Twelve. How long will you be staying with us?

-- I plan to stay for two days.

-- All right. The room is reserved for you. Let me write down your surname and name.

-- John White.

-- Well, you can pay on departure and sigh the hotel register as soon as you come here.

-- Thank you.

-- You are welcome.


Lesson 11.


Topic: Food and Meals.

Topical words

to cook( )

A. Just a moment. Ill get his schedule. Are you there?

B. Yes.

A. I can fix an appointment for you for tomorrow. Thats Wednesday afternoon. Will 4 p. m. be all right with you?

B. Yes, thank you. You have been most helpful. Good-bye.

A. Good-bye.


A long distance call.


A. International. Good morning.

B. Good morning. I want to book a call to Kyiv. My name is Klymenko.

A. What number are you calling from?

B. Its 437-7865.

A. What number do you want in Kyiv?

B. The Kyiv number is 543-6785. Can you put me through straight way?

A. Im afraid not, sir. The line is busy. Ill call you back as soon as the call comes through.


II. Complete the statements.

1. Hello! May I .

2. Could you .

3. Im sorry, but the manager .

4. Would you like to leave a message or .

5. Thank you. You have been .

6. Id rather .

7. Can you put me .

8. Im sorry to .

9. What number .


III. Act as an interpreter.


A. . ?

B. There is no direct automatic line. Youll have to book an international call.

. 璺?

B. Ill try to book a call for you right now. What is your number in Kyiv?

. ̳ 265-13-45.

B. Ill call you back as soon as they put me through.

to boil

to stew

to fry

to have a bite

to help to

to prefer

a helping


national cuisine

for the first(second) course ()

to have breakfast(dinner, supper) (, )


buckwheat porridge



cabbage soup

pea soup

Ukrainian borsch

noodle soup

vegetable soup

chicken broth

mashed potatoes

fried(boiled) potatoes ()



home-made tarts

stewed fruit


plentiful ( )

I). Read and translate the following text:

Food and Meals.

The usual meals of Ukrainian people are breakfast, lunch, dinner and supper. Breakfast is the first meal of the day, and we generally have it at about 8 oclock in the morning. Lunch is a light meal usually in the middle of the day. Dinner is the chief and the most substantial meal of the day. It is not served at a definite

long distance/international call



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